Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Solid Waste Related Abstracts

25 Solid Waste Pollution and the Importance of Environmental Planning in Managing and Preserving the Public Environment in Benghazi City and Its Surrounding Areas

Authors: Abdelsalam Omran Gebril


Pollution and solid waste are the most important environmental problems plaguing the city of Benghazi as well as other cities and towns in Libya. These problems are caused by the lack of environmental planning and sound environmental management. Environmental planning is very important at present for the development of projects that preserve the environment, therefore, the planning process should be prioritized over the management process. Pollution caused by poor planning and environmental management exists not only in Benghazi but also in all other Libyan cities. This study was conducted through various field visits to several neighborhoods and areas within Benghazi as well as its neighboring regions. Follow-ups in these areas were conducted from March 2013 to October 2013 and documented by photographs. The existing methods of waste collection and means of transportation were investigated. Interviews were conducted with relevant authorities, including the Environment Public Authority in Benghazi and the Public Service Company of Benghazi. The objective of this study is to determine the causes of solid waste pollution in Benghazi City and its surrounding areas. Results show that solid waste pollution in Benghazi and its surrounding areas is the result of poor planning and environmental management, population growth, and the lack of hardware and equipment for the collection and transport of waste from the city to the landfill site. One of the most important recommendations in this study is the development of a complete and comprehensive plan that includes environmental planning and environmental management to reduce solid waste pollution.

Keywords: Environmental Planning, Management, Pollution, Solid Waste, Benghazi, Libya

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24 The Impact of Women on Urban Sustainability (Case Study: Three Districts of Tehran)

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malekabadi, Leila Jalalabadi, Zahra Kiyani Ghaleh No


Today, systems of management and urban planning, attempt to reach more sustainable development through monitoring developments, urban development and development plans. Monitoring of changes in the urban places and sustainable urban development accounted a base for the realization of worthy goals urban sustainable development. The importance of women in environmental protection programs is high enough that in 21 agenda has been requested from all countries to allocate more shares to women in their policies. On the other hand, urban waste landfill has become one of the environmental concerns in modern cities. This research assumes that the impact of women on recycling, reduction and proper waste landfill is much more than men. For this reason, three districts; Yousef Abad, Heshmatieh and Nezam Abad are gauged through questionnaire and using the analytical research hypothesis model. This research will be categorized as functional research. The results have shown that noticing the power of women, their participation towards realization of the development objectives and programs can be used in solving their problems.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental, Urban, Solid Waste, citizens, Tehran

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23 Bioconversion of Kitchen Waste to Bio-Ethanol for Energy Security and Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sanjiv Kumar Soni, Chetna Janveja


The approach of utilizing zero cost kitchen waste residues for growing suitable strains of fungi for the induction of a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol generation has been validated in the present study with the objective of developing an indigenous biorefinery for low cost bioethanol production with the generation of zero waste. Solid state fermentation has been carried out to evaluate the potential of various steam pretreated kitchen waste residues as substrates for the co-production of multiple carbohydrases including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinase and amylases by a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger C-5. Of all the residues, potato peels induced the maximum yields of all the enzyme components corresponding to 64.0±1.92 IU of CMCase, 17.0±0.54 IU of FPase , 42.8±1.28 IU of β-glucosidase, 990.0±28.90 IU of xylanase, 53.2±2.12 IU of mannanase, 126.0±3.72 IU of pectinase, 31500.0±375.78 IU of α-amylase and 488.8±9.82 IU of glucoamylase/g dry substrate respectively. Saccharification of various kitchen refuse residues using inhouse produced crude enzyme cocktail resulted in the release of 610±10.56, 570±8.89, 435±6.54, 475±4.56, 445±4.27, 385±4.49, 370±6.89, 490±10.45 mg of total reducing sugars/g of dried potato peels, orange peels, pineapple peels, mausami peels, onion peels, banana stalks, pea pods and composite mixture respectively revealing carbohydrate conversion efficiencies in the range of 97.0-99.4%. After fermentation of released hexoses by Saccharomyces cerevisae, ethanol yields ranging from 80-262 mL/ kg of dry residues were obtained. The study has successfully evaluated the valorization of kitchen garbage, a highly biodegradable component in Municipal Solid Waste by using it as a substrate for the in-house co-production of multiple carbohydrases and employing the steam treated residues as a feed stock for bioethanol production. Such valorization of kitchen garbage may reduce the level of Municipal Solid Waste going into land-fills thus lowering the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the solid residue left after the bioconversion may be used as a biofertilizer for improving the fertility of the soils.

