Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

solubility Related Abstracts

27 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturationin Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa

Abstract:

Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms.In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8)was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcum insolubility (about 1.2-6-fold)when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: Curcumin, Supersaturation, solubility, precipitation inhibitor

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26 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Alireza Shariati, Hamidreza Bagheri

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid-supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well-predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: Solid, Genetic Algorithm, solubility, supercritical fluids, PC-SAFT EoS

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25 Improved Wetting for Improved Solubility and Dissolution of Candesartan Cilexetil

Authors: Ram Gaud, Shilpa Bhilegaonkar

Abstract:

Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with solubility limited bioavailability (15%). To initiate process of solubilisation, it is very much necessary to displace the air at the surface and wet the drug surface with a solvent, with which drug is compatible. Present research adopts the same principle to improve solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. Solvents used here are surfactant and modified surfactant in different drug: solvent (1:1-1:9) ratio’s for preparation of adsorbates. Adsorbates were then converted into free flowing powders as liquisolid compacts and compressed to form tablets. Liquisolid compacts were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. All systems were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution in different medias such as water, 0.1 N HCl, Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and media given by office of generic drugs along with other physicochemical testing. All systems exhibited a promising advantage in terms of solubility and dissolution without affecting the drug structure as confirmed by IR and XRD. No considerable advantage was seen of increasing solvent ratio with drug.

Keywords: solubility, candesartan cilexetil, improved dissolution, liquisolid

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24 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

Abstract:

The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: Bioavailability, solubility, SNEDDS, Quality by Design (QbD)

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23 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Purification, Lactose, solubility, lactulose

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22 The Hansen Solubility Parameters of Some Lignosulfonates

Authors: Bernt O. Myrvold

Abstract:

Lignosulfonates (LS) find widespread use as dispersants, binders, anti-oxidants, and fillers. In most of these applications LS is used in formulation together with a number of other components. To better understand the interactions between LS and water and possibly other components in a formulation, the Hansen solubility parameters have been determined for some LS. The Hansen solubility parameter splits the total solubility parameter into three components, the dispersive, polar and hydrogen bonding part. The Hansen solubility parameter was determined by comparing the solubility in a number of solvents and solvent mixtures. We have found clear differences in the solubility parameters, with softwood LS being closer to water than hardwood LS.

Keywords: Solvent, solubility, Hansen solubility parameter, lignosulfonate (LS)

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21 Effect of Synthesis Method on Structural, Morphological Properties of Zr0.8Y0.2-xLax Oxides (x=0, 0.1, 0.2)

Authors: Abdelaziz Ghrib, Samir Hattali, Mouloud Ghrib, Mohamed Lamine Aouissia, David Ruch

Abstract:

In the present study, the solid solutions with a chemical composition of Zr0.8Y0.2-xLaxO2 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized via two routes, by hydrothermal method using NaOH as precipitating agent at 230°C for 15h and by the sol–gel process using citric acid as complexing agent. Compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) techniques for appropriate characterization of the distinct thermal events occurring during synthesis. All the compounds crystallize in cubic fluorite structure, as indicated by X-ray diffraction studie. The microstructure of oxides synthesized by sol-gel showed porosity that increased with the lanthanum La3+ contents compared to hydrothermal method which gives a single crystal oxide.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, solubility, oxide, sol-gel, rare earth, ternary mixture

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20 Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes

Authors: Dariush Jafari, S. Mostafa Nowee

Abstract:

In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

Keywords: Thermodynamic Modeling, solubility, ANN, ternary electrolyte system

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19 Introduction of PMMA-Tag to VHH for Improving Recovery and Immobilization Rate of VHHS

Authors: Yuji Ito, Bongmun Kang, Kagnari Yamakawa, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Michimasa Kishimoto, Yoichi Kumada

Abstract:

The PMMA-tag was genetically fused with the C-terminal region of VHH molecules. This antibody, VHH, is known as a single-chain domain, which is devoid of light chains. The PMMA-tag, which could affect the isoelectric point (pI) changeable with a charge of amino acid in VHHs were closely related to the solubility of VHH molecules during refolding. The genetic fusion of PMMA-tag to C-terminal region of VHHs significantly affects the recovery of their soluble protein during refolding by 50 mM TAPS at pH 8.5. It could be refolded with a recovery of more than 95% by dialysis at pH 8.5. A marked difference in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state was significantly high in VHH-PM compared to the wild type of VHH. There are approximately 8-fold differences in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state between VHH-PM and VHH.

