Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

solubilization Related Abstracts

4 Spectroscopic Studies on Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Structurally Different Gemini Surfactants

Authors: Deepti Tikariha, Kallol K. Ghosh, Toshikee Yadav, Jyotsna Lakra

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of two or more benzene rings. PAHs have low solubility in water. Their slow dissolution can contaminate large amounts of ground water for long period. They are hydrophobic, non-polar and neutral in nature and are known to have potential mutagenic or carcinogenic activity. In current scenario their removal from the environment, water and soil is still a great challenge and scientists worldwide are engaged to invent and design novel separation technology and decontaminating systems. Various physical, chemical, biological and their combined technologies have been applied to remediate organic-contaminated soils and groundwater. Surfactants play a vital role in the solubilization of these hydrophobic organic compounds. In the present investigation Solubilization capabilities of structurally different gemini surfactants i.e. butanediyl-1,4-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4-C12,2Br−), 2-butanol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)-C12,2Br−), 2,3-butanediol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); phenanthrene (Phe),fluorene (Fluo) and acenaphthene (Ace) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 300 K. The result showed that the solubility of PAHs increases linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as an implication of association between the PAHs and micelles. Molar solubilization ratio (MSR), micelle–water partition coefficient (Km) and Gibb's free energy of solubilization (ΔG°s) for PAHs have been determined in aqueous medium. (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) shows the higher solubilization for all PAHs. Findings of the present investigation may be useful to understand the role of appropriate surfactant system for the solubilization of toxic hydrophobic organic compounds.

Keywords: gemini surfactant, molar solubilization ratio, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, solubilization

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3 Inclusion Body Refolding at High Concentration for Large-Scale Applications

Authors: H. J. Jördening, J. Gabrielczyk, J. Kluitmann, T. Dammeyer

Abstract:

High-level expression of proteins in bacteria often causes production of insoluble protein aggregates, called inclusion bodies (IB). They contain mainly one type of protein and offer an easy and efficient way to get purified protein. On the other hand, proteins in IB are normally devoid of function and therefore need a special treatment to become active. Most refolding techniques aim at diluting the solubilizing chaotropic agents. Unfortunately, optimal refolding conditions have to be found empirically for every protein. For large-scale applications, a simple refolding process with high yields and high final enzyme concentrations is still missing. The constructed plasmid pASK-IBA63b containing the sequence of fructosyltransferase (FTF, EC 2.4.1.162) from Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 11871 was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta. The bacterium was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor. The produced FTF was obtained mainly as IB. For refolding experiments, five different amounts of IBs were solubilized in urea buffer with protein concentration of 0.2-8.5 g/L. Solubilizates were refolded with batch or continuous dialysis. The refolding yield was determined by measuring the protein concentration of the clear supernatant before and after the dialysis. Particle size was measured by dynamic light scattering. We tested the solubilization properties of fructosyltransferase IBs. The particle size measurements revealed that the solubilization of the aggregates is achieved at urea concentration of 5M or higher and confirmed by absorption spectroscopy. All results confirm previous investigations that refolding yields are dependent upon initial protein concentration. In batch dialysis, the yields dropped from 67% to 12% and 72% to 19% for continuous dialysis, in relation to initial concentrations from 0.2 to 8.5 g/L. Often used additives such as sucrose and glycerol had no effect on refolding yields. Buffer screening indicated a significant increase in activity but also temperature stability of FTF with citrate/phosphate buffer. By adding citrate to the dialysis buffer, we were able to increase the refolding yields to 82-47% in batch and 90-74% in the continuous process. Further experiments showed that in general, higher ionic strength of buffers had major impact on refolding yields; doubling the buffer concentration increased the yields up to threefold. Finally, we achieved corresponding high refolding yields by reducing the chamber volume by 75% and the amount of buffer needed. The refolded enzyme had an optimal activity of 12.5±0.3 x104 units/g. However, detailed experiments with native FTF revealed a reaggregation of the molecules and loss in specific activity depending on the enzyme concentration and particle size. For that reason, we actually focus on developing a process of simultaneous enzyme refolding and immobilization. The results of this study show a new approach in finding optimal refolding conditions for inclusion bodies at high concentrations. Straightforward buffer screening and increase of the ionic strength can optimize the refolding yield of the target protein by 400%. Gentle removal of chaotrope with continuous dialysis increases the yields by an additional 65%, independent of the refolding buffer applied. In general time is the crucial parameter for successful refolding of solubilized proteins.

Keywords: Dialysis, refolding, solubilization, inclusion body

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2 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis

Abstract:

The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: Surfactants, Copper, Desorption, biosurfactant, naphthalene, critical micelle concentration, solubilization

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1 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

Abstract:

In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Root Exudates, Medicago sativa, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brownfield, saponin, trifolium pratense, solubilization

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