Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Soil-Structure Interaction Related Abstracts

16 Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Arched Structures Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

Authors: Mohamed M. El Gendy, Ibrahim A. El Arabi, Rafeek W. Abdel-Missih, Omar A. Kandil


Nonlinear analysis is one of the most important design and safety tools in structural engineering. Based on the finite-element method, a geometrical and material nonlinear analysis of large span reinforced concrete arches is carried out considering soil-structure interaction. The concrete section details and reinforcement distribution are taken into account. The behavior of soil is considered via Winkler's and continuum models. A computer program (NARC II) is specially developed in order to follow the structural behavior of large span reinforced concrete arches up to failure. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with available literature for verification. This work confirmed that the geometrical and material nonlinearities, as well as soil structure interaction, have considerable influence on the structural response of reinforced concrete arches.

Keywords: Geotechnical Engineering, Nonlinear Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, reinforced concrete arched structure

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15 Effects of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Performance of Steel Structures Equipped with Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Faramarz Khoshnoudian, Saeed Vosoughiyan


The main goal of this article is to clarify the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on the seismic performance of steel moment resisting frame buildings which are rested on soft soil and equipped with viscous fluid dampers (VFDs). For this purpose, detailed structural models of a ten-story SMRF with VFDs excluding and including the SSI are constructed first. In order to simulate the dynamic response of the foundation, in this paper, the simple cone model is applied. Then, the nonlinear time-history analysis of the models is conducted using three kinds of earthquake excitations with different intensities. The analysis results have demonstrated that the SSI effects on the seismic performance of a structure equipped with VFDs and supported by rigid foundation on soft soil need to be considered. Also VFDs designed based on rigid foundation hypothesis fail to achieve the expected seismic objective while SSI goes into effect.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, nonlinear time-history analysis, steel moment resisting frame building, viscous fluid dampers

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14 Seismic Behavior of Steel Moment-Resisting Frames for Uplift Permitted in Near-Fault Regions

Authors: M. Tehranizadeh, E. Shoushtari Rezvani


Seismic performance of steel moment-resisting frame structures is investigated considering nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects. 10-, 15-, and 20-story planar building frames with aspect ratio of 3 are designed in accordance with current building codes. Inelastic seismic demands of the superstructure are considered using concentrated plasticity model. The raft foundation system is designed for different soil types. Beam-on-nonlinear Winkler foundation (BNWF) is used to represent dynamic impedance of the underlying soil. Two sets of pulse-like as well as no-pulse near-fault earthquakes are used as input ground motions. The results show that the reduction in drift demands due to nonlinear SSI is characterized by a more uniform distribution pattern along the height when compared to the fixed-base and linear SSI condition. It is also concluded that beneficial effects of nonlinear SSI on displacement demands is more significant in case of pulse-like ground motions and performance level of the steel moment-resisting frames can be enhanced.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, tall building, uplifting, soil plasticity, near-fault earthquake

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13 Response of Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction with Varying Soil Types

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Hitesh Madahar


Over the years, it has been extensively established that the practice of assuming a structure being fixed at base, leads to gross errors in evaluation of its overall response due to dynamic loadings and overestimations in design. The extent of these errors depends on a number of variables; soil type being one of the major factor. This paper studies the effect of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) on multi-storey buildings with varying under-laying soil types after proper validation of the effect of SSI. Analysis for soft, stiff and very stiff base soils has been carried out, using a powerful Finite Element Method (FEM) software package ANSYS v14.5. Results lead to some very important conclusions regarding time period, deflection and acceleration responses.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, dynamic response, multi-storey building, varying soil types

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12 Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Abdelhamid Belkhiri, Allaeddine Athmani


The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the modal characteristics and on the dynamic response of current structures. The objective is on the overall behaviour of a real structure of five storeys reinforced concrete (R/C) building typically encountered in Algeria. Sensitivity studies are undertaken in order to study the effects of frequency content of the input motion, frequency of the soil-structure system, rigidity and depth of the soil layer on the dynamic response of such structures. This investigation indicated that the rigidity of the soil layer is the predominant factor in soil-structure interaction and its increases would definitely reduce the deformation in the R/C structure. On the other hand, increasing the period of the underlying soil will cause an increase in the lateral displacements at story levels and create irregularity in the distribution of story shears. Possible resonance between the frequency content of the input motion and soil could also play an important role in increasing the structural response.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, Finite Element Method, foundation, direct method, R/C Frame