Keywords: Waste Management, Solid Waste, bioconversion, Bioethanol, kitchen waste

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22 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir


Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: developing countries, Solid Waste, conventional waste management, waste stakeholders

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21 Community Involvement and Willingness To Pay for Municipal Solid Waste Management Activities in Rapid Urbanized Region: A Case Study of Mnadani and Madukani Wards-Dodoma Urban

Authors: Isabela Thomas Mkude


This research was done to assess how the community is involved in waste management activities and their willingness to pay for services. Mnadani and Madukani are among the old wards in Dodoma urban. These two areas are similar and face numerous environmental problems, poor solid waste management practices being among them. People realize problems because they live with them daily but the study advice that the only way to stay off problems is to find appropriate measures. The findings recognized some problems that led to poor community involvement solid waste management the study areas. Lack of community education on how to deal with solid wastes, poor responsibility of ward leaders in issues concerning the environment and in active participation of communities in environmental meeting are among other major problems found during the research. The research also revealed that there is low willingness to pay for waste collection among communities and financial problems that make environmental committee inactive; that leading to a poor disposal and unavailable collection facilities in urban area. Although the municipal improves disposal activities by increasing amount of waste to be disposed off by 11% in three years, the amount of waste that collected is also increasing by 41% each day. It is advised that some corrective measures need to be put in place so that the communities are well involved in managing solid wastes as the best way to attain achievement in keeping the urban free from solid waste. Environmental education dissemination to the communities is needed so that they become responsible and dedicated citizen on the environment. There should be some incentives from government to the wards local government and CBOs so that they can practically implement solid waste management programs and to attract formation of more groups and motivate the present groups. Capacity building programs to the ward leaders need to be given priority so that leaders are well organized and able to plan, coordinate and cooperate with various governmental institutions, and NGOs responsible for development and environmental management.

Keywords: Waste Management, Solid Waste, Public Involvement, rapid urbanized region

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20 The Legal Framework for Solid Waste Disposal and Management in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Ajayi Oluwasola Felix, Alabi Odunayo Mayowa


Solid waste such as “garbage” “trash” “refuse” “slug” and “rubbish” is disposed off or is required to be disposed off in accordance with national law. The study relies on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources include the Constitution, statutes and subsidiary legislation. The secondary sources of information include books, journals, conference proceedings, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. The information obtained from these sources is subjected to content and contextual analysis. The study examines the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency Law, 1992 and other laws on waste disposal and management in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study also examines the regulations and the agency i.e. the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency created by the law with a view to determine the inadequacies in the law.

Keywords: Waste Management, Waste Disposal, Solid Waste, domestic waste

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19 Analysis of Improved Household Solid Waste Management System in Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. A. Ojo, E. O. Ogbole, A. O. Ojo


This study analysed improved household solid waste management system in Minna metropolis, Niger state. Multi-staged sampling technique was used to administer 155 questionnaires to respondents, where Minna was divided into two income groups A and B based on the quality of the respondent’s houses. Primary data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics to obtain results for the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, types of waste generated and methods of disposing solid waste, the level of awareness and reliability of waste disposal methods as well as the willingness of households to pay for solid waste management in the area. The results revealed that majority of the household heads in the study area were male, 94.20% of the household heads fell between the ages of 21 and 50 and also that 96.80% of them had one form of formal education or the other. The results also revealed that 47.10% and 43.20% of the households generated food wastes and polymers respectively as a major constituent of waste disposed. The results of this study went further to reveal that 81.90% of the household heads were aware of the use of collection cans as a method of waste disposal while only 32.90% of them considered the method highly reliable. Multiple regression was used to determine the factors affecting the willingness of households to pay for waste disposal in the study area. The results showed that 76.10% of the respondents were willing to pay for solid waste management which indicates that households in Minna are concerned and willing to cater for their immediate environment. The multiple regression results revealed that age, income, environmental awareness and household expenditure have a positive and statistically significant relationship with the willingness of households to pay for waste disposal in the area while household size has a negative and statistically significant relationship with households’ willingness to pay. Based on these findings, it was recommended that more waste management services be made readily available to residents of Minna, waste collection service should be privatised to increase their effectiveness through increased competition and also that community participatory approach be used to create more environmental awareness amongst residents.