Keywords: solubility, ELISA, immobilization, VHH, PMMA-tag, isoelectric point, refolding

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18 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov

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The ferrites of Zn, Cd, Cu, and mixed ferrites with NiO, MnO, MgO, CoO, ZnO, BaO combine the properties of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferro-magnets, catalysts, etc. The ferrites are used in an impressive range of applications due to their remarkable properties. A specific disadvantage of ferrites is that they are undesirably obtained in a lot of processes connected with metal production. They are very stable and poorly soluble compounds. The obtained ZnFe2O4 in zinc production connecting about 15% of the total zinc remains practically insoluble in dilute solutions of sulfuric acid. This decreases the degree of recovery of zinc and necessitates to further process the zinc-containing cake. In this context, the ferrites; ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4, and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl, and HNO3 (7, 10 and 15 %). The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd, and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The resulting values for the degree of leaching of metals using H2SO4 are lower, but still remain significantly higher for all of the experimental conditions compared to the values obtained using HNO3. Five zinc sulfide concentrates are characterized for iron content by chemical analysis, Web-based Information System, and iron phases by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The charging was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc sulfide concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, solubility, inorganic acids, zinc ferrite

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17 Enhanced Kinetic Solubility Profile of Epiisopiloturine Solid Solution in Hipromellose Phthalate

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Cybelly M. Melo, Camila B. M. Figueirêdo, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Magaly A. M. de Lyra, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Mônica F. R. Soares

Abstract:

Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is a drug candidate that is extracted from Pilocarpus microphyllus and isolated from the waste of Pilocarpine. EPI has demonstrated promising schistosomicidal, leishmanicide, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, according to in vitro studies that have been carried out since 2009. However, this molecule shows poor aqueous solubility, which represents a problem for the release of the drug candidate and its absorption by the organism. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the extent of enhancement of kinetic solubility of a solid solution (SS) of EPI in hipromellose phthalate HP-55 (HPMCP), an enteric polymer carrier. SS was obtained by the solvent evaporation methodology, using acetone/methanol (60:40) as solvent system. Both EPI and polymer (drug loading 10%) were dissolved in this solvent until a clear solution was obtained, and then dried in oven at 60ºC during 12 hours, followed by drying in a vacuum oven for 4 h. The results show a considerable modification in the crystalline structure of the drug candidate. For instance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a crystalline behavior for the EPI, which becomes amorphous for the SS. Polarized light microscopy, a more sensitive technique than XRD, also shows completely absence of crystals in SS sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) curves show no signal of EPI melting point in SS curve, indicating, once more, no presence of crystal in this system. Interaction between the drug candidate and the polymer were found in Infrared microscopy, which shows a carbonyl 43.3 cm-1 band shift, indicating a moderate-strong interaction between them, probably one of the reasons to the SS formation. Under sink conditions (pH 6.8), EPI SS had its dissolution performance increased in 2.8 times when compared with the isolated drug candidate. EPI SS sample provided a release of more than 95% of the drug candidate in 15 min, whereas only 45% of EPI (alone) could be dissolved in 15 min and 70% in 90 min. Thus, HPMCP demonstrates to have a good potential to enhance the kinetic solubility profile of EPI. Future studies to evaluate the stability of SS are required to conclude the benefits of this system.

