Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Soil Related Abstracts

81 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: Growth, Soil, Weeds, Allelopathy, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana

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80 Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Savitri Garivait, Sebastien Bonnet


Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.

Keywords: Agriculture, Soil, Thailand, GHG emission, sugarcane

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79 Determination of Some Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Soil Samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Sites, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Clement Akan, Lami Jafiya, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Zakari Mohammed, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman


Five vegetables (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, and onion) were freshly harvested from the Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas for the determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, metoxichlor, lindane, endosulfan dieldrin, and aldrin.) Soil samples were also collected at different depths for the determination of the above pesticides. Samples collection and preparation were conducted using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil and vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The highest concentration was that of p,p’-DDD (132.4±13.45µg/g) which was observed in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (2.34µg/g) was observed in the root of spinach. Similar trends were observed at the Gongulong agricultural area, with p,p’-DDD having the highest concentration of 153.23µg/g in the leaf of cabbage, while the lowest concentration was that of p,p’-DDT (12.45µg/g) which was observed in the root of spinach. α-BHC, γ-BHC, Methoxychlor, and lindane were detected in all the vegetable samples studied. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the soil samples were observed to be higher at a depth of 21-30cm, while the lowest concentrations were observed at a depth of 0-10cm. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetables and soil samples from the two agricultural sites were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) .The levels of the pesticides observed in the vegetables and soil samples investigated, are of such a magnitude that calls for special attention and laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, so as to minimize health risks.

Keywords: Soil, Vegetables, Alau Dam, gongulong, organochlorine, pesticide residues

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78 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: Soil, soil erosion, Water Erosion, rain, surface runoff water

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77 Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Daochu


Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.

Keywords: Soil, heavy metal, Nhue River, wastewater irrigation

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76 Soil Reinforcement by Fibers Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Negadi Kheira, Arab Ahmed, Kamal Elbokl Mohamed, Setti Fatima


In order to evaluate influences of roots on soil shear strength, monotonic drained and undrained triaxial laboratory tests were carried out on reconstituted specimens at various confining pressure (σc’=50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kPa) and a constant relative density (Dr = 50%). Reinforcement of soil by fibrous roots is crucial for preventing soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, we investigated soil reinforcement by roots of acacia planted in the area of Chlef where shallow landslides and slope instability are frequent. These roots were distributed in soil in two forms: vertically and horizontally. The monotonic test results showed that roots have more impacts on the soil shear strength than the friction angle, and the presence of roots in soil substantially increased the soil shear strength. Also, the results showed that the contribution of roots on the shear strength mobilized increases with increase in the confining pressure.

Keywords: Soil, triaxial test, monotonic, root fiber, undrained

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75 Isolation and Characterization of Salt-Tolerance of Rhizobia under the Effects of Salinity

Authors: Sarra Sobti, Baelhadj Hamdi-Aïssa


The bacteria of the soil, usually called rhizobium, have a considerable importance in agriculture because of their capacity to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with the plants of the family of legumes. The present work was to study the effect of the salinity on growth and nodulation of alfalfa-rhizobia symbiosis at different agricultural experimental sites in Ouargla. The experiment was conducted in 3 steps. The first one was the isolation and characterization of the Rhizobia; next, the evolution of the isolates tolerance to salinity at three levels of NaCl (6, 8,12 and 16 g/L); and the last step was the evolution of the tolerance on symbiotic characteristics. The results showed that the phenotypic characterizations behave practically as Rhizobia spp, and the effects of salinity affect the symbiotic process. The tolerance to high levels of salinity and the survival and persistence in severe and harsh desert conditions make these rhizobia highly valuable inoculums to improve productivity of the leguminous plants cultivated under extreme environments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Soil, Symbiosis, Salinity, rhizobia, nodulation, Medicago sativa L

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
74 The Predicted Values of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) by Using the Measurements of the Soil Resistivity Method (DC)