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11 Application of Micro-Tunneling Technique to Rectify Tilted Structures Constructed on Cohesive Soil

Authors: Yasser R. Tawfic, Mohamed A. Eid


Foundation differential settlement and supported structure tilting is an occasionally occurred engineering problem. This may be caused by overloading, changes in ground soil properties or unsupported nearby excavations. Engineering thinking points directly toward the logic solution for such problem by uplifting the settled side. This can be achieved with deep foundation elements such as micro-piles and macro-piles™, jacked piers and helical piers, jet grouted soil-crete columns, compaction grout columns, cement grouting or with chemical grouting, or traditional pit underpinning with concrete and mortar. Although, some of these techniques offer economic, fast and low noise solutions, many of them are quite the contrary. For tilted structures, with limited inclination, it may be much easier to cause a balancing settlement on the less-settlement side which shall be done carefully in a proper rate. This principal has been applied in Leaning Tower of Pisa stabilization with soil extraction from the ground surface. In this research, the authors attempt to introduce a new solution with a different point of view. So, micro-tunneling technique is presented in here as an intended ground deformation cause. In general, micro-tunneling is expected to induce limited ground deformations. Thus, the researchers propose to apply the technique to form small size ground unsupported holes to produce the target deformations. This shall be done in four phases: •Application of one or more micro-tunnels, regarding the existing differential settlement value, under the raised side of the tilted structure. •For each individual tunnel, the lining shall be pulled out from both sides (from jacking and receiving shafts) in slow rate. •If required, according to calculations and site records, an additional surface load can be applied on the raised foundation side. •Finally, a strengthening soil grouting shall be applied for stabilization after adjustment. A finite element based numerical model is presented to simulate the proposed construction phases for different tunneling positions and tunnels group. For each case, the surface settlements are calculated and induced plasticity points are checked. These results show the impact of the suggested procedure on the tilted structure and its feasibility. Comparing results also show the importance of the position selection and tunnels group gradual effect. Thus, a new engineering solution is presented to one of the structural and geotechnical engineering challenges.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, tilted structures, differential settlement, micro-tunneling

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10 A Coupled Extended-Finite-Discrete Element Method: On the Different Contact Schemes between Continua and Discontinua

Authors: Shervin Khazaeli, Shahab Haj-zamani


Recently, advanced geotechnical engineering problems related to soil movement, particle loss, and modeling of local failure (i.e. discontinua) as well as modeling the in-contact structures (i.e. continua) are of the great interest among researchers. The aim of this research is to meet the requirements with respect to the modeling of the above-mentioned two different domains simultaneously. To this end, a coupled numerical method is introduced based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) and eXtended-Finite Element Method (X-FEM). In the coupled procedure, DEM is employed to capture the interactions and relative movements of soil particles as discontinua, while X-FEM is utilized to model in-contact structures as continua, which may consist of different types of discontinuities. For verification purposes, the new coupled approach is utilized to examine benchmark problems including different contacts between/within continua and discontinua. Results are validated by comparison with those of existing analytical and numerical solutions. This study proves that extended-finite-discrete element method can be used to robustly analyze not only contact problems, but also other types of discontinuities in continua such as (i) crack formations and propagations, (ii) voids and bimaterial interfaces, and (iii) combination of previous cases. In essence, the proposed method can be used vastly in advanced soil-structure interaction problems to investigate the micro and macro behaviour of the surrounding soil and the response of the embedded structure that contains discontinuities.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, discrete element method, contact problems, extended-finite element method

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9 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar


An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, Finite Element Method, geometric nonlinearity, spatial variability, material nonlinearity

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8 Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction in Buildings

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Ankit Kumar Jha, Rajesh Kumar


Since the evolution of computational tools and simulation software, there has been considerable increase in research on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) to decrease the computational time and increase accuracy in the results. To aid the designer with a proper understanding of the response of structure in different soil types, the presented paper compares the deformation, shear stress, acceleration and other parameters of multi-storey building for a specific input ground motion using Response-spectrum Analysis (RSA) method. The response of all the models of different heights have been compared in different soil types. Finite Element Simulation software, ANSYS, has been used for all the computational purposes. Overall, higher response is observed with SSI, while it increases with decreasing stiffness of soil.

