Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Spain Related Abstracts

16 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, Cluster Analysis, Spain

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15 An Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents in Spain (2006-2011)

Authors: Francisco Toledo-Castillo, María Josefa Sospedra-Baeza, Sergio Hidalgo-Fuentes

Abstract:

Motorcycles constitute about 9% of all motorized vehicles in Spain and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 21% of total accidents. Six years of motorcycle accident data were obtained through the national accident database of Spain (Dirección General de Tráfico). Some of the studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, speeding, subject’s driving license and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose, and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Key findings show helmet use, unsafe speed, the trip purpose, weather, distraction, collision type and other variables play significant roles in crash-injury outcomes. Finally, we examine evolution of mortality and severity from 2006 to 2011.

Keywords: Statistics, Risk Factors, Spain, motorcycle accidents

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14 Analysis of the Internationalisation of Spanish Enterprises in Colombia through Cooperation Agreements

Authors: Sandoval H. Leyla Angélica, Casani Fernando

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to analyse how enterprises in developed countries use cooperation agreements to expand into developing countries. Starting from the literature review, seven theoretical prepositions were derived. The qualitative methodology used includes case study, through interviews conducted with eight enterprises from Spain and Colombia. Results show that the cooperation agreements have provided a quick and solid connection that facilitates internationalization, bearing in mind aspects such as: strategic factors, partners, network, technology, experience, communication methods, social benefit and the connection between these aspects and allied enterprises.

Keywords: Case study, Firms, Colombia, Spain, internationalisation, cooperation agreement

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13 The Role of Moroccan Salafist Radicalism in Creating Threat to Spain’s Security

Authors: Stanislaw Kosmynka

Abstract:

Although the genesis of the activity of fighting salafist radicalism in Spain dates back to the 80’s, the development of extremism of this kind manifested itself only in the next decade. Its first permanently functioning structures in this country in the second half of 90’s of 20th century came from Algieria and Syria. At the same time it should be emphasized that this distinction is in many dimensions conventional, the more so because they consisted also of immigrants from other coutries of Islam, particularly from Morocco. The paper seeks to understand the radical salafist challenge for Spain in the context of some terrorist networks consisted of immigrants from Morocco. On the eve of the new millennium Moroccan jihadists played an increasingly important role. Although the activity of these groups had for many years mainly logistical and propaganda character, the bomb attack carried out on 11 March 2004 in Madrid constituted an expression of open forms of terrorism, directed against the authorities and society of Spain and reflected the narration of representatives of the trend of the global jihad. The people involved in carrying out that act of violence were to a large extent Moroccan immigrants; also in the following years among the cells of radicals in Spain Moroccans stood out many times. That is why the forms and directions of activity of these extremists in Spain, also after 11th March 2004 and in the actual context of the impact of Islamic State, are worth presenting. The paper is focused on threats to the security of Spain and the region and remains connected with the issues of mutual relations of the society of a host country with immigrant communities which to a large degree come from this part of Maghreb.

Keywords: Security, Spain, Morocco, threat, jihadi terrorism, radical salafism, terrorist cells

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12 Models of State Organization and Influence over Collective Identity and Nationalism in Spain

Authors: Muñoz-Sanchez, Victor Manuel, Perez-Flores, Antonio Manuel

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to establish the relationship between models of state organization and the various types of collective identity expressed by the Spanish. The question of nationalism and identity ascription in Spain has always been a topic of special importance due to the presence in that country of territories where the population emits very different opinions of nationalist sentiment than the rest of Spain. The current situation of sovereignty challenge of Catalonia to the central government exemplifies the importance of the subject matter. In order to analyze this process of interrelation, we use a secondary data mining by applying the multiple correspondence analysis technique (MCA). As a main result a typology of four types of expression of collective identity based on models of State organization are shown, which are connected with the party position on this issue.

Keywords: Nationalism, Political Parties, Collective Identity, Spain, models of organization of the state

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11 The Relevance of Corporate Governance Disclosure in Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

There is currently a growing interest in the improvement of university governance and the disclosure of information on corporate governance processes as an essential part of the transparency and accountability of universities. This paper aims to know the importance given by Spanish university stakeholders to the disclosure of information about structure and mechanism of corporate governance. So as to meet this objective we propose a model for disclosing information on the main aspects of university governance in Spanish universities. This model will be validated using a questionnaire sent to members of the Social Councils of public universities in Spain. Our results show that Spanish university stakeholders attach great importance to the disclosure of specific information on aspects of corporate governance, which would result in improved transparency and accountability. According to the results of this study it may be concluded that the university stakeholders feel that it is relevant to publish information on corporate governance in the university accounting information model.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Universities, Accountability, Transparency, Spain

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10 Knowledge Management at Spanish Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

In the knowledge-based economy, intangible elements are considered essential in order to achieve competitive advantage in organizations. In this sense, the Balanced Scorecard is a very suitable tool to recognize value and manage intangibles because it translates an organization’s strategic objectives into a set of performance indicators from a financial, as well as customer perspective, internal process and learning and growth perspectives. The aim of this paper is to expose and justify the benefits that the Balanced Scorecard might have for identifying, measuring and managing intellectual capital at universities, by means of reviewing the most important Balanced Scorecard implementations at Spanish public universities.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Universities, Balanced Scorecard, Spain