Keywords: solubility, epiisopiloturine, hipromellose phthalate HP-55, pharmaceuticaltechnology

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16 Development and Obtaining of Solid Dispersions to Increase the Solubility of Efavirenz in Anti-HIV Therapy

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Magaly A. M. Lyra, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Tarcyla A. Gomes, Cristovão R. Silva, Danilo A. F. Fonte, Miracy M. Albuquerque

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is considered one of the most widely used anti-HIV drugs. However, it is classified as a drug class II (poorly soluble, highly permeable) according to the biopharmaceutical classification system, presenting problems of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby inadequate bioavailability for its therapeutic action. This study aimed to overcome these barriers by developing and obtaining solid dispersions (SD) in order to increase the EFZ bioavailability. For the development of SD with EFV, theoretical and practical studies were initially performed. Thus, there was a choice of a carrier to be used. For this, it was analyzed the various criteria such as glass transition temperature of the polymer, intra- and intermolecular interactions of hydrogen bonds between drug and polymer, the miscibility between the polymer and EFV. The choice of the obtainment method of the SD came from the analysis of which method is the most consolidated in both industry and literature. Subsequently, the choice of drug and carrier concentrations in the dispersions was carried out. In order to obtain DS to present the drug in its amorphous form, as the DS were obtained, they were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). SD are more stable the higher the amount of polymer present in the formulation. With this assumption, a SD containing 10% of drug was initially prepared and then this proportion was increased until the XRD showed the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. From this point, it was not produced SD with a higher concentration of drug. Thus, it was allowed to select PVP-K30, PVPVA 64 and the SOLUPLUS formulation as carriers, once it was possible the formation of hydrogen bond between EFV and polymers since these have hydrogen acceptor groups capable of interacting with the donor group of the drug hydrogen. It is worth mentioning also that the films obtained, independent of concentration used, were presented homogeneous and transparent. Thus, it can be said that the EFV is miscible in the three polymers used in the study. The SD and Physical Mixtures (PM) with these polymers were prepared by the solvent method. The EFV diffraction profile showed main peaks at around 2θ of 6,24°, in addition to other minor peaks at 14,34°, 17,08°, 20,3°, 21,36° and 25,06°, evidencing its crystalline character. Furthermore, the polymers showed amorphous nature, as evidenced by the absence of peaks in their XRD patterns. The XRD patterns showed the PM overlapping profile of the drug with the polymer, indicating the presence of EFV in its crystalline form. Regardless the proportion of drug used in SD, all the samples showed the same characteristics with no diffraction peaks EFV, demonstrating the behavior amorphous products. Thus, the polymers enabled, effectively, the formation of amorphous SD, probably due to the potential hydrogen bonds between them and the drug. Moreover, the XRD analysis showed that the polymers were able to maintain its amorphous form in a concentration of up to 80% drug.

Keywords: solubility, Efavirenz, solid dispersions, amorphous form

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15 Obtainment of Systems with Efavirenz and Lamellar Double Hydroxide as an Alternative for Solubility Improvement of the Drug

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Danilo A. F. Fontes, Magaly A. M.Lyra, Maria L. C. Moura, Severino Alves-Júnior

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is a first-choice drug in antiretroviral therapy with high efficacy in the treatment of infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). EFV has low solubility in water resulting in a decrease in the dissolution rate and, consequently, in its bioavailability. Among the technological alternatives to increase solubility, the Lamellar Double Hydroxides (LDH) have been applied in the development of systems with poorly water-soluble drugs. The use of analytical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) allowed the elucidation of drug interaction with the lamellar compounds. The objective of this work was to characterize and develop the binary systems with EFV and LDH in order to increase the solubility of the drug. The LDH-CaAl was synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from salt solutions of calcium nitrate and aluminum nitrate in basic medium. The systems EFV-LDH and their physical mixtures (PM) were obtained at different concentrations (5-60% of EFV) using the solvent technique described by Takahashi & Yamaguchi (1991). The characterization of the systems and the PM’s was performed by XRD techniques, IR, DSC and dissolution test under non-sink conditions. The results showed improvements in the solubility of EFV when associated with LDH, due to a possible change in its crystal structure and formation of an amorphous material. From the DSC results, one could see that the endothermic peak at 173°C, temperature that correspond to the melting process of EFZ in the crystal form, was present in the PM results. For the EFZ-LDH systems (with 5, 10 and 30% of drug loading), this peak was not observed. XRD profiles of the PM showed well-defined peaks for EFV. Analyzing the XRD patterns of the systems, it was found that the XRD profiles of all the systems showed complete attenuation of the characteristic peaks of the crystalline form of EFZ. The IR technique showed that, in the results of the PM, there was the appearance of one band and overlap of other bands, while the IR results of the systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading showed the disappearance of bands and a few others with reduced intensity. The dissolution test under non-sink conditions showed that systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading promoted a great increase in the solubility of EFV, but the system with 10% of drug loading was the only one that could keep substantial amount of drug in solution at different pHs.