Authors: Fathi Ali Swaid


The CBR test is widely used in the assessment of granular materials in base, subbase and subgrade layers of road and airfield pavements. Despite the success of this method, but it depends on a limited numbers of soil samples. This limitation do not adequately account for the spatial variability of soil properties. Thus, assessment is derived using these cursory soil data are likely to contain errors and thus make interpretation and soil characterization difficult. On the other hand quantitative methods of soil inventory at the field scale involve the design and adoption of sampling regimes and laboratory analysis that are time consuming and costly. In the latter case new technologies are required to efficiently sample and observe the soil in the field. This is particularly the case where soil bearing capacity is prevalent, and detailed quantitative information for determining its cause is required. In this paper, an electrical resistivity method DC is described and its application in Elg'deem Dirt road, located in Gasser Ahmad - Misurata, Libya. Results from the DC instrument were found to be correlated with the CBR values (r2 = 0.89). Finally, it is noticed that, the correlation can be used with experience for determining CBR value using basic soil electrical resistivity measurements and checked by few CBR test representing a similar range of CBR.

Keywords: Soil, New Technologies, CBR, California bearing ratio, basic soil electrical resistivity, subgrade

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73 Microbiological Analysis of Soil from Onu-Ebonyi Contaminated with Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: M. N. Alo, U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke


Microbiological analysis of soil from Onu-Ebonyi Izzi local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria contaminated with inorganic fertilizer was carried out with a view to determine the effect of the fertilizer on the microbial flora of the soil. soil samples were analyzed for microbial burden. the result showed that the following organisms were isolated with their frequency of their occurrence as follows:pseudomonas species (33.3%) and aspergillus species (54.4%) had the highest frequncy of occurence in the whole sample of batches, while streptococcus species had 6.0% and Geotrichum species (5.3%) had the least and other predominant microorganism isolated: bacillus species,staphylococcus species and vibrio species, Escherichia species, rhzizopus species, mucor species and fusaruim species. From the result, it could be concluded that the soil was contaminated and this could affect adversely the fertility of the soil .

Keywords: Soil, Bacteria, Fungi, inorganic fertilizer, Onu- Ebonyi

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72 The Taxonomic and Functional Diversity in Edaphic Microbial Communities from Antarctic Dry Valleys

Authors: Sean T. S. Wei, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Annapoorna Maitrayee Ganeshram, Stephen B. Pointing


McMurdo Dry Valleys are a largely ice-free polar desert protected by international treaty as an Antarctic special managed area. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soil with extensive rocky outcrops. Several environmental stresses: low temperature, lack of liquid water, UV exposure and oligotrophic substrates, restrict the major biotic component to microorganisms. The bacterial diversity and the putative physiological capacity of microbial communities of quartz rocks (hypoliths) and soil of a maritime-influenced Dry Valleys were interrogated by two metagenomic approaches: 454 pyro-sequencing and Geochp DNA microarray. The most abundant phylum in hypoliths was Cyanobacteria (46%), whereas in solils Actinobacteria (31%) were most abundant. The Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the only other phyla to comprise >10% of both communities. Carbon fixation was indicated by photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic pathways for both hypolith and soil communities. The fungi accounted for polymer carbon transformations, particularly for aromatic compounds. The complete nitrogen cycling was observed in both communities. The fungi in particular displayed pathways related to ammonification. Environmental stress response pathways were common among bacteria, whereas the nutrient stress response pathways were more widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi. The diversity of bacterialphage was also surveyed by Geochip. Data suggested that different substrates supported different viral families: Leviviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridiae were ubiquitous. However, Corticoviridae and Microviridae only occurred in wetter soils.

