Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Sorption Related Abstracts

15 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný

Abstract:

Alginate has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginate from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis (FT-IR) and Specific Surface Area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginate maximal sorption capacity (QMAX) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginate is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal.

Keywords: Sorption, alginates, Cd2+, QMAX

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14 Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with a Treated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: M. Mana, M. S. Ouali, L. C. de Menorval

Abstract:

A spent bleaching earth from an edible oil refinery has been treated by impregnation with a normal sodium hydroxide solution followed by mild thermal treatment (100°C). The obtained material (TSBE) was washed, dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, BET, and thermal analysis. The clay structure was not apparently affected by the treatment and the impregnated organic matter was quantitatively removed. We have investigated the comparative sorption of safranine and methylene blue on this material, the spent bleaching earth (SBE) and the virgin bleaching earth (VBE). The kinetic results fit the pseudo second order kinetic model and the Weber & Morris, intra-particle diffusion model. The pH had no effect on the sorption efficiency. The sorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model for various sorbent concentrations with good values of determination coefficient. A linear relationship was found between the calculated maximum removal capacity and the solid/solution ratio. A comparison between the results obtained with this material and those of the literature highlighted the low cost and the good removal capacity of the treated spent bleaching earth.

Keywords: Sorption, isotherms, basic dyes, spent bleaching earth

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13 Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels

Authors: Vlasoula Bekiari, Georgios Linardatos, Miltiadis Zamparas, Georgios Bokias, Georgios Hotos

Abstract:

Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions, they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances, depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa), either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, was also used for reasons of comparison.

Keywords: Sorption, anionic organic hydrogels, organic dyes, water purification agents

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12 Comparative Study of Sorption of Cr Ions and Dye Bezaktiv Yellow HE-4G with the Use of Adsorbents Natural Mixture of Olive Stone and Date Pits from Aqueous Solution

Authors: H. Aksas, K. Louhab, H. Babaci

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In this paper, a comparative study of the adsorption of Chromium and dyes, onto mixture biosorbents, olive stones and date pits at different percentage was investigated in aqueous solution. The study of various parameters: Effect of contact time, pH, temperature and initial concentration shows that these materials possess a high affinity for the adsorption of chromium for the adsorption of dye bezaktiv yellow HE-4G. To deepen the comparative study of the adsorption of chromium and dye with the use of different blends of olive stones and date pits, the following models are studied: Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms and Dubinin- Radushkvich (D-R) were used as the adsorption equilibrium data model. Langmuir isotherm model was the most suitable for the adsorption of the dye bezaktiv HE-4G and the D-R model is most suitable for adsorption Chrome. The pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be less than 8KJ/mol, which is characteristic of a controlled chemical reaction for the adsorption of two materials. t was noticed that adsorption of chromium and dye BEZAKTIV HE-YELLOW 4G follows the kinetics of the pseudo second order. The study of the effect of temperature was quantified by calculating various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes. The resulting thermodynamic parameters indicate the endothermic nature of the adsorption of Cr (VI) ions and the dye Bezaktiv HE-4G. But these materials are very good adsorbents, as they represent a low cost. in addition, it has been noticed that the greater the quantity of olive stone in the mixture increases, the adsorption ability of the dye or chromium increases.

Keywords: Sorption, chromium ions, anions dye, mixed adsorbents, olive stone, date pits

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11 Sorption of Cesium Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Zinc Hexacyanoferrate

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. W. Lee, H. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, W. Z. Oh, S. J. Choi

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In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely employed as a sorbent for the removal of various metal ions from water due to their unique properties such as large surface area, light mass density, high porous and hollow structure, and strong interaction between the pollutant molecules and CNTs. To apply CNTs to the sorption of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, they must first be functionalized to increase their hydrophilicity and therefore, enhance their applicability to the sorption of polar and relatively low-molecular-weight species. The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of magnetically separable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-m) as a sorbents for the removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions. The MWCNTs-m was prepared using pristine MWCNTs and iron precursor Fe(acac)3. For the selective removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, the MWCNTs-m was functionalized with zinc hexacyanoferrate (MWCNTs-m-ZnFC). The physicochemical properties of the synthesized sorbents were characterized with various techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometer. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC exhibited a high capacity for sorbing Cs+ from aqueous solutions because of their strong affinity for Cs+ and specific surface area. The sorption ability of the MWCNTs-m-ZnFC for Cs+ was maintained even in the presence of co-existing ions (Na+). Considering these results, the CNT-m-ZnFCs have great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Sorption, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, cesium, zinc hexacyanoferrate

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10 Diffusive Transport of VOCs Through Composite Liners