Keywords: solubility, Efavirenz, Lamellar Double Hydroxides, Pharmaceutical Techonology

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14 Mixture of Polymers and Coating Fullerene Soft Nanoparticles

Authors: L. Bouzina, A. Bensafi, M. Duval, C. Mathis, M. Rawiso

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We study the stability and structural properties of mixtures of model nanoparticles and non-adsorbing polymers in the 'protein limit', where the size of polymers exceeds the particle size substantially. We have synthesized in institute (Charles Sadron Strasbourg) model nanoparticles by coating fullerene C60 molecules with low molecular weight polystyrene (PS) chains (6 PS chains with a degree of polymerization close to 25 and 50 are grafted on each fullerene C60 molecule. We will present a Small Angle Neutron scattering (SANS) study of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions involving long polystyrene (PS) chains and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles. Long PS chains and C60 nanoparticles with different arm lengths were synthesized either hydrogenated or deuteriated. They were characterized through Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and Quasielastic Light Scattering (QLS). In this way, the solubility of the C60 nanoparticles in the usual good solvents of PS was controlled. SANS experiments were performed by use of the contrast variation method in order to measure the partial scattering functions related to both components. They allow us to obtain information about the dispersion state of the C60 nanoparticles as well as the average conformation of the long PS chains. Specifically, they show that the addition of long polymer chains leads to the existence of an additional attractive interaction in between soft nanoparticles.

Keywords: Polymer, Small Angle Neutron Scattering, solubility, fulleren nanoparticles

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13 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids are reported by the researchers as a potential solvent for absorption of carbon dioxide to replace alkanolamines due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility due to its ionic structure and higher surface tension. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermophysical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Global Warming, CO2, Amino Acids, solubility

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12 Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin

Authors: Ana Carolina Kogawa, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

Abstract:

Rifaximin is an oral antimicrobial, gut - selective and not systemic with adverse effects compared to placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, travelers diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile, ulcerative colitis and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in the rifaximin with minimal systemic absorption is α, being the amorphous form significantly different. Regulators are increasingly attention to polymorphisms. Polymorphs can change the form by altering the drug characteristics compromising the effectiveness and safety of the finished product. International Conference on Harmonization issued the ICH Guidance Q6A, which aim to improve the control of polymorphism in new and existing pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin employing recrystallization processes and characterize them by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry - TG and differential scanning calorimetry - DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and solubility test. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I to VI were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. The profiles of the TG curves obtained from polymorphic forms of rifaximin are similar to rifaximin and each other, however, the DTG are different, indicating different thermal behaviors. Melting temperature values of all the polymorphic forms were greater to that shown by the rifaximin, indicating the higher thermal stability of the obtained forms. The comparison of the diffractograms of the polymorphic forms of rifaximin with rifaximin α, β and γ constant in patent indicate that forms III, V and VI are formed by mixing polymorph β and α and form III is formed by polymorph β. The polymorphic form I is formed by polymorph β, but with a significant amount of amorphous material. Already, the polymorphic form II consists of polymorph γ, amorphous. In scanning electron microscope is possible to observe the heterogeneity of morphological characteristics of crystals of polymorphic forms among themselves and with rifaximin. The solubility of forms I and II was greater than the solubility of rifaximin, already, forms III, IV and V presented lower solubility than of rifaximin. Similarly, the bioavailability of the amorphous form of rifaximin is considered significantly higher than the form α, the polymorphic forms obtained in this work can not guarantee the excellent tolerability of the reference medicine. Therefore, studies like these are extremely important and they point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies competent about polymorphs analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyzes are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships between industries, research centers and universities would be a viable way to consolidate researches in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs.