Keywords: Management, Solid Waste, household, WTP

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18 Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Fatih Iscan, Ceren Yağci


Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization are known as the most important factors of environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes are also within the most important environment problems. One of the main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS has the ability of imitating necessary economical, environmental and political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for engineering/economical factors for site selection of landfill areas and using GIS for an decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/TURKEY city, Güzelyurt district practice.

Keywords: Landfill, Solid Waste, GIS, Spatial analysis

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17 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Kudu Dangana, Mohammed, Garba Inuwa Kuta, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku


The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: Management, Assessment, Disposal, Solid Waste, housing estate

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16 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho


This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: wastewater, Solid Waste, Sewage, Pretreatment

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15 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) with Polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: Combustion, CFD, Waste to Energy, Emissions, Solid Waste, gasification, syngas, gas turbine combustor

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14 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Emissions, methane, Solid Waste, landfills

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13 Eco-Agriculture for Effective Solid Waste Management in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: H. Ibrahim, A. Abdulkadir, Y. M. Bello, A. A. Okhimamhe, M. B. Matazu, L. S. Barau


The increasing volume of solid waste generated, collected and disposed daily complicate adequate management of solid waste by the relevant agency like Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA). In addition, the impacts of solid waste on the natural environment and human livelihood require identification of cost-effective ways for sustainable municipal waste management in Nigeria. These signal the need for identifying environment-friendly initiative and local solution to address municipal solid waste. A research field was secured at Pago, Minna, Niger State which is located in the guinea savanna belt of Nigeria, within longitude 60 3614311- 4511 and latitude 90 291 37.6111- .6211 N. Poultry droppings, decomposed household waste manure and NPK treatment were used. The experimental field was divided into three replications and four (4) treatments on each replication making a total of twelve (12) plots. The treatments were allotted using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and RCBD. The result depicts variation in plant height and number of leaves at 50% flowering; Poultry dropping records the highest height as a number of leaves for waste manure competes fairly well with NPK treatment. Similarly, the varying treatments significantly increase vegetable yield, as the control (Nontreatment) records the least yield for the three vegetable samples. Adoption of this organic manure for cultivation does not only enhance environment quality and attainment of food security but will contribute to local economic development, poverty alleviation, and social inclusion.

Keywords: Food Security, Environmental Issues, Solid Waste, NISEPA

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12 Optimization of Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Beatriz Bernabe-Loranca, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz, José J. Hernández-Flores


The Maritime Platform Transport Problem of Solid, Special and Dangerous Waste consist of to minimize the monetary value of carry different types of waste from one location to another location using ships. We offer a novel mathematical, the characterization of the problem and the use CPLEX to find the optimal values to solve the Solid, Special and Hazardous Waste Transportation Problem of offshore platforms instances of Mexican state-owned petroleum company (PEMEX). The set of instances used are WTPLib real instances and the tool CPLEX solver to solve the MPTPSSDW problem.

Keywords: Waste, Solid Waste, oil platform, transport problem

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11 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith


This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: Construction Materials, Solid Waste, setting time, eggshells ash

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10 Determination of the Shear Strength of Wastes Using Back-Analyses from Observed Failures

Authors: Sadek Salah


The determination of the strength characteristics of waste materials is essential when evaluating the stability of waste fills during initial placement and at the time of closure and rehabilitation of the landfill. Significant efforts, mostly experimental, have been deployed to date in attempts to quantify the mechanical properties of municipal wastes various stages of decomposition. Even though the studies and work done so far have helped in setting baseline parameters and characteristics for waste materials, inherent concerns remain as to the scalability of the findings between the laboratory and the field along with questions as to the suitability of the actual test conditions. These concerns are compounded by the complexity of the problem itself with significant variability in composition, placement conditions, and levels of decay of the various constituents of the waste fills. A complimentary, if not necessarily an alternative approach is to rely on field observations of behavior and instability of such materials. This paper describes an effort at obtaining relevant shear strength parameters from back-analyses of failures which have been observed at a major un-engineered waste fill along the Mediterranean shoreline. Results from the limit-equilibrium failure back-analyses are presented and compared to results from laboratory-scale testing on comparable waste materials.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Solid Waste, Shear Strength, landfills

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9 Quantification of E-Waste: A Case Study in Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Authors: Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman, Andressa S. T. Gomes, Luiza A. Souza