Keywords: Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, Finite Element Method, response spectrum, multi-storey buildings

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7 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Deformable Deep Beam Resting on Nonlinear Two-Parameter Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar


In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of Timoshenko beam undergoing moderate large deflections and resting on nonlinear two-parameter random foundation is presented, taking into account the effects of shear deformation, beam’s properties variation and the spatial variability of soil characteristics. The finite element probabilistic analysis has been performed by using Timoshenko beam theory with the Von Kàrmàn nonlinear strain-displacement relationships combined to Vanmarcke theory and Monte Carlo simulations, which is implemented in a Matlab program. Numerical examples of the newly developed model is conducted to confirm the efficiency and accuracy of this later and the importance of accounting for the foundation second parameter (Winkler-Pasternak). Thus, the results obtained from the developed model are presented and compared with those available in the literature to examine how the consideration of the shear and spatial variability of soil’s characteristics affects the response of the system.

Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, timoshenko beam, Winkler foundation, spatial variability, Pasternak foundation, Euler-Bernoulli beam, large deflection

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6 Seismic Behavior of Pile-Supported Bridges Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Structural Non-Linearity

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


Soil-structure interaction (SSI) in bridges under seismic excitation is a complex phenomenon which involves coupling between the non-linear behavior of bridge pier columns and SSI in the soil-foundation part. It is a common practice in the study of SSI to model the bridge piers as linear elastic while treating the soil and foundation with a non-linear or an equivalent linear modeling approach. Consequently, the contribution of soil and foundation to the SSI phenomenon is disproportionately highlighted. The present study considered non-linear behavior of bridge piers in FEM model of a 4-span, pile-supported bridge that was designed for five different soil conditions in a moderate seismic zone. The FEM model of the bridge system was subjected to a suite of 21 actual ground motions representative of three levels of earthquake hazard (i.e. Design Basis Earthquake, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Maximum Considered Earthquake). Results of the FEM analysis were used to delineate the influence of pier column non-linearity and SSI on critical design parameters of the bridge system. It was found that pier column non-linearity influenced the bridge lateral displacement and base shear more than SSI for majority of the analysis cases for the class of bridge investigated in the study.

Keywords: Bridge, Soil-Structure Interaction, Seismic Loading, pile foundation, FEM model, reinforced concrete pier

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5 Potential Risks of Using Disconnected Composite Foundation Systems in Active Seismic Zones

Authors: Mohamed ElMasry, Ahmad Ragheb, Tareq AbdelAziz, Mohamed Ghazy


Choosing the suitable infrastructure system is becoming more challenging with the increase in demand for heavier structures contemporarily. This is the case where piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world to support heavy structures without extensive settlement. In the latter system, piles are rigidly connected to the raft, and most of the load goes to the soil layer on which the piles are bearing. In spite of that, when soil profiles contain thicker soft clay layers near the surface, or at relatively shallow depths, it is unfavorable to use the rigid piled raft foundation system. Consequently, the disconnected piled raft system was introduced as an alternative approach for the rigidly connected system. In this system, piles are disconnected from the raft using a cushion of soil, mostly of a granular interlayer. The cushion is used to redistribute the stresses among the piles and the subsoil. Piles are also used to stiffen the subsoil, and by this way reduce the settlement without being rigidly connected to the raft. However, the seismic loading effect on such disconnected foundation systems remains a problem, since the soil profiles may include thick clay layers which raise risks of amplification of the dynamic earthquake loads. In this paper, the effects of seismic behavior on the connected and disconnected piled raft systems are studied through a numerical model using Midas GTS NX Software. The study concerns the soil-structure interaction and the expected behavior of the systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each foundation approach are studied, and a comparison between the results are presented to show the effects of using disconnected piled raft systems in highly seismic zones. This was done by showing the excitation amplification in each of the foundation systems.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, risks, disconnected piled-raft, seismic zones

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4 Analytical Approach to Study the Uncertainties Related to the Behavior of Structures Submitted to Differential Settlement

Authors: Elio El Kahi, Michel Khouri, Olivier Deck, Pierre Rahme, Rasool Mehdizadeh


Recent developments in civil engineering create multiple interaction problems between the soil and the structure. One of the major problems is the impact of ground movements on buildings. Consequently, managing risks associated with these movements, requires a determination of the different influencing factors and a specific knowledge of their variability/uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to study the behavior of structures submitted to differential settlement, in order to assess their vulnerability, taking into consideration the different sources of uncertainties. Analytical approach is applied to investigate on one hand the influence of these uncertainties that are related to the soil, and on the other hand the structure stiffness variation with the presence of openings and the movement transmitted between them as related to the origin and shape of the free-field movement. Results reveal the effect of taking these uncertainties into consideration, and specify the dominant and most significant parameters that control the ground movement associated with the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) phenomenon.