Keywords: Soil, Stress Response, Antarctica, hypolith, dry valleys, geochip, functional diversity

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71 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise


Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: Soil, Acidity, Carbon Storage, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

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70 Rule of Natural Synthetic Chemical on Lead Immobilization in Polluted Sandy Soils

Authors: Saud S. AL Oud


Soil contamination can have dire consequences, such as loss of ecosystem and agricultural productivity, diminished food chain quality, tainted water resources, economic loss, and human and animal illness. In recent years, attention has focused on the development of in situ immobilization methods that are generally less expensive and disruptive to the natural landscape, hydrology, and ecosystems than are conventional excavation treatments, and disposal methods. Soft, inexpensive, and efficient agents were used in the present research to immobilize Pb in polluted sandy soil. Five agents, either naturally occurring or chemically prepared, were used for this purpose. These agents include; iron ore (72% Fe2O3), cement, a mixture of calcite and shale rich in aluminum (CASH), and two chemically prepared amorphous materials of Al- and Fe-gel. These agents were selected due to their ability to specifically adsorb heavy metals onto their surface OH functional groups, which provide permanent immobilization of metal pollutants and reduce the fraction that is potentially mobile or bioavailable. The efficiency of these agents in immobilizing Pb were examined in a laboratory experiment, in which two rates (0.5 and 1.0 %) of tested agents were added to the polluted soils containing total contents of Pb ranging from 17.4-49.8 mg/kg. The results show that all immobilizing agents were succeed in minimizing the mobile form of Pb as extracted by 0.5 N HNO3. The extracted Pb decreased with increasing addition rate of immobilizing agents. At addition rate of 0.5%, HNO3 extractable-Pb varied widely depending on the agents type and were found to represent 21-67% of the initial values. All agents were able to reduce mobile Pb to levels lower than that (2.0 mg/kg) reported for non polluted soil, particularly for soils had initials of mobile Pb less than 10 mg/kg. Both iron oxide and CASH had the highest efficiency in immobilizing Pb, followed by cement, then amorphous materials of Fe and Al hydroxides.

Keywords: Soil, lead, immobilization, synthetic chemical, polluted

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69 Mechanical Soil: Effects of the Passage of Tractors on Agricultural Land

Authors: Anis Eloud, Ben Salah Nahla, Sayed Chehaibi


In order to improve and develop the Tunisian agriculture, the government has encouraged the introduction of modern technologies and has also promoted the adoption of innovative practices cultures. Indeed, the extensive use of mechanization can increase crop productivity but its inadequate application also has a negative impact on the ground caused by the phenomenon of compaction. Which will cause the loss of soil fertility and increased production costs. This problem is accentuated with increase the stress on contact wheel / ground. For this reason, the objective of this study is to simulate the footprint of the ground contact / tire two types of tractor after their passage. The method of this work is based on a simulation including passages from two different tractors on soil with similar characteristics. Simulation parameters were based on the choice of two tractors masses of 6500 kg and 4400 kg of soil and sandy loam in nature. The analysis was performed using specific software. The main results showed that the heaviest tractor caused a constraint wheel / rear floor exceeding 100 kPa. For cons, the second tractor has caused stress wheel / rear floor of 50 kPa. The comparison of the two results showed that 6500 kg tractor made a serious and excessive compaction which generated a negative impact on soil quality and crop yields.

Keywords: Soil, compaction, resistance to penetration, crop yields

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68 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency

Authors: M. Rahimnejad, Z. Jamalzadeh, G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, N. Hosseini


Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.

Keywords: Soil, Wheat, Phytoremediation, heavy metal

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67 Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, H. Otanwa, O. F. Paul, A. J. Salifu, J. E. Toryila, C. E. Gimba


The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.

Keywords: Soil, Heavy Metals, Variation, AAS, mechanic workshops

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66 Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Yelagirihills,Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: Chandrasekaran, Ravisankar N. Harikrishnan, Rajalakshmi, K. K. Satapathy M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy


Heavy metals were considered as highly toxic environmental pollutants to soil ecosystem and human health. In present study the 12 heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co,Ni and Zn.) are determined in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Metal concentrations were used to quantify pollution contamination factors such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated and reported.