The segregation of waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the generating source, its characterization (quali-quantitative) and identification of origin, besides being integral parts of classification reports, are crucial steps to the success of its integrated management. The aim of this paper was to count WEEE generation at the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Brazil, as well as to define sources, temporary storage sites, main transportations routes and destinations, the most generated WEEE and its recycling potential. Quantification of WEEE generated at the University in the years between 2010 and 2015 was performed using data analysis provided by UFES’s sector of assets management. EEE and WEEE flow in the campuses information were obtained through questionnaires applied to the University workers. It was recorded 6028 WEEEs units of data processing equipment disposed by the university between 2010 and 2015. Among these waste, the most generated were CRT screens, desktops, keyboards and printers. Furthermore, it was observed that these WEEEs are temporarily stored in inappropriate places at the University campuses. In general, these WEEE units are donated to NGOs of the city, or sold through auctions (2010 and 2013). As for recycling potential, from the primary processing and further sale of printed circuit boards (PCB) from the computers, the amount collected could reach U$ 27,839.23. The results highlight the importance of a WEEE management policy at the University.

Keywords: Waste Management, Solid Waste, waste of electrical and electronic equipment, institutional solid waste generation

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8 Studies on the Mechanical Behavior of Bottom Ash for a Sustainable Environment

Authors: B. A. Mir, Asim Malik


Bottom ash is a by-product of the combustion process of coal in furnaces in the production of electricity in thermal power plants. In India, about 75% of total power is produced by using pulverized coal. The coal of India has a high ash content which leads to the generation of a huge quantity of bottom ash per year posing the dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use this industry by-product effectively and efficiently. However, its large-scale utilization is possible only in geotechnical applications, either alone or with soil. In the present investigation, bottom ash was collected from National Capital Power Station Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Test samples of bottom ash admixed with 20% clayey soil were prepared and treated with different cement content by weight and subjected to various laboratory tests for assessing its suitability as an engineered construction material. This study has shown that use of 10% cement content is a viable chemical additive to enhance the mechanical properties of bottom ash, which can be used effectively as an engineered construction material in various geotechnical applications. More importantly, it offers an interesting potential for making use of an industrial waste to overcome challenges posed by bottom ash for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Sustainable Environment, Solid Waste, Waste Utilization, bottom ash

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7 Disposal Behavior of Extreme Poor People Living in Guatemala at the Base of the Pyramid

Authors: Katharina Raab, Ralf Wagner


With the decrease of poverty, the focus on the solid waste challenge shifts away from affluent, mostly Westernized consumers to the base of the pyramid. The relevance of considering the disposal behavior of impoverished people arises from improved welfare, leading to an increase in consumption opportunities and, consequently, of waste production. In combination with the world’s growing population the relevance of the topic increases, because solid waste management has global impacts on consumers’ welfare. The current annual municipal solid waste generation is estimated to 1.9 billion tonnes, 30% remains uncollected. As for the collected 70% is landfilling and dumping, 19% is recycled or recovered, 11% is led to energy recovery facilities. Therefore, aim is to contribute by adding first insights about poor people's disposal behaviors, including the framing of their rationalities, emotions and cognitions. The study provides novel empirical results obtained from qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews near Guatemala City. In the study’s framework consumers have to choose from three options when deciding what to do with their obsolete possessions: Keeping the product: The main reason for this is the respondent´s emotional attachment to a product. Further, there is a willingness to use the same product under a different scope when it loses its functionality–they recycle their belongings in a customized and sustainable way. Permanently disposing of the product: The study reveals two dominant disposal methods: burning in front of their homes and throwing away in the physical environment. Respondents clearly recognized the disadvantages of burning toxic durables, like electronics. Giving a product away as a gift supports the integration of individuals in their peer networks of family and friends. Temporarily disposing of the product: Was not mentioned–to be specific, rent or lend a product to someone else was out of question. Contrasting the background to which extend poor people are aware of the consequences of their disposal decisions and how they feel about and rationalize their actions were quite unexpected. Respondents reported that they are worried about future consequences with impacts they cannot anticipate now–they are aware that their behaviors harm their health and the environment. Additionally, they expressed concern about the impact this disposal behavior would have on others’ well-being and are therefore sensitive to the waste that surrounds them. Concluding, the BoP-framed life and Westernized consumption, both fit in a circular economy pattern, but the nature of how to recycle and dispose separates these two societal groups. Both systems own a solid waste management system, but people living in slum-type districts and rural areas of poor countries are less interested in connecting to the system–they are primarily afraid of the costs. Further, it can be said that a consumer’s perceived effectiveness is distinct from environmental concerns, but contributes to forecasting certain pro-ecological behaviors. Considering the rationales underlying disposal decisions, thoughtfulness is a well-established determinant of disposition behavior. The precipitating events, emotions and decisions associated with the act of disposing of products are important because these decisions can trigger different results for the disposal process.