Keywords: Polymorphism, X-Ray Diffraction, solubility, electronic microscopy, rifaximin

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11 Solubility Measurements in the Context of Nanoregulation

Authors: Ratna Tantra

Abstract:

From a risk assessment point of view, solubility is a property that has been identified as being important. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then its disposal can be treated much in the same way as ‘ordinary’ chemicals, which subsequently will simplify testing and characterization regimes. The measurement of solubility has been highlighted as important in a pan-European project, Framework Programme (FP) 7 NANoREG. Some of the project outputs surrounding this topic will be presented here, in which there are two parts. First, a review on existing methods capable of measuring nanomaterial solubility will be discussed. Second, a case study will be presented based on using colorimetry methods to quantify dissolve zinc from ZnO nanomaterial upon exposure to digestive juices. The main findings are as follows: a) there is no universal method for nanomaterial solubility testing. The method chosen will be dependent on sample type and nano-specific application/scenario. b) The colorimetry results show a positive correlation between particle concentration and amount of [Zn2+] released; this was expected c) results indicate complete dissolution of the ZnO nanomaterial, as a result of the digestion protocol but only a fraction existing as free ions. Finally, what differentiates the F7 NANoREG project over other projects is the need for participating research laboratories to follow a set of defined protocols, necessary to establish quality control and assurance. The methods and results associated with mandatory testing that carried out by all partners in NANoREG will be discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Nanotoxicology, zinc oxide, solubility

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10 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: solubility, supercritical CO2, rice bran, ϒ-orizanol

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9 Controlled Drug Delivery System for Delivery of Poor Water Soluble Drugs

Authors: Raj Kumar, Prem Felix Siril

Abstract:

The poor aqueous solubility of many pharmaceutical drugs and potential drug candidates is a big challenge in drug development. Nanoformulation of such candidates is one of the major solutions for the delivery of such drugs. We initially developed the evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method. EASAI method is use full to prepared nanoparticles of poor water soluble drugs with spherical morphology and particles size below 100 nm. However, to further improve the effect formulation to reduce number of dose and side effect it is important to control the delivery of drugs. However, many drug delivery systems are available. Among the many nano-drug carrier systems, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have many advantages over the others such as high biocompatibility, stability, non-toxicity and ability to achieve controlled release of drugs and drug targeting. SLNs can be administered through all existing routes due to high biocompatibility of lipids. SLNs are usually composed of lipid, surfactant and drug were encapsulated in lipid matrix. A number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have poor bioavailability resulting from their poor aqueous solubility. In the present work, SLNs loaded with NSAIDs such as Nabumetone (NBT), Ketoprofen (KP) and Ibuprofen (IBP) were successfully prepared using different lipids and surfactants. We studied and optimized experimental parameters using a number of lipids, surfactants and NSAIDs. The effect of different experimental parameters such as lipid to surfactant ratio, volume of water, temperature, drug concentration and sonication time on the particles size of SLNs during the preparation using hot-melt sonication was studied. It was found that particles size was directly proportional to drug concentration and inversely proportional to surfactant concentration, volume of water added and temperature of water. SLNs prepared at optimized condition were characterized thoroughly by using different techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We successfully prepared the SLN of below 220 nm using different lipids and surfactants combination. The drugs KP, NBT and IBP showed 74%, 69% and 53% percentage of entrapment efficiency with drug loading of 2%, 7% and 6% respectively in SLNs of Campul GMS 50K and Gelucire 50/13. In-vitro drug release profile of drug loaded SLNs is shown that nearly 100% of drug was release in 6 h.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, solubility, delivery, solid lipid nanoparticles, hot-melt sonication, poor water soluble drugs

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8 Importance of Solubility and Bubble Pressure Models to Predict Pressure of Nitrified Oil Based Drilling Fluid in Dual Gradient Drilling

Authors: Sajjad Negahban, Ruihe Wang, Baojiang Sun

Abstract:

Gas-lift dual gradient drilling is a solution for deepwater drilling challenges. As well, Continuous development of drilling technology leads to increase employment of mineral oil based drilling fluids and synthetic-based drilling fluids, which have adequate characteristics such as: high rate of penetration, lubricity, shale inhibition and low toxicity. The paper discusses utilization of nitrified mineral oil base drilling for deepwater drilling and for more accurate prediction of pressure in DGD at marine riser, solubility and bubble pressure were considered in steady state hydraulic model. The Standing bubble pressure and solubility correlations, and two models which were acquired from experimental determination were applied in hydraulic model. The effect of the black oil correlations, and new solubility and bubble pressure models was evaluated on the PVT parameters such as oil formation volume factor, density, viscosity, volumetric flow rate. Eventually, the consequent simulated pressure profile due to these models was presented.

