Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

soybean oil Related Abstracts

8 Life Cycle Assessment Comparison between Methanol and Ethanol Feedstock for the Biodiesel from Soybean Oil

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

As the limited availability of petroleum-based fuel has been a major concern, biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative fuels because it is renewable and it also has advantages over the conventional petroleum-base diesel. At Present, productions of biodiesel generally perform by transesterification of vegetable oils with low molecular weight alcohol, mainly methanol, using chemical catalysts. Methanol is petrochemical product that makes biodiesel producing from methanol to be not pure renewable energy source. Therefore, ethanol as a product produced by fermentation processes. It appears as a potential feed stock that makes biodiesel to be pure renewable alternative fuel. The research is conducted based on two biodiesel production processes by reacting soybean oils with methanol and ethanol. Life cycle assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the environmental impacts and to identify the process alternative. Nine mid-point impact categories are investigated. The results indicate that better performance on Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP) and Acidification Potential (AP) are observed in biodiesel production from methanol when compared with biodiesel production from ethanol due to less energy consumption during the production processes. Except for ADP and AP, using methanol as feed stock does not show any advantages over biodiesel from ethanol. The single score method is also included in this study in order to identify the best option between two processes of biodiesel production. The global normalization and weighting factor based on eco-taxes are used and it shows that producing biodiesel form ethanol has less environmental load compare to biodiesel from methanol.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Life Cycle Assessment, methanol, Ethanol, soybean oil

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7 Microwave Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Nano-Binder from Renewable Resource and Their Application in Textile Printing

Authors: K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy

Abstract:

Due to limited fossil resource and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feed stocks in textile industry area will increase in the decades to come. This research highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins for high characterization and reactive properties, completely based on commercially available renewable resources (sunflower and/or soybean oil) were prepared and characterized. In this work, we present results on the synthesis of various alkyd resins according to the alcoholysis – polyesterification process under different preparation conditions using a microwave synthesis as energy source to determine suitable reaction conditions. Effects of polymerization parameters, such as catalyst ratio, reaction temperature and microwave power level have been studied. The prepared binder was characterized via FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), in addition to acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), water absorbance, weight loss, and glass transition temperature. The prepared binder showed high performance physico-mechanical properties. TEM analysis showed that the polymer latex nanoparticle within range of 20–200 nm. The study involved the application of the prepared alkyd resins as binder for pigment printing process onto cotton fabric by using a flat screen technique and the prints were dried and thermal cured. The optimum curing conditions were determined, color strength and fastness properties of pigment printed areas to light, washing, perspiration and crocking were evaluated. The rheological properties and apparent viscosity of prepared binders were measured in addition roughness of the prints was also determined.

Keywords: Renewable resource, Microwave Heating, soybean oil, nano-binder, alkyd resins, sunflower oil

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6 Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydroesterification of Soybean Oil to Develop a Biodiesel Formation

Authors: O. Mowla, E. Kennedy, M. Stockenhuber

Abstract:

Finding alternative renewable resources of energy has attracted the attentions in consequence of limitation of the traditional fossil fuel resources, increasing of crude oil price and environmental concern over greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel (or Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)), an alternative energy source, is synthesised from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats and can be produced from waste oils. FAME can be produced via hydroesterification of oils. The process involves two stages. In the first stage of this process, fatty acids and glycerol are being obtained by hydrolysis of the feed stock oil. In the second stage, the recovered fatty acids are then esterified with an alcohol to methyl esters. The presence of a catalyst accelerates the rate of the hydroesterification reaction of oils. The overarching aim of this study is to find the effect of using zeolite as a catalyst in the heterogeneous hydroesterification of soybean oil. Both stages of the catalytic hydroesterification of soybean oil had been conducted at atmospheric and high-pressure conditions using reflux glass reactor and Parr reactor, respectively. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature and reaction time on the overall yield of biodiesel formation was also investigated.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Zeolite, soybean oil, heterogeneous catalytic hydroesterification

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5 Oxidative Stability of an Iranian Ghee (Butter Fat) Versus Soybean Oil During Storage at Different Temperatures

Authors: Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Maryam Enteshari

Abstract:

In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25 ˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV) and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25 ˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months, while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4 ˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: Oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil, headspace-liquid phase microextraction

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4 Evaluation of Oxidative Changes in Soybean Oil During Shelf-Life by Physico-Chemical Methods and Headspace-Liquid Phase Microextraction (HS-LPME) Technique

Authors: Maryam Enteshari, Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Abdorreza Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV), and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: Oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil, headspace-liquid phase microextraction

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3 Evaluation of the Operating Parameters for Biodiesel Production Using a Membrane Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato

Abstract:

Biodiesel production using membrane reactor has become increasingly studied, because this process minimizes some of the main problems encountered in the biodiesel purification. The membrane reactor tries to minimize post-treatment steps, resulting in cost savings and enabling the competitiveness of biodiesel produced by homogeneous alkaline catalysis. This is due to the reaction and product separation may occur simultaneously. In order to evaluate the production of biodiesel from soybean oils using a tubular membrane reactor, a factorial experimental design was conducted (2³) to evaluate the influence of following variables: temperature (45 to 60 °C), catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1% by weight) and molar ratio of oil/methanol (1/6 to 1/9). In addition, the parametric sensitivity was evaluated by the analysis of variance and model through the response surface. The results showed a tendency of influence of the variables in the reaction conversion. The significance effect was higher for the catalyst concentration followed by the molar ratio of oil/methanol and finally the temperature. The best result was obtained under the conditions of 1% catalyst (KOH), molar ratio oil/methanol of 1/9 and temperature of 60 °C, resulting in an ester content of 99.07%.

Keywords: Biodiesel production, soybean oil, factorial design, membrane reactor

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2 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

Abstract:

Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, soybean oil, langmuir isotherm, RSM, peroxide value

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1 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus

Abstract:

The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: Optimization, Yield, soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction

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