Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Solar Collector Related Abstracts

16 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Wesam Ali, Hussain Bunyan


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: Solar Collector, tilt angle, photovoltaic model, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

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15 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Wesam Ali, Hussain Bunyan


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: Solar Collector, tilt angle, photovoltaic model, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

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14 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipes for Solar Collector Applications

Authors: Alireza Ghadiri, Soheila Memarzadeh, Arash Ghadiri


Heat pipes are efficient heat transfer devices for solar hot water heating systems. However, the effective downward transfer of solar energy in an integrated heat pipe system provides increased design and implementation options. There is a lack of literature about flat plate wicked assisted heat pipe solar collector, especially with the presence of finned water-cooled condenser wicked heat pipes for solar energy applications. In this paper, the consequence of incorporating fins arrays into the condenser region of screen mesh heat pipe solar collector is investigated. An experimental model and a transient theoretical model are conducted to compare the performances of the solar heating system at a different period of the year. A good agreement is shown between the model and the experiment. Two working fluids are investigated (water and methanol) and results reveal that water slightly outperforms methanol with a collector instantaneous efficiency of nearly 60%. That modest improvement is achieved by adding fins to the condenser region of the heat pipes. Results show that the collector efficiency increase as the number of fins increases (upon certain number) and reveal that the mesh number is an important factor which affect the overall collector efficiency. An optimal heat pipe mesh number of 100 meshes/in. With two layers appears to be favorable in such collectors for their design and operating conditions.

Keywords: Solar Collector, heat pipe, capillary limit, mesh number

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13 Analysis of the Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Collector

Authors: Georgi Vendramin, Aurea Lúcia, Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, Souza Melegari, Camargo Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo, Lenz, Anderson Miguel, Samuel N.


The thermal performance of a solar water heating with 1.00 m2 flat plate collectors in Cascavel-PR, is which presented in this article, paper presents the solution to leverage the marketing of solar heating systems through detailed constituent materials of the solar collector studies, these abundant materials in construction, such as expanded polyethylene, PVC, aluminum and glass tubes, mixing them with new materials to minimize loss of efficiency while decreasing its cost. The system was tested during months and the collector obtained maximum recorded temperature of outlet fluid of 55 °C, while the maximum temperature of the water at the bottom of the hot water tank was 35 °C. The average daily energy collected was 19 6 MJ/d; the energy supplied by the solar plate was 16.2 MJ/d; the loss in the feed pipe was 3.2 MJ/d; the solar fraction was 32.2%, the efficiency of the collector was 45.6% and the efficiency of the system was 37.8%.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Solar Collector, recycling materials, solar water heating system

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12 A Theoretical Model for a Humidification Dehumidification (HD) Solar Desalination Unit

Authors: Gamal H. Moustafa, Yasser El-Henawy, M. Abd El-Kader


A theoretical study of a humidification dehumidification solar desalination unit has been carried out to increase understanding the effect of weather conditions on the unit productivity. A humidification-dehumidification (HD) solar desalination unit has been designed to provide fresh water for population in remote arid areas. It consists of solar water collector and air collector; to provide the hot water and air to the desalination chamber. The desalination chamber is divided into humidification and dehumidification towers. The circulation of air between the two towers is maintained by the forced convection. A mathematical model has been formulated, in which the thermodynamic relations were used to study the flow, heat and mass transfer inside the humidifier and dehumidifier. The present technique is performed in order to increase the unit performance. Heat and mass balance has been done and a set of governing equations has been solved using the finite difference technique. The unit productivity has been calculated along the working day during the summer and winter sessions and has compared with the available experimental results. The average accumulative productivity of the system in winter has been ranged between 2.5 to 4 kg/, while the average summer productivity has been found between 8 to 12 kg/m2 day.

Keywords: Simulation, Finite Difference, Solar Collector, Solar Desalination, Water Productivity, humidification and dehumidification

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11 New Insulation Material for Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Razika Ihaddadene, Nabila Ihaddadene, Abdelwahaab Betka