Keywords: Solid Waste, base of the pyramid, disposal behavior, poor consumers

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6 Impact of Sociocultural Factors on Management and Utilization of Solid Waste in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olufunmilayo Folaranmi


This research was carried out to examine the impact of socio-cultural factors on the management and utilization of solid waste in Ibadan Metropolis. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study while a systematic and stratified random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents which were categorized into high, middle and low-density areas. Four hypothesis were tested using chi-square test on variables of unavailability of waste disposal facilities and waste management, negligence of contractors to liaise with community members, lack of adequate environmental education and waste management and utilization, low level of motivation of sanitation workers with solid wastes management, lack of community full participation with solid waste management and utilization. Results showed that significant effect of waste disposal facilities on solid waste management and utilization (X2 +16.6, P < .05). Also, there is a significant relationship between negligence of the contractors to liaise with community elites with improper disposal (X2 = 87.5, P < .05). The motivation of sanitation workers is significantly related to solid waste management (X2 = 70.4, P < .05). Adequate environmental education and awareness influenced solid waste management. There was also a significant relationship between lack of community participation with waste management disposal and improper waste disposal. Based on the findings from the study it was recommended that the quality of life in urban centers should be improved, social welfare of the populace enhanced and environment should be adequately attended to. Poverty alleviation programmes should be intensified and made to live beyond the life of a particular administration, micro-credit facilities should be available to community members to promote their welfare. Lastly, sustained environmental education programmes for citizens at all levels of education, formal and informal through the use of agencies like Ethical and Attitudinal Reorientation Commission (EARCOM) and the National Orientation Agency (NOA).

Keywords: Management, Social welfare, Solid Waste, Socio-Cultural Factors

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5 Energy Potential of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste - Colombian Housing

Authors: Esteban Hincapie


The growing climate change, global warming and population growth have contributed to the energy crisis, aggravated by the generation of organic solid waste, as a material with high energy potential. From the context of waste generation in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, was evaluated the potential of energy content in organic solid waste generated in La Herradura housing complex, through anaerobic digestion process in batch reactors, with mixtures of substrate, water and inoculum 1: 3: 0.2 and 1: 3: 0, reaching a total biogas production of 0,2 m³/Kg y 0,14 m³/Kg respectively, in a period of 38 days under temperature conditions of 24°C. The volume of biogas obtained was equivalent to the monthly consumption of natural gas for 75 apartments or 1.856 Kw of electric power. For the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, a production of 7.152Kw of electric power was estimated for a month, from the treatment of 22.319 tons of organic solid waste that would not be taken to the landfill. The results indicate that the treatment of organic waste from anaerobic digestion is a sustainable option to reduce pollution, contribute to the production of alternative energies and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism.

Keywords: Waste Management, Sustainable Construction, Solid Waste, Anaerobic Digestion, Urban Metabolism, alternative energies

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4 Value-Added Products from Recycling of Solid Waste in Steel Plants

Authors: Somnath Basu, B. Karthik Vasan, Rachil Maliwal


Generation of solid waste is a major problem confronting the iron and steel industry around the world. Disposal of untreated wastes is no longer a viable solution in view of the environmental regulations becoming more and more stringent, as well as an increase in community awareness about the long-term hazards of indiscriminate waste disposal. The current work explores the possibility of converting some of the ‘problematic’ solid wastes generated during steel manufacturing operations, viz. dust from primary steelmaking, iron ore handling, and flux calcination processes, into value-added products instead of environmentally hazardous disposal practices. It was possible to develop a synthetic calcium ferrite, which helped to enhance the dissolution of calcined basic fluxes (e.g. CaO) and reduce the overall energy consumption during steel making. This, in turn, increased process efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The preliminary results from laboratory-scale experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of utilizing these ‘waste materials’ that are generated in-house in iron and steel manufacturing plants. The energy required for synthesis of the ferrite may be reduced further by partially utilizing the waste heat from the exhaust gases. In the longer run, it would result in significant financial benefits due to reduced dependence on purchased fluxes. The synthesized ferrite is non-hygroscopic and this provides an additional benefit during its storage and transportation, relative to calcined lime (CaO) that is widely used as a basic flux across the steel making industry.