Keywords: Building, Soil-Structure Interaction, Damage, uncertainties, differential settlement, analytical approach

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3 Influence of Existing Foundations on Soil-Structure Interaction of New Foundations in a Reconstruction Project

Authors: Kanagarajah Ravishankar


This paper describes a study performed for a project featuring an elevated steel bridge structure supported by various types of foundation systems. This project focused on rehabilitation or redesign of a portion of the bridge substructures founded on caisson foundations. The study that this paper focuses on is the evaluation of foundation and soil stiffnesses and interactions between the existing caissons and proposed foundations. The caisson foundations were founded on top of rock, where the depth to the top of rock varies from approximately 50 to 140 feet below ground surface. Based on a comprehensive investigation of the existing piers and caissons, the presence of ASR was suspected from observed whitish deposits on cracked surfaces as well as internal damages sustained through the entire depth of foundation structures. Reuse of existing piers and caissons was precluded and deemed unsuitable under the earthquake condition because of these defects on the structures. The proposed design of new foundations and substructures which was selected ultimately neglected the contribution from the existing caisson and pier columns. Due to the complicated configuration between the existing caisson and the proposed foundation system, three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) was employed to evaluate soil-structure interaction (SSI), to evaluate the effect of the existing caissons on the proposed foundations, and to compare the results with conventional group analysis. The FEM models include separate models for existing caissons, proposed foundations, and combining both.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Soil-Structure Interaction, finite element, foundation stiffness

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2 The Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on the Post-Earthquake Fire Performance of Structures

Authors: A. T. Al-Isawi, P. E. F. Collins


The behaviour of structures exposed to fire after an earthquake is not a new area of engineering research, but there remain a number of areas where further work is required. Such areas relate to the way in which seismic excitation is applied to a structure, taking into account the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) and the method of analysis, in addition to identifying the excitation load properties. The selection of earthquake data input for use in nonlinear analysis and the method of analysis are still challenging issues. Thus, realistic artificial ground motion input data must be developed to certify that site properties parameters adequately describe the effects of the nonlinear inelastic behaviour of the system and that the characteristics of these parameters are coherent with the characteristics of the target parameters. Conversely, ignoring the significance of some attributes, such as frequency content, soil site properties and earthquake parameters may lead to misleading results, due to the misinterpretation of required input data and the incorrect synthesise of analysis hypothesis. This paper presents a study of the post-earthquake fire (PEF) performance of a multi-storey steel-framed building resting on soft clay, taking into account the effects of the nonlinear inelastic behaviour of the structure and soil, and the soil-structure interaction (SSI). Structures subjected to an earthquake may experience various levels of damage; the geometrical damage, which indicates the change in the initial structure’s geometry due to the residual deformation as a result of plastic behaviour, and the mechanical damage which identifies the degradation of the mechanical properties of the structural elements involved in the plastic range of deformation. Consequently, the structure presumably experiences partial structural damage but is then exposed to fire under its new residual material properties, which may result in building failure caused by a decrease in fire resistance. This scenario would be more complicated if SSI was also considered. Indeed, most earthquake design codes ignore the probability of PEF as well as the effect that SSI has on the behaviour of structures, in order to simplify the analysis procedure. Therefore, the design of structures based on existing codes which neglect the importance of PEF and SSI can create a significant risk of structural failure. In order to examine the criteria for the behaviour of a structure under PEF conditions, a two-dimensional nonlinear elasto-plastic model is developed using ABAQUS software; the effects of SSI are included. Both geometrical and mechanical damages have been taken into account after the earthquake analysis step. For comparison, an identical model is also created, which does not include the effects of soil-structure interaction. It is shown that damage to structural elements is underestimated if SSI is not included in the analysis, and the maximum percentage reduction in fire resistance is detected in the case when SSI is included in the scenario. The results are validated using the literature.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, Seismic Analysis, Abaqus software, post-earthquake fire

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1 Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Alireza Ardakani, Reza Dinarvand


In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, pile group, lateral bearing capacity, Depth of fixity, Oblique pile

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