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9 Tax Morale Dimensions Analysis in Portugal and Spain

Authors: António Martins, Cristina Sá, Carlos Gomes

Abstract:

The reasons that explain different behaviors towards tax obligations in similar countries are not completely understood yet. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and compare the factors that influence tax morale levels in Portugal and Spain. We use data from European Values Study (EVS). Using a sample of 2,652 individuals, a factor analysis was used to extract the underlying dimensions of tax morale of Portuguese and Spanish taxpayers. Based on a factor analysis, the results of this paper show that sociological and behavioral factors, psychological factors and political factors are important for a good understanding of taxpayers’ behavior in Iberian Peninsula. This paper added value relies on the analyses of a wide range of variables and on the comparison between Portugal and Spain. Our conclusions provided insights that tax authorities and politicians can use to better focus their strategies and actions in order to increase compliance, reduce tax evasion, fight underground economy and increase country´s competitiveness.

Keywords: Compliance, Portugal, Spain, tax morale

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8 The Relationship between Spanish Economic Variables: Evidence from the Wavelet Techniques

Authors: Celina Pestano-Gabino, Concepcion Gonzalez-Concepcion, Maria Candelaria Gil-Fariña

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We analyze six relevant economic and financial variables for the period 2000M1-2015M3 in the context of the Spanish economy: a financial index (IBEX35), a commodity (Crude Oil Price in euros), a foreign exchange index (EUR/USD), a bond (Spanish 10-Year Bond), the Spanish National Debt and the Consumer Price Index. The goal of this paper is to analyze the main relations between them by computing the Wavelet Power Spectrum and the Cross Wavelet Coherency associated with Morlet wavelets. By using a special toolbox in MATLAB, we focus our interest on the period variable. We decompose the time-frequency effects and improve the interpretation of the results by non-expert users in the theory of wavelets. The empirical evidence shows certain instability periods and reveals various changes and breaks in the causality relationships for sample data. These variables were individually analyzed with Daubechies Wavelets to visualize high-frequency variance, seasonality, and trend. The results are included in Proceeding 20th International Academic Conference, 2015, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences (IISES), Madrid.

Keywords: Spain, economic and financial variables, time-frequency domain, wavelet coherency

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7 Identifying the Factors that Influence Water-Use Efficiency in Agriculture: Case Study in a Spanish Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

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The current agricultural system in some arid and semi-arid areas is not sustainable in the long term. In southeast Spain, groundwater is the main water source and is overexploited, while alternatives like desalination are still limited. The Water Plan for the Mediterranean Basins 2015-2020 indicates a global deficit of 73.42 hm3 and an overexploitation of the aquifers of 205.58hm3. In order to solve this serious problem, two major actions can be taken: increasing available water, and/or improving the efficiency of its use. This study focuses on the latter. The main aim of this study is to present the major factors related to water usage efficiency in farming. It focuses on Almería province, southeast Spain, one of the most arid areas of the country, and in particular on family farms as the main direct managers of water use in this zone. Many of these farms are among the most water efficient in Spanish agriculture, but this efficiency is not generalized throughout the sector. This work conducts a comprehensive assessment of water performance in this area, using on-farm water-use, structural, socio-economic and environmental information. Two statistical techniques are used: descriptive analysis and cluster analysis. Thus, two groups are identified: the least and the most efficient farms regarding water usage. By analyzing both the common characteristics within each group and the differences between the groups with a one-way ANOVA analysis, several conclusions can be reached. The main differences between the two clusters center on the extent to which innovation and new technologies are used in irrigation. The most water efficient farms are characterized by more educated farmers, a greater degree of innovation, new irrigation technology, specialized production and awareness of water issues and environmental sustainability. The research shows that better practices and policies can have a substantial impact on achieving a more sustainable and efficient use of water. The findings of this study can be extended to farms in similar arid and semi-arid areas and contribute to foster appropriate policies to improve the efficiency of water usage in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Spain, family farms, water-use efficiency

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6 The Influence of Green Supply Chain Management Practices' Implementation on Organizational Performance: An Empirical Case Study in Spain

Authors: Keivan Amirbagheri, Ana Nuñez-Carballosa, Laura Guitart-Tarrés

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Over the last couple of decades, enterprises have begun to accept the need for environmental management and have started to implement environmental management programs to compete in the markets. The implementation of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices can provide valuable opportunities to improve firm performance. Through the prior investigations, the ascending tendency of the numbers of published papers in the field of green supply chain management practices has been reported and it shows the high interest level of the authors to work in this area. Besides, there is still a gap to study more about the relationship of GSCM to the organizational performance (OP). So, the purpose of this research is to study the practices related to green supply chain management that influence the results of the company as an organizational performance. Based on our previous works, from one part we have collected these GSCM practices (planning, operational, and communication practices) and classified them through conducting some literature reviews to analyze their effects on the OP’s factors (balanced scorecard’s perspectives). To do so we design a case study methodology through semi-structured interviews and secondary data from some multinational well-known companies based in Spain. The cases have been selected with the criterion of trying to collect members of the entire supply chain to have a vision as global as possible. The results report the considerable influence of green supply chain management practices on the organizational performance of the companies of the study. In addition, they represent that the implementation of green supply chain management practices especially in a long-term perspective can be economically justified. From the point of view of the personal, they feel better about being a member of this type of company that has been structured on environmental issues. Also, for these companies, the image that has been created by the implementation of these practices helps them to facilitate their marketing program.