Authors: Christina Jery, R. K. Anjana, D. N. Arnepalli, R. Sobha

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Modern landfills employ a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (CCL) or a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) as a barrier system. The primary function of a barrier system is to control the contaminant transport from the leachate (dissolved phase) and landfill gas (vapour phase) out of the landfill thereby minimizing the environmental impact. This study is undertaken to investigate the diffusive migration of VOCs through composite liners. VOCs are known hazardous air pollutants were often existing in both the vapour phase and dissolved phase. These compounds are known to diffuse readily through the polymeric geomembranes. The objective of the research is to develop a comprehensive data set of diffusive parameters involved in the diffusion of VOCs in the composite liner (1.5 mm HDPE geomembrane overlying a 30mm compacted clay layer). For this purpose, the study aims to develop a new experimental setup for determining the diffusion characteristics. The key parameters of diffusion (partitioning, diffusion and permeation coefficients) are examined. The diffusion tests are carried out both in aqueous and vapor phase. Finally, an attempt is also made to study the effect of low temperature on the diffusion characteristics.

Keywords: Organic Compounds, Sorption, diffusion, geomembrane, composite liners

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9 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma

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Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: Sorption, bentonite, strontium, interaction time

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8 Sorption of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan−Charcoal Composite

Authors: Abayomi O. Adetuyi, Kingsley Izuagbe Ikeke

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The study investigated the removal efficiency of crystal violet from aqueous solution using chitosan-charcoal composite as adsorbent. Deproteination was carried out by placing 200g of powdered snail shell in 4% w/v NaOH for 2hours. The sample was then placed in 1% HCl for 24 hours to remove CaCO3. Deacetylation was done by boiling in 50% NaOH for 2hours. 10% Oxalic acid was used to dissolve the chitosan before mixing with charcoal at 55°C to form the composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying pH of the solution, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal of crystal violet by composite and activated charcoal was attained at pH10 while maximum removal of crystal violet by chitosan was achieved at pH 8. The results showed that adsorption of both dyes followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data showed that composite was best suited for crystal violet removal and also did relatively well in the removal of alizarin red. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔHº), free energy change (ΔGº) and entropy change (ΔSº) indicate that adsorption process of Crystal Violet was endothermic, spontaneous and feasible respectively.

Keywords: Sorption, extraction process, crystal violet, chitosan−charcoal composite

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7 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

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The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Sorption, zinc, lead, blast furnace sludge

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6 The Studies of the Sorption Capabilities of the Porous Microspheres with Lignin

Authors: M. Goliszek, M. Sobiesiak, O. Sevastyanova, B. Podkoscielna

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Lignin is one of three main constituents of biomass together with cellulose and hemicellulose. It is a complex biopolymer, which contains a large number of functional groups, including aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl groups, carbohylic groups and methoxy groups in its structure, that is why it shows potential capacities for process of sorption. Lignin is a highly cross-linked polymer with a three-dimentional structure which can provide large surface area and pore volumes. It can also posses better dispersion, diffusion and mass transfer behavior in a field of the removal of, e.g., heavy-metal-ions or aromatic pollutions. In this work emulsion-suspension copolymerization method, to synthesize the porous microspheres of divinylbenzene (DVB), styrene (St) and lignin was used. There are also microspheres without the addition of lignin for comparison. Before the copolymerization, modification lignin with methacryloyl chloride, to improve its reactivity with other monomers was done. The physico-chemical properties of the obtained microspheres, e.g., pore structures (adsorption-desorption measurements), thermal properties (DSC), tendencies to swell and the actual shapes were also studied. Due to well-developed porous structure and the presence of functional groups our materials may have great potential in sorption processes. To estimate the sorption capabilities of the microspheres towards phenol and its chlorinated derivatives the off-line SPE (solid-phase extraction) method is going to be applied. This method has various advantages, including low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurements for a large number of chemicals. The efficiency of the materials in removing phenols from aqueous solution and in desorption processes will be evaluated.

Keywords: Microspheres, Sorption, Lignin, solid-phase extraction

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5 Sorption Properties of Biological Waste for Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Lucia Rozumová, Ivo Šafařík, Jana Seidlerová, Pavel Kůs

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Biosorption by biological waste materials from agriculture industry could be a cost-effective technique for removing metal ions from wastewater. The performance of new biosorbent systems, consisting of the waste matrixes which were magnetically modified by iron oxide nanoparticles, for the removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution was tested. The use of low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods. This article deals with the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by modified waste products - orange peels, sawdust, peanuts husks, used tea leaves and ground coffee sediment. Magnetically modified waste materials were suspended in methanol and then was added ferrofluid (magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). This modification process gives the predictions for the formation of the smart materials with new properties. Prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and pore size analyzer. Studies were focused on the sorption and desorption properties. The changes of iron content in magnetically modified materials after treatment were observed as well. Adsorption process has been modelled by adsorption isotherms. The results show that magnetically modified materials during the dynamic sorption and desorption are stable at the high adsorbed amount of lead ions. The results of this study indicate that the biological waste materials as sorbent with new properties are highly effective for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: Sorption, ferrofluid, metal ions, biological waste

