Commenced in January 2007
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solid state reaction Related Abstracts

2 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı


Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction

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1 Relaxor Ferroelectric Lead-Free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ Ceramic: Giant Electromechanical Response with Intrinsic Polarization and Resistive Leakage Analyses

Authors: Abid Hussain, Binay Kumar


Environment-friendly lead-free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ (NKLNTS) ceramic was synthesized by solid-state reaction method in search of a potential candidate to replace lead-based ceramics such as PbZrO₃-PbTiO₃ (PZT), Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) etc., for various applications. The ceramic was calcined at temperature 850 ᵒC and sintered at 1090 ᵒC. The powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of pure perovskite phase having tetragonal symmetry with space group P4mm of the synthesized ceramic. The surface morphology of the ceramic was studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) technique. The well-defined grains with homogeneous microstructure were observed. The average grain size was found to be ~ 0.6 µm. A very large value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d₃₃ ~ 754 pm/V) was obtained for the synthesized ceramic which indicated its potential for use in transducers and actuators. In dielectric measurements, a high value of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tm~305 ᵒC), a high value of maximum dielectric permittivity ~ 2110 (at 1 kHz) and a very small value of dielectric loss ( < 0.6) were obtained which suggested the utility of NKLNTS ceramic in high-temperature ferroelectric devices. Also, the degree of diffuseness (γ) was found to be 1.61 which confirmed a relaxor ferroelectric behavior in NKLNTS ceramic. P-E hysteresis loop was traced and the value of spontaneous polarization was found to be ~11μC/cm² at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient was obtained to be very high (p ∼ 1870 μCm⁻² ᵒC⁻¹) for the present case indicating its applicability in pyroelectric detector applications including fire and burglar alarms, infrared imaging, etc. NKLNTS ceramic showed fatigue free behavior over 107 switching cycles. Remanent hysteresis task was performed to determine the true-remanent (or intrinsic) polarization of NKLNTS ceramic by eliminating non-switchable components which showed that a major portion (83.10 %) of the remanent polarization (Pr) is switchable in the sample which makes NKLNTS ceramic a suitable material for memory switching devices applications. Time-Dependent Compensated (TDC) hysteresis task was carried out which revealed resistive leakage free nature of the ceramic. The performance of NKLNTS ceramic was found to be superior to many lead based piezoceramics and hence can effectively replace them for use in piezoelectric, pyroelectric and long duration ferroelectric applications.

Keywords: solid state reaction, dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties, lead free ceramic, piezoelectric property, true-remanent polarization

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