Keywords: solubility, bubble pressure, gas-lift dual gradient drilling, steady state hydraulic model

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7 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng

Abstract:

In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: solubility, particle size, ultrasonication, soy protein isolate

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6 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

Abstract:

A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: reservoir simulation, Tight Reservoirs, solubility, asphaltene, cyclic O₂ injection

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5 Induced Thermo-Osmotic Convection for Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Francisco J. Arias

Abstract:

Consideration is given to a mechanism of heat and mass transport in solutions similar than that of natural convection but with one important difference. Here the mechanism is not promoted by density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients (coefficient of thermal expansion) but rather by solubility differences due to the thermal dependence of the solubility (coefficient of thermal solubility). Utilizing a simplified physical model, it is shown that by the proper choice of the concentration of a given solution, convection might be induced by the alternating precipitation of the solute -when the solution becomes supersaturated, and its posterior recombination when changes in temperature occurs. The spontaneous change in the Gibbs free energy during the mixing is the driven force for the mechanism. The maximum extractable energy from this new type of thermal convection was derived. Experimental data from a closed-loop circuit was obtained demonstrating the feasibility for continuous separation and recombination of the solution. This type of heat and mass transport -which doesn’t depend on gravity, might potentially be interesting for heat and mass transport downwards (as in solar-roof collectors to inside homes), horizontal (e.g., microelectronic applications), and in microgravity (space technology). Also, because the coefficient of thermal solubility could be positive or negative, the investigated thermo-osmosis convection can be used either for heating or cooling.

Keywords: natural convection, solubility, thermal gradient, osmotic pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
4 Ionic Liquids-Polymer Nanoparticle Systems as Breakthrough Tools to Improve the Leprosy Treatment

Authors: A. Julio, R. Caparica, S. Costa Lima, S. Reis, J. G. Costa, P. Fonte, T. Santos De Almeida

Abstract:

The Mycobacterium leprae causes a chronic and infectious disease called leprosy, which the most common symptoms are peripheral neuropathy and deformation of several parts of the body. The pharmacological treatment of leprosy is a combined therapy with three different drugs, rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. However, clofazimine and dapsone have poor solubility in water and also low bioavailability. Thus, it is crucial to develop strategies to overcome such drawbacks. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) may be a strategy to overcome the low solubility since they have been used as solubility promoters. ILs are salts, liquid below 100 ºC or even at room temperature, that may be placed in water, oils or hydroalcoholic solutions. Another approach may be the encapsulation of drugs into polymeric nanoparticles, which improves their bioavailability. In this study, two different classes of ILs were used, the imidazole- and the choline-based ionic liquids, as solubility enhancers of the poorly soluble antileprotic drugs. Thus, after the solubility studies, it was developed IL-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems to deliver such drugs. First of all, the solubility studies of clofazimine and dapsone were performed in water and in water: IL mixtures, at ILs concentrations where cell viability is maintained, at room temperature for 72 hours. For both drugs, it was observed an improvement on the drug solubility and [Cho][Phe] showed to be the best solubility enhancer, especially for clofazimine, where it was observed a 10-fold improvement. Later, it was produced nanoparticles, with a polymeric matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 75:25, by a modified solvent-evaporation W/O/W double emulsion technique in the presence of [Cho][Phe]. Thus, the inner phase was an aqueous solution of 0.2 % (v/v) of the above IL with each drug to its maximum solubility determined on the previous study. After the production, the nanosystem hybrid was physicochemically characterized. The produced nanoparticles had a diameter of around 580 nm and 640 nm, for clofazimine and dapsone, respectively. Regarding the polydispersity index, it was in agreement of the recommended value of this parameter for drug delivery systems (around 0.3). The association efficiency (AE) of the developed hybrid nanosystems demonstrated promising AE values for both drugs, given their low solubility (64.0 ± 4.0 % for clofazimine and 58.6 ± 10.0 % for dapsone), that prospects the capacity of these delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability and loading of clofazimine and dapsone. Overall, the study achievement may signify an upgrading of the patient’s quality of life, since it may mean a change in the therapeutic scheme, not requiring doses of drug so high to obtain a therapeutic effect. The authors would like to thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC), UID/DTP/04567/2016-CBIOS/PRUID/BI2/2018).