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4 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

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Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: Indoor Air Quality, Sorption, formaldehyde, removal efficiency, passive panel

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3 Effects of pH, Load Capacity and Contact Time in the Sulphate Sorption onto a Functionalized Mesoporous Structure

Authors: Ximena Castillo, Jaime Pizarro

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The intensive use of water in agriculture, industry, human consumption and increasing pollution are factors that reduce the availability of water for future generations; the challenge is to advance in sustainable and low-cost solutions to reuse water and to facilitate the availability of the resource in quality and quantity. The use of new low-cost materials with sorbent capacity for pollutants is a solution that contributes to the improvement and expansion of water treatment and reuse systems. Fly ash, a residue from the combustion of coal in power plants that is produced in large quantities in newly industrialized countries, contains a high amount of silicon oxides and aluminum oxides, whose properties can be used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials. Properly functionalized, this material allows obtaining matrixes with high sorption capacity. The mesoporous materials have a large surface area, thermal and mechanical stability, uniform porous structure, and high sorption and functionalization capacities. The goal of this study was to develop hexagonal mesoporous siliceous material (HMS) for the adsorption of sulphate from industrial and mining waters. The silica was extracted from fly ash after calcination at 850 ° C, followed by the addition of water. The mesoporous structure has a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a size of 5.7 nm and was functionalized with ethylene diamine through of a self-assembly method. The material was characterized by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The capacity of sulphate sorption was evaluated according to pH, maximum load capacity and contact time. The sulphate maximum adsorption capacity was 146.1 mg g-1, which is three times higher than commercial sorbents. The kinetic data were fitted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model.

Keywords: fly ash, Sorption, sulphate, mesoporous siliceous

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2 Valorization of Banana Peels for Mercury Removal in Environmental Realist Conditions

Authors: E. Fabre, C. Vale, E. Pereira, C. M. Silva

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Introduction: Mercury is one of the most troublesome toxic metals responsible for the contamination of the aquatic systems due to its accumulation and bioamplification along the food chain. The 2030 agenda for sustainable development of United Nations promotes the improving of water quality by reducing water pollution and foments an enhance in wastewater treatment, encouraging their recycling and safe water reuse globally. Sorption processes are widely used in wastewater treatments due to their many advantages such as high efficiency and low operational costs. In these processes the target contaminant is removed from the solution by a solid sorbent. The more selective and low cost is the biosorbent the more attractive becomes the process. Agricultural wastes are especially attractive approaches for sorption. They are largely available, have no commercial value and require little or no processing. In this work, banana peels were tested for mercury removal from low concentrated solutions. In order to investigate the applicability of this solid, six water matrices were used increasing the complexity from natural waters to a real wastewater. Studies of kinetics and equilibrium were also performed using the most known models to evaluate the viability of the process In line with the concept of circular economy, this study adds value to this by-product as well as contributes to liquid waste management. Experimental: The solutions were prepared with Hg(II) initial concentration of 50 µg L-1 in natural waters, at 22 ± 1 ºC, pH 6, magnetically stirring at 650 rpm and biosorbent mass of 0.5 g L-1. NaCl was added to obtain the salt solutions, seawater was collected from the Portuguese coast and the real wastewater was kindly provided by ISQ - Instituto de Soldadura e qualidade (Welding and Quality Institute) and diluted until the same concentration of 50 µg L-1. Banana peels were previously freeze-drying, milled, sieved and the particles < 1 mm were used. Results: Banana peels removed more than 90% of Hg(II) from all the synthetic solutions studied. In these cases, the enhance in the complexity of the water type promoted a higher mercury removal. In salt waters, the biosorbent showed removals of 96%, 95% and 98 % for 3, 15 and 30 g L-1 of NaCl, respectively. The residual concentration of Hg(II) in solution achieved the level of drinking water regulation (1 µg L-1). For real matrices, the lower Hg(II) elimination (93 % for seawater and 81 % for the real wastewaters), can be explained by the competition between the Hg(II) ions and the other elements present in these solutions for the sorption sites. Regarding the equilibrium study, the experimental data are better described by the Freundlich isotherm (R ^ 2=0.991). The Elovich equation provided the best fit to the kinetic points. Conclusions: The results exhibited the great ability of the banana peels to remove mercury. The environmental realist conditions studied in this work, highlight their potential usage as biosorbents in water remediation processes.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Sorption, banana peels, mercury removal

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1 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga

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A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: Coal, Sorption, Gas Transport, confining pressure

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