Keywords: Case study, green supply chain management, Spain, organizational performance

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5 Voluntary Information of Intellectual Capital Disclosed Online by Public Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites. To this end, a content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities i 2016. The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed in Spain. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Finally, most IC disclosures were narrative in nature.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, Spain, websites, quality disclosure

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4 Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

Abstract:

Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, Cluster Analysis, Spain, family farms, water-use efficiency

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3 Study on the Characteristics of Victims and Victimizers of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain and Its Impact on Criminal Intervention

Authors: María José Benítez Jiménez

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This research is based on the hypothesis that, despite being found that the problem of violence against the female partner occurs in all social classes, the criminal intervention falls, above all, on victims and aggressors with sociodemographic characteristics of the most excluded social groups. The methodology used in this study has been a collection of information through Spanish official statistics from 2004 to 2016: population, police, judicial and penitentiary data from Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and statistics National Institute. The data provided show that women victims and aggressors who come into contact with criminal intervention bodies for filing a complaint or having been reported, respectively, show a very high percentage, usually well above 50%, only primary studies or even that. Their employment situation is also precarious, in a percentage that could also be around 70%. The percentage distribution of these two variables is clearly above that which occurs in the whole of the Spanish population, in a particularly marked way as regards the employment situation. Immigrants triple, as victims or as aggressors of gender violence, the percentages of the Spanish population in terms of their contact with the organs of criminal intervention. Also the rate of foreign inmates in prisons for violence against the female couple doubles that of Spanish inmates.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Spain, inmigrants, sociodemographic characteristics

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2 Fashion Magazines in Spain: History and Evolution

Authors: Ana María Velasco Molpeceres

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With this work, we try to offer a complete digest of female fashion magazines edited in Spain from the XVIII century to today. During the XIX century Spain developed an important journalistic industry and the feminine press was very popular. In addition, a lot of women wrote and directed fashion magazines which tried to improve women’s status and education. In the XX century, fashion magazines reflected the ideological conflicts and the history of Spain. Before the Civil War (1936-1939), women get many rights and the modernization was clear. In the Franco’s dictatorship, fashion magazines portrayed ideals of a conservative femininity. But, in the sixties, the media helped to connect Spain with the rest of the world, being at the same time under the censorship of the regime. After the dictatorship, fashion was a very important part of the Transition’s culture and the ‘Movida’ (reflected in Almodovar’s films) contributed and expressed the new ideals of citizenship for men and women. Fashion magazines showed the changes of the society. In the XXI century, today, these magazines are a part of a global culture and Vogue or Elle live with Spanish magazines as Telva or Hola. The objective of this research is to study the history, meaning and evolution of the fashion magazines in Spain. And, of course, the ideal of women reflected on them.

Keywords: Women, Fashion, magazines, Spain

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1 Determining the Policy Space of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español Government in Managing Spain's Economic and Financial Crisis

Authors: A. Pascual Ramsay

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Accounts of the management of the economic and euro crisis in Spain have been dominated by an emphasis on external constraints. However, this approach leaves unanswered important questions about the role of domestic political factors. Using systematic qualitative primary research and employing elite interviewing and process tracing, this paper aims to fill this gap for the period of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) administration. The paper shows that domestic politics played a crucial role in the management of the crisis, most importantly by determining the shape of the measures undertaken. In its three distinct stages – downplaying/inaction, reaction/stimulus, and austerity/reform – the PSOE's response was certainly constrained by external factors, most notably EMU membership and the actions of sovereign-bond investors, the ECB and Germany. Yet while these external constraints forced the government to act, domestic political factors fundamentally shaped the content of key measures: the fiscal stimulus, the labour, financial and pension reforms, the refusal to accept a bailout or the reform of the Constitution. Seven factors were particularly influential: i) electoral and political cost, ii) party and partisanship, iii) organised interests, iv) domestic institutions, v) ideological preferences, vi) ineffective decision-making, and vii) judgement and personal characteristics of decision-makers. In conclusion, domestic politics played an important role in the management of the crisis, a role that has been underestimated by dominant approaches focusing on external constraints and weak domestic policy autonomy. The findings provide empirical evidence to support research agendas that identify significant state discretion in the face of international economic integration and an important role for domestic political factors such as institutions, material interests, partisanship and ideology in shaping economic outcomes.

Keywords: Economic Crisis, Spain, Euro, PSOE

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