1973 energy crisis (rising oil prices) pushed the world to consider other alternative energy resources to existing conventional energies consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Renewable energies such as solar, the wind and geothermal have received renewed interest, especially to preserve nature ( the low-temperature rise of global environmental problems). Solar energy as an available, cheap and environmental friendly alternative source has various applications such as heating, cooling, drying, power generation, etc. In short, there is no life on earth without this enormous nuclear reactor, called the sun. Among available solar collector designs, flat plate collector (FPC) is low-temperature applications (heating water, space heating, etc.) due to its simple design and ease of manufacturing. Flat plate collectors are permanently fixed in position and do not track the sun (non-concentrating collectors). They operate by converting solar radiation into heat and transferring that heat to a working fluid (usually air, water, water plus antifreeze additive) flowing through them. An FPC generally consists of the main following components: glazing, absorber plate of high absorptivity, fluid tubes welded to or can be an integral part of the absorber plate, insulation and container or casing of the above-mentioned components. Insulation is of prime importance in thermal applications. There are three main families of insulation: mineral insulation; vegetal insulation and synthetic organic insulation. The old houses of the inhabitants of North Africa were built of brick made of composite material that is clay and straw. These homes are characterized by their thermal comfort; i.e. the air inside these houses is cool in summer and warm in winter. So, the material composed from clay and straw act as a thermal insulation. In this research document, the polystyrene used as insulation in the ET200 flat plate solar collector is replaced by the cheapest natural material which is clay and straw. Trials were carried out on a solar energy demonstration system (ET 200). This system contains a solar collector, water storage tank, a high power lamp simulating solar energy and a control and command cabinet. In the experimental device, the polystyrene is placed under the absorber plate and in the edges of the casing containing the components of the solar collector. In this work, we have replaced the polystyrene of the edges by the composite material. The use of the clay and straw as insulation instead of the polystyrene increases temperature difference (T2-T1) between the inlet and the outlet of the absorber by 0.9°C; thus increases the useful power transmitted to water in the solar collector. Tank Water is well heated when using the clay and straw as insulation. However, it is less heated when using the polystyrene as insulation. Clay and straw material improves also the performance of the solar collector by 5.77%. Thus, it is recommended to use this cheapest non-polluting material instead of synthetic insulation to improve the performance of the solar collector.

Keywords: Solar Collector, Clay, polystyrene, straw, insulation material

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10 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Steam Generation in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Anunaya Saraswat


An evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally studied for steam generation. When the solar radiation falls on evacuated tubes, this energy is absorbed by the tubes and transferred to water with natural conduction and convection. A natural circulation of water occurs due to the inclination in tubes and header. In this experimental study, the efficiency of collector has been calculated. The result shows that the collector attains the maximum efficiency of 46.26% during 14:00 to 15:00h. Steam has been generated for two hours from 13:30 to 15:30 h on a winter day. Maximum solar intensity and maximum ambient temperatures are 795W/m2 and 19oC respectively on this day.

Keywords: Solar Collector, evacuated tube, hot water, steam generation

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9 Study of Heat Transfer in the Absorber Plates of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector Using Dual-Phase-Lag Model

Authors: Yu-Ching Yang, Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang


The present work numerically analyzes the transient heat transfer in the absorber plates of a flat-plate solar collector based on the dual-phase-lag (DPL) heat conduction model. An efficient numerical scheme involving the hybrid application of the Laplace transform and control volume methods is used to solve the linear hyperbolic heat conduction equation. This work also examines the effect of different medium parameters on the behavior of heat transfer. Results show that, while the heat-flux phase lag induces thermal waves in the medium, the temperature-gradient phase lag smoothens the thermal waves by promoting non-Fourier diffusion-like conduction into the medium.

Keywords: Solar Collector, absorber plates, dual-phase-lag, non-Fourier

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8 CFD Simulation for Thermo-Hydraulic Performance V-Shaped Discrete Ribs on the Absorber Plate of Solar Air Heater

Authors: J. L. Bhagoria, Ajeet Kumar Giri


A computational investigation of various flow characteristics with artificial roughness in the form of V-types discrete ribs, heated wall of rectangular duct for turbulent flow with Reynolds number range (3800-15000) and p/e (5 to 12) has been carried out with k-e turbulence model is selected by comparing the predictions of different turbulence models with experimental results available in literature. The current study evaluates thermal performance behavior, heat transfer and fluid flow behavior in a v shaped duct with discrete roughened ribs mounted on one of the principal wall (solar plate) by computational fluid dynamics software (Fluent 6.3.26 Solver). In this study, CFD has been carried out through designing 3-demensional model of experimental solar air heater model analysis has been used to perform a numerical simulation to enhance turbulent heat transfer and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes analysis is used as a numerical technique and the k-epsilon model with near-wall treatment as a turbulent model. The thermal efficiency enhancement because of selected roughness is found to be 16-24%. The result predicts a significant enhancement of heat transfer as compared to that of for a smooth surface with different P’ and various range of Reynolds number.

Keywords: CFD, Solar Collector, Thermal Efficiency, airheater

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7 High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry

Authors: Gökçen A. Çiftçioğlu, M. A. Neşet Kadırgan, Figen Kadırgan


Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, Solar Collector, selective surface

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6 Climate Smart Agriculture: Nano Technology in Solar Drying

