Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

solar cycle Related Abstracts

3 Long-Term Variabilities and Tendencies in the Zonally Averaged TIMED-SABER Ozone and Temperature in the Middle Atmosphere over 10°N-15°N

Authors: Oindrila Nath, S. Sridharan


Long-term (2002-2012) temperature and ozone measurements by Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite zonally averaged over 10°N-15°N are used to study their long-term changes and their responses to solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The region is selected to provide more accurate long-term trends and variabilities, which were not possible earlier with lidar measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), which are limited to cloud-free nights, whereas continuous data sets of SABER temperature and ozone are available. Regression analysis of temperature shows a cooling trend of 0.5K/decade in the stratosphere and that of 3K/decade in the mesosphere. Ozone shows a statistically significant decreasing trend of 1.3 ppmv per decade in the mesosphere although there is a small positive trend in stratosphere at 25 km. Other than this no significant ozone trend is observed in stratosphere. Negative ozone-QBO response (0.02ppmv/QBO), positive ozone-solar cycle (0.91ppmv/100SFU) and negative response to ENSO (0.51ppmv/SOI) have been found more in mesosphere whereas positive ozone response to ENSO (0.23ppmv/SOI) is pronounced in stratosphere (20-30 km). The temperature response to solar cycle is more positive (3.74K/100SFU) in the upper mesosphere and its response to ENSO is negative around 80 km and positive around 90-100 km and its response to QBO is insignificant at most of the heights. Composite monthly mean of ozone volume mixing ratio shows maximum values during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in middle stratosphere (25-30 km) and in upper mesosphere (85-95 km) around 10 ppmv. Composite monthly mean of temperature shows semi-annual variation with large values (~250-260 K) in equinox months and less values in solstice months in upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (40-55 km) whereas the SAO becomes weaker above 55 km. The semi-annual variation again appears at 80-90 km, with large values in spring equinox and winter months. In the upper mesosphere (90-100 km), less temperature (~170-190 K) prevails in all the months except during September, when the temperature is slightly more. The height profiles of amplitudes of semi-annual and annual oscillations in ozone show maximum values of 6 ppmv and 2.5 ppmv respectively in upper mesosphere (80-100 km), whereas SAO and AO in temperature show maximum values of 5.8 K and 4.6 K in lower and middle mesosphere around 60-85 km. The phase profiles of both SAO and AO show downward progressions. These results are being compared with long-term lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and the results obtained will be presented during the meeting.

Keywords: Trends, temperature, ozone, QBO, solar cycle, ENSO

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2 Latitudinal Impact on Spatial and Temporal Variability of 7Be Activity Concentrations in Surface Air along Europe

Authors: M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, M. Marín-Ferrer, G. Cinelli, L. De Felice, T. Tollefsen, E. Nweke, P. V. Tognoli, S. Vanzo, M. De Cort


This study analyses the latitudinal impact of the spatial and temporal distribution on the cosmogenic isotope 7Be in surface air along Europe. The long-term database of the 6 sampling sites (Ivalo, Helsinki, Berlin, Freiburg, Sevilla and La Laguna), that regularly provide data to the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) network managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, were used. The selection of the stations was performed attending to different factors, such as 1) heterogeneity in terms of latitude and altitude, and 2) long database coverage. The combination of these two parameters ensures a high degree of representativeness of the results. In the later, the temporal coverage varies between stations, being used in the present study sampling stations with a database more or less continuously from 1984 to 2011. The mean values of 7Be activity concentration presented a spatial distribution value ranging from 2.0 ± 0.9 mBq/m3 (Ivalo, north) to 4.8 ± 1.5 mBq/m3 (La Laguna, south). An increasing gradient with latitude was observed from the north to the south, 0.06 mBq/m3. However, there was no correlation with altitude, since all stations are sited within the atmospheric boundary layer. The analyses of the data indicated a dynamic range of 7Be activity for solar cycle and phase (maximum or minimum), having been observed different impact on stations according to their location. The results indicated a significant seasonal behavior, with the maximum concentrations occurring in the summer and minimum in the winter, although with differences in the values reached and in the month registered. Due to the large heterogeneity in the temporal pattern with which the individual radionuclide analyses were performed in each station, the 7Be monthly index was calculated to normalize the measurements and perform the direct comparison of monthly evolution among stations. Different intensity and evolution of the mean monthly index were observed. The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of this natural radionuclide in the atmosphere is a key parameter for modeling studies of atmospheric processes, which are important phenomena to be taken into account in the case of a nuclear accident.

Keywords: solar cycle, Berilium-7, latitudinal impact in Europe, seasonal and monthly variability

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1 Analysis of Ionospheric Variations over Japan during 23rd Solar Cycle Using Wavelet Techniques

Authors: C. S. Seema, P. R. Prince


The characterization of spatio-temporal inhomogeneities occurring in the ionospheric F₂ layer is remarkable since these variations are direct consequences of electrodynamical coupling between magnetosphere and solar events. The temporal and spatial variations of the F₂ layer, which occur with a period of several days or even years, mainly owe to geomagnetic and meteorological activities. The hourly F₂ layer critical frequency (foF2) over 23rd solar cycle (1996-2008) of three ionosonde stations (Wakkanai, Kokunbunji, and Okinawa) in northern hemisphere, which falls within same longitudinal span, is analyzed using continuous wavelet techniques. Morlet wavelet is used to transform continuous time series data of foF2 to a two dimensional time-frequency space, quantifying the time evolution of the oscillatory modes. The presence of significant time patterns (periodicities) at a particular time period and the time location of each periodicity are detected from the two-dimensional representation of the wavelet power, in the plane of scale and period of the time series. The mean strength of each periodicity over the entire period of analysis is studied using global wavelet spectrum. The quasi biennial, annual, semiannual, 27 day, diurnal and 12 hour variations of foF2 are clearly evident in the wavelet power spectra in all the three stations. Critical frequency oscillations with multi-day periods (2-3 days and 9 days in the low latitude station, 6-7 days in all stations and 15 days in mid-high latitude station) are also superimposed over large time scaled variations.

Keywords: Ionosphere, solar cycle, continuous wavelet analysis, critical frequency

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