Keywords: Solid Waste, flux, slag formation, calcium ferrite

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3 Effect of Solid Waste on the Sustainability of the Water Resource Quality in the Gbarain Catchment of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Authors: Davidson E. Egirani, Nanfe R. Poyi, Napoleon Wessey


This paper would report on the effect of solid waste on water resource quality in the Gbarain catchment of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The Gbarain catchment presently hosts two waste-dump sites located along the flanks of a seasonal flow stream and perennially waterlogged terrain. The anthropogenic activity has significantly affected the quality of surface and groundwater in the Gbarain catchment. These wastes have made the water resource environment toxic leading to the poisoning of aquatic life. The contaminated water resources could lead to serious environmental and human health challenges such as low agricultural yields to loss of vital human organs. The contamination is via geological processes such as seepage and direct infiltration of contaminants into watercourses. The results obtained from field and experimental investigations followed by modeling, and graphical interpretation indicate heavy metal load and fecal pollution in some of the groundwater. The metal load, Escherichia coli, and total coliforms counts exceed the international and regional recommended limits. The contaminate values include Lead (> 0.01 mg/L), Mercury (> 0.006 mg/L), Manganese (> 0.4 mg/L and Escherichia coli (> 0 per 100ml) of the samples. Land use planning, enactment, and implementation of environmental laws are necessary for this region, for effective surface water and groundwater resource management.

Keywords: Environmental Health, Human Health, Solid Waste, aquatic life, waste-dump site, water-resource environment

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2 Effect of Naameh Landfill (Lebanon) on Groundwater Quality of the Surrounding Area

Authors: Rana Sawaya, Jalal Halwani, Isam Bashour, Nada Nehme


Mismanagement of municipal solid wastes in Lebanon might lead to serious environmental problems, especially that a big portion of mixed wastes including putrescible is transferred to Naameh landfill. One of the consequences of municipal solid waste deposition is the production of landfill leachate, which if unproperly treated will threaten the main crucial matrices such as soil, water, and air. The main aim of this one of a kind study is to assess the risk posed to groundwater as a result of leachate infiltration on off-site wells especially after stoppage of Naameh landfill's operation end of the year 2016 and initiation of the capping process which is still ongoing and will be finalized in December 2019. For this purpose, nine representative points around the landfill were selected to undergo physicochemical and microbial analysis on a seasonal basis (every three months). The study extended from the year 2014 until the end of the year 2016 (closure of Naameh landfill). The preliminary data obtained are statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and was found in conformity with international and Lebanese norms. Thus, the study will be extended an additional year, especially after the finalization of capping and the results obtained, will enable us to propose new techniques and tools (treatment systems) in water resources management depending on the direction of its usage (domestic, irrigation, drinking).

Keywords: Groundwater, Leachate, Solid Waste, Contamination, Lebanon

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1 Solid Waste Management & Practise within the University Community: Case Study in Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu

Authors: J. Izan, E.I. Tengku Azmina, F. Pey Thing


Sustainability has been introduced globally since the emerging of the advancement of technology and product development in various aspects. This concept is regarded highly, listed among the seventeenth elements in Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially by developed countries in any of their development plans and being considered in the development of the developing countries. It is such as the concept of sustainability can undeniably provide a medium where the cost used by energy consumption and pollution problems can be greatly reduced. In Malaysia, many rules and policies had been advocated to achieve sustainability; however, the practice and implementation as well the enforcement to ensure its implementation are still not great. University, as an educational institution, shall practice and implement sustainability concepts in as much aspect as possible as a positive example for a wider community. University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) has already published a blueprint guide in 2015, aims to introduce and implement sustainable practice in the university, and solid waste is one of the key elements highlighted. This study was conducted to determine the status of solid waste management practice among the university community associated with several factors that facilitate the room for sustainable management, as drawn in the established blueprint document. The quantitative analysis was carried out via survey conducted online, acquired the questions on green campus concept and implementation in general and solid waste in particular. The results showed that community UMT showed a high level of awareness and knowledge on sustainable solid waste; however, low percentage in managing solid waste in a sustainable manner. Respondents suggested that stringent guidelines and the establishment of policy greatly help in the realization and enforcement of sustainable solid waste handling and management. Facilities such as waste collection centre with separation and segregation containers will motivate the community to practice 3Rs on a daily basis. This will eventually reduce the generation of waste need to be sent to landfill hence reduce the disposal cost. Prolong, and continuous campaign on sustainable solid waste management need to be carried out more frequently.

Keywords: Management, Sustainability, Solid Waste, University

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