Authors: Gökçen A. Çiftçioğlu, Figen Kadirgan, M. A. Neset Kadirgan


Addressing food security and climate change challenges have to be done in an integrated manner. To increase food production and to reduce emissions intensity, thus contributing to mitigate climate change, food systems have to be more efficient in the use of resources. To ensure food security and adapt to climate change they have to become more resilient. The changes required in agricultural and food systems will require the creation of supporting institutions and enterprises to provide services and inputs to smallholders, fishermen and pastoralists, and transform and commercialize their production more efficiently. Thus there is continously growing need to switch to green economy where simultaneously causes reduction in carbon emissions and pollution, enhances energy and resource-use efficiency; and prevents the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Smart Agriculture takes into account the four dimensions of food security, availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability. It is well known that, the increase in world population will strengthen the population-food imbalance. The emphasis on reduction of food losses makes a point on production, on farmers, on increasing productivity and income ensuring food security. Where also small farmers enhance their income and stabilize their budget. The use of solar drying for agricultural, marine or meat products is very important for preservation. Traditional sun drying is a relatively slow process where poor food quality is seen due to an infestation of insects, enzymatic reactions, microorganism growth and micotoxin development. In contrast, solar drying has a sound solution to all these negative effects of natural drying and artificial mechanical drying. The technical directions in the development of solar drying systems for agricultural products are compact collector design with high efficiency and low cost. In this study, using solar selective surface produced in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Ltd., solar dryers with high efficiency will be developed and a feasibility study will be realized.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, Solar Collector, solar drying

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5 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain


Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanoparticles, Nanofluids, Solar Collector

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4 Solar Collectors for Northern Countries

Authors: Ilze Pelece, Imants Ziemelis, Henriks Putans


Traditionally the solar energy has been used in southern countries, but it has been used also in northern ones. Most popular kind of use of solar energy in Latvia is solar collector for water heating. Traditionally flat-plate solar collectors are used because of simplicity of manufacturing. However, some peculiarities in use of solar energy in northern countries must be taken into account. In northern countries, there is lower irradiance, but longer day and longer path of the sun during summer. Therefore traditional flat-plate solar collectors are not appropriate enough in northern countries, but new forms must be developed. There are two forms of solar collectors - cylindrical and semi-spherical – proposed in this work. Such collectors can be made both for water or air heating. Theoretical calculations and measurements of energy gain from those two collectors have been done. Results show that daily energy sum received by the semi-spherical collector from the sun at the middle of summer is 1.43 times more than that of the flat one, but for the cylindrical collector, it is 1.74 times more than that of the flat one or equal to that of the tracking to sun flat-plate collector. The resulting difference in energy gain from collector will be not so large because of the difference in heat loses. Heat can be decreased by switching off the water circulation pump when the sun is covered by clouds. For this purpose solar batteries, powered pump can be used instead of complicated and expensive automatics. Even more important than overall energy gain is the fact that semi-spherical and cylindrical collectors work all day (17 hours in the middle of summer at 57 northern latitudes), while flat-plate collector only about 11 hours. Yearly energy sum received by the collector from the sun is 1.5 and 1.9 times larger for the semi-spherical and cylindrical collector respectively as for the flat one. The cylindrical solar collector is easier to manufacture, but semi-spherical one is more aesthetical and durable against the impact of the wind. Although solar collectors for water and air heating are studied in this article, main ideas are applicable also for solar batteries.

Keywords: Solar energy, Solar Collector, water heating, cylindric, semi-spherical

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3 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: M. Bakhouya, O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha


Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Desalination, fins, Solar Collector, active solar still

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2 ANSYS FLUENT Simulation of Natural Convection and Radiation in a Solar Enclosure

Authors: Sireetorn Kuharat, Anwar Beg


In this study, multi-mode heat transfer characteristics of spacecraft solar collectors are investigated computationally. Two-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar Newtonian viscous convection-radiative heat transfer in a rectangular solar collector geometry. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 17.2) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics. Several radiative transfer models are employed which are available in the ANSYS workbench, including the classical Rosseland flux model and the more elegant P1 flux model. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is conducted with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation. The influence of aspect ratio, Prandtl number (Pr), Rayleigh number (Ra) and radiative flux model on temperature, isotherms, velocity, the pressure is evaluated and visualized in color plots. Additionally, the local convective heat flux is computed and solutions are compared with the MAC solver for various buoyancy effects (e.g. Ra = 10,000,000) achieving excellent agreement. The P1 model is shown to better predict the actual influence of solar radiative flux on thermal fluid behavior compared with the limited Rosseland model. With increasing Rayleigh numbers the hot zone emanating from the base of the collector is found to penetrate deeper into the collector and rises symmetrically dividing into two vortex regions with very high buoyancy effect (Ra >100,000). With increasing Prandtl number (three gas cases are examined respectively hydrogen gas mixture, air and ammonia gas) there is also a progressive incursion of the hot zone at the solar collector base higher into the solar collector space and simultaneously a greater asymmetric behavior of the dual isothermal zones. With increasing aspect ratio (wider base relative to the height of the solar collector geometry) there is a greater thermal convection pattern around the whole geometry, higher temperatures and the elimination of the cold upper zone associated with lower aspect ratio.

Keywords: Radiative Heat Transfer, Solar Collector, Rayleigh number, thermal convection

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1 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: Absorption, Solar Collector, Ammonia, vacuum tube, cold room

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