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, solubility, ionic liquids-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems, leprosy treatment

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3 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

Authors: Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat

Abstract:

Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.

Keywords: solubility, Streptococcus mutans, anti-biofilm, polymeric micelles, pluronic

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2 Development of 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Enhancing Water Solubility and Antibacterial Activity against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz

Abstract:

Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) containing 4-allylpyrocatechol (AP) extracted from Piper betle were developed to enhance water solubility of AP by using modeling and design (MODDE) program. The amount of AP in each SNEDDS formulation was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The formulation consisted of 20% Miglyol®812N, 40 % Kolliphor®RH40, 30 % Maisine®35-1 and 10 % ethanol was found to be the best SNEDDS that provided the highest loading capacity of AP. (141.48±15.64 mg/g SNEDDS). The system also showed miscibility with water. The particle shape and size of the AP-SNEDDS after dispersing in water was investigated by using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that they were a spherical shape, having a particle size of 34.27 ± 1.14 nm with a narrow size distribution of 0.17 ± 0.04. The particles showed negative zeta potential with a value of -21.66 ± 2.09 mV. Antibacterial activity of AP-SNEDDS containing 1.5 mg/mL of AP was investigated against Streptococcus intermedius. The effect of this system on S. intermedius cells was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results from SEM revealed that the bacterial cells were obviously destroyed. Killing kinetic study of AP-SNEDDS was carried out. It was found that the killing rate of AP-SNEDDS against S. intermedius was dose-dependent and the bacterial reduction was 79.86 ± 0.45 % within 30 min. In comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX), AP-SNEDDS showed similar antibacterial effects against S. intermedius. It is concluded that SNEDDS is a potential system for enhancing water solubility of AP. The antibacterial study reveals that AP-SNEDDS can be a promising system to treat bacterial infection caused by S. intermedius.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, solubility, SNEDDS, Streptococcus intermedius

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1 Designing, Preparation and Structural Evaluation of Co-Crystals of Oxaprozin

Authors: Maninderjeet K. Grewal, Sakshi Bhatnor, Renu Chadha

Abstract:

The composition of pharmaceutical entities and the molecular interactions can be altered to optimize drug properties such as solubility and bioavailability by the crystal engineering technique. The present work has emphasized on the preparation, characterization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of co-crystal of BCS Class II anti-osteoarthritis drug, Oxaprozin (OXA) with aspartic acid (ASPA) as co-former. The co-crystals were prepared through the mechanochemical solvent drop grinding method. Characterization of the prepared co-crystal (OXA-ASPA) was done by using analytical tools such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermogram of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a single sharp melting endotherm at 235 ºC, which was between the melting peaks of the drug and the counter molecules suggesting the formation of a new phase which is a co-crystal that was further confirmed by using other analytical techniques. FT-IR analysis of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a shift in a hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amine peaks as compared to pure drugs indicating all these functional groups are participating in cocrystal formation. The appearance of new peaks in the PXRD pattern of cocrystals in comparison to individual components showed that a new crystalline entity has been formed. The Crystal structure of cocrystal was determined using material studio software (Biovia) from PXRD. The equilibrium solubility study of OXA-ASPA showed improvement in solubility as compared to pure drug. Therefore, it was envisioned to prepare the co-crystal of oxaprozin with a suitable conformer to modulate its physiochemical properties and consequently, the biopharmaceutical parameters.

Keywords: solubility, cocrystals, coformer, oxaprozin

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