Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

solar air-conditioning Related Abstracts

3 Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China

Authors: Jili Zhang, Ruobing Liang, Chao Zhou

Abstract:

A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, parametric study, absorption chiller, solar PVT collector, solar heating and cooling, solar air-conditioning

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2 Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar-Powered Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller for Air-Conditioning Applications

Authors: Ali Shirazi, Robert A. Taylor, Stephen D. White, Graham L. Morrison

Abstract:

In this paper, a detailed simulation model of a solar-powered triple-effect LiBr–H2O absorption chiller is developed to supply both cooling and heating demand of a large-scale building, aiming to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in building sector. TRNSYS 17 is used to simulate the performance of the system over a typical year. A combined energetic-economic-environmental analysis is conducted to determine the system annual primary energy consumption and the total cost, which are considered as two conflicting objectives. A multi-objective optimization of the system is performed using a genetic algorithm to minimize these objectives simultaneously. The optimization results show that the final optimal design of the proposed plant has a solar fraction of 72% and leads to an annual primary energy saving of 0.69 GWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of ~166 tonnes, as compared to a conventional HVAC system. The economics of this design, however, is not appealing without public funding, which is often the case for many renewable energy systems. The results show that a good funding policy is required in order for these technologies to achieve satisfactory payback periods within the lifetime of the plant.

Keywords: Economic, Environmental, Multi-objective optimization, solar air-conditioning, triple-effect absorption chiller

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1 Photovoltaic-Driven Thermochemical Storage for Cooling Applications to Be Integrated in Polynesian Microgrids: Concept and Efficiency Study

Authors: Franco Ferrucci, Driss Stitou, Pascal Ortega, Franck Lucas

Abstract:

The energy situation in tropical insular regions, as found in the French Polynesian islands, presents a number of challenges, such as high dependence on imported fuel, high transport costs from the mainland and weak electricity grids. Alternatively, these regions have a variety of renewable energy resources, which favor the exploitation of smart microgrids and energy storage technologies. With regards to the electrical energy demand, the high temperatures in these regions during the entire year implies that a large proportion of consumption is used for cooling buildings, even during the evening hours. In this context, this paper presents an air conditioning system driven by photovoltaic (PV) electricity that combines a refrigeration system and a thermochemical storage process. Thermochemical processes are able to store energy in the form of chemical potential with virtually no losses, and this energy can be used to produce cooling during the evening hours without the need to run a compressor (thus no electricity is required). Such storage processes implement thermochemical reactors in which a reversible chemical reaction between a solid compound and a gas takes place. The solid/gas pair used in this study is BaCl2 reacting with ammonia (NH3), which is also the coolant fluid in the refrigeration circuit. In the proposed system, the PV-driven electric compressor is used during the daytime either to run the refrigeration circuit when a cooling demand occurs or to decompose the ammonia-charged salt and remove the gas from thermochemical reactor when no cooling is needed. During the evening, when there is no electricity from solar source, the system changes its configuration and the reactor reabsorbs the ammonia gas from the evaporator and produces the cooling effect. In comparison to classical PV-driven air conditioning units equipped with electrochemical batteries (e.g. Pb, Li-ion), the proposed system has the advantage of having a novel storage technology with a much longer charge/discharge life cycle, and no self-discharge. It also allows a continuous operation of the electric compressor during the daytime, thus avoiding the problems associated with the on-off cycling. This work focuses on the system concept and on the efficiency study of its main components. It also compares the thermochemical with electrochemical storage as well as with other forms of thermal storage, such as latent (ice) and sensible heat (chilled water). The preliminary results show that the system seems to be a promising alternative to simultaneously fulfill cooling and energy storage needs in tropical insular regions.

Keywords: Microgrid, solar air-conditioning, solid/gas sorption, thermochemical storage, tropical and insular regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 115