Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

sorghum Related Abstracts

8 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: Food Science, sorghum, protein extraction, detergent

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7 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer


The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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6 Development and Structural Characterization of a Snack Food with Added Type 4 Extruded Resistant Starch

Authors: Alberto A. Escobar Puentes, G. Adriana García, Luis F. Cuevas G., Alejandro P. Zepeda, Fernando B. Martínez, Susana A. Rincón


Snack foods are usually classified as ‘junk food’ because have little nutritional value. However, due to the increase on the demand and third generation (3G) snacks market, low price and easy to prepare, can be considered as carriers of compounds with certain nutritional value. Resistant starch (RS) is classified as a prebiotic fiber it helps to control metabolic problems and has anti-cancer colon properties. The active compound can be developed by chemical cross-linking of starch with phosphate salts to obtain a type 4 resistant starch (RS4). The chemical reaction can be achieved by extrusion, a process widely used to produce snack foods, since it's versatile and a low-cost procedure. Starch is the major ingredient for snacks 3G manufacture, and the seeds of sorghum contain high levels of starch (70%), the most drought-tolerant gluten-free cereal. Due to this, the aim of this research was to develop a snack (3G), with RS4 in optimal conditions extrusion (previously determined) from sorghum starch, and carry on a sensory, chemically and structural characterization. A sample (200 g) of sorghum starch was conditioned with 4% sodium trimetaphosphate/ sodium tripolyphosphate (99:1) and set to 28.5% of moisture content. Then, the sample was processed in a single screw extruder equipped with rectangular die. The inlet, transport and output temperatures were 60°C, 134°C and 70°C, respectively. The resulting pellets were expanded in a microwave oven. The expansion index (EI), penetration force (PF) and sensory analysis were evaluated in the expanded pellets. The pellets were milled to obtain flour and RS content, degree of substitution (DS), and percentage of phosphorus (% P) were measured. Spectroscopy [Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)], X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed in order to determine structural changes after the process. The results in 3G were as follows: RS, 17.14 ± 0.29%; EI, 5.66 ± 0.35 and PF, 5.73 ± 0.15 (N). Groups of phosphate were identified in the starch molecule by FTIR: DS, 0.024 ± 0.003 and %P, 0.35±0.15 [values permitted as food additives (<4 %P)]. In this work an increase of the gelatinization temperature after the crosslinking of starch was detected; the loss of granular and vapor bubbles after expansion were observed by SEM; By using X-ray diffraction, loss of crystallinity was observed after extrusion process. Finally, a snack (3G) was obtained with RS4 developed by extrusion technology. The sorghum starch was efficient for snack 3G production.

Keywords: sorghum, extrusion, resistant starch, snack (3G)

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5 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona


Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, sorghum, genotypes, microsatellites

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4 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie


Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Nutritional Quality, sorghum, accessions

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3 Metagenomics Analysis of Bacteria in Sorghum Using next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Memory Tekere, Kedibone Masenya, Jasper Rees


Sorghum is an important cereal crop in the world. In particular, it has attracted breeders due to capacity to serve as food, feed, fiber and bioenergy crop. Like any other plant, sorghum hosts a variety of microbes, which can either, have a neutral, negative and positive influence on the plant. In the current study, regions (V3/V4) of 16 S rRNA were targeted to extensively assess bacterial multitrophic interactions in the phyllosphere of sorghum. The results demonstrated that the presence of a pathogen has a significant effect on the endophytic bacterial community. Understanding these interactions is key to develop new strategies for plant protection.

Keywords: Bacteria, sorghum, multitrophic, target sequencing

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2 Swedish–Nigerian Extrusion Research: Channel for Traditional Grain Value Addition

Authors: Kalep Filli, Sophia Wassén, Annika Krona, Mats Stading


Food security challenge and the growing population in Sub-Saharan Africa centers on its agricultural transformation, where about 70% of its population is directly involved in farming. Research input can create economic opportunities, reduce malnutrition and poverty, and generate faster, fairer growth. Africa is discarding $4 billion worth of grain annually due to pre and post-harvest losses. Grains and tubers play a central role in food supply in the region but their production has generally lagged behind because no robust scientific input to meet up with the challenge. The African grains are still chronically underutilized to the detriment of the well-being of the people of Africa and elsewhere. The major reason for their underutilization is because they are under-researched. Any commitment by scientific community to intervene needs creative solutions focused on innovative approaches that will meet the economic growth. In order to mitigate this hurdle, co-creation activities and initiatives are necessary.An example of such initiatives has been initiated through Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria and RISE (The Research Institutes of Sweden) Gothenburg, Sweden. Exchange of expertise in research activities as a possibility to create channel for value addition to agricultural commodities in the region under the ´Traditional Grain Network programme´ is in place. Process technologies, such as extrusion offers the possibility of creating products in the food and feed sectors, with better storage stability, added value, lower transportation cost and new markets. The Swedish–Nigerian initiative has focused on the development of high protein pasta. Dry microscopy of pasta sample result shows a continuous structural framework of proteins and starch matrix. The water absorption index (WAI) results showed that water was absorbed steadily and followed the master curve pattern. The WAI values ranged between 250 – 300%. In all aspect, the water absorption history was within a narrow range for all the eight samples. The total cooking time for all the eight samples in our study ranged between 5 – 6 minutes with their respective dry sample diameter ranging between 1.26 – 1.35 mm. The percentage water solubility index (WSI) ranged from 6.03 – 6.50% which was within a narrow range and the cooking loss which is a measure of WSI is considered as one of the main parameters taken into consideration during the assessment of pasta quality. The protein contents of the samples ranged between 17.33 – 18.60 %. The value of the cooked pasta firmness ranged from 0.28 - 0.86 N. The result shows that increase in ratio of cowpea flour and level of pregelatinized cowpea tends to increase the firmness of the pasta. The breaking strength represent index of toughness of the dry pasta ranged and it ranged from 12.9 - 16.5 MPa.

Keywords: pasta, sorghum, extrusion, Cowpea, gluten free, high protein

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1 Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola


Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.

Keywords: sorghum, cabinet dryer, sprouting, malted sorghum flour

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