Keywords: Soil, Heavy Metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

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65 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan


The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Soil, Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, heavy metal pollution degree

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64 Spatial Distribution of Natural Radionuclides in Soil, Sediment and Waters in Oil Producing Areas in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Authors: G. O. Avwiri, E. O. Agbalagba, C. P. Ononugbo


Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the soil, sediment and water of oil producing communities in Delta and Rivers States were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The mean soil/sediment activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in onshore west in Delta state is 40.2±5.1Bqkg-1, 29.9±4.2Bqkg-1 and 361.5±20.0Bqkg-1 respectively, the corresponding values obtained in onshore east1 of Rivers state is 20.9±2.8Bqkg-1, 19.4±2.5Bqkg-1and 260.0±14.1Bqkg-1 respectively. While the mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in onshore east2 of Rivers state is 29.3±3.5Bqkg-1, 21.6±2.6Bqkg-1 and 262.1±14.6Bqkg-1 respectively. These values obtained show enhanced NORMs but are well within the world range. All the radiation hazard indices examined in soil have mean values lower than their maximum permissible limits. In drinking water, the obtained average values of226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 8.4±0.9, 7.3±0.7 and 29.9±2.2Bql-1 respectively for well water, 4.5±0.6, 5.1±0.4 and 20.9±2.0Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 11.3±1.2, 8.5±0.7 and 32.4±3.7Bql-1 respectively for river water in onshore west. For onshore east1, average activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 8.3±1.0, 8.6±1.1 and 39.6±3.3Bql-1 respectively for well water, 3.8±0.8, 4.9±0.6 and 35.7±4.1Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 5.5±0.8, 5.4±0.7 and 36.9±3.8Bql-1 respectively for river water. While in onshore east2 average value of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 10.1±1.1, 8.3±1.0 and 50.0±3.9Bql-1 respectively for well water, 4.7±0.9, 4.0±0.4 and 28.8±3.0Bql-1 respectively for borehole water and 7.7±0.9, 6.1±0.8 and 27.1±2.9Bql-1 respectively for river water and the average activity concentrations in the produced water226Ra, 228Ra and 40K is 5.182.14Bql-1, 6.042.48Bql-1 and 48.7813.67Bql-1 respectively. These values obtained are well above world average values of 1.0, 0.1 and 10Bql-1 for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K respectively, those of the control site values and most reported values around the world. Though the hazard indices (Raeq, Hex, Hin) examined in water is still within the tolerable level, the committed effective dose estimated are above ICPR 0.1 mSvy-1 permissible limits. The overall results show that soil and sediment in the area are safe radiologically, but the result indicates some level of water pollution in the studied area.

Keywords: Radioactivity, Soil, Niger Delta, sediment and water, gamma detector

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63 The Impact of Different Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains on the Protein Content of Peas and Broad Beans

Authors: Liene Strauta, Ina Alsina, Alise Senberga, Laila Dubova, Ieva Erdberga


Legume symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixating bacteria Rhizobim leguminosarum is an important factor used to improve the productivity of legumes, due to the fact that rhizobia can supply plant with the necessary amount of nitrogen. R. leguminosarum strains have shown different activity in fixing nitrogen. Depending on the chosen R. leguminosarum strain, host plant biochemical content can be altered. In this study we focused particularly on the changes in protein content in beans (using two different varieties) and peas (five different varieties) due to the use of several different R. leguminosarum strains (four strains for both beans and peas). Overall, the protein content increase was observed after seed inoculation with R. leguminosarum. Strain and plant cultivar interaction specification was observed. The effect of R. leguminosarum inoculation on the content of protein was dependent on the R. leguminosarum strain used. Plant cultivar also appeared to have a decisive role in protein content formation with the help of R. leguminosaru.

Keywords: Soil, protein content, legumes, rhizobia strains

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
62 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Azizi, M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Naghizaderokni


The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: Soil, Liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

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61 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim


Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: Soil, Interface, geogrid, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
60 Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Musfiroh Jani, Noor Syuhadah Subki, Zulhazman Hamzah


In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.

Keywords: Flood, Soil, heavy metal, AAS

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59 Assessment of Cadmium Levels in Soil and Vegetables Grown Along Kubanni Stream Channels, Zaria, Kaduna State

Authors: S. O. Oladeji, M. D. Saeed


Quantitative determination of cadmium levels in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni stream channels were seasonally analyzed for a period of two years using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.00 – 3.50 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.31 – 7.15 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil samples while the vegetables (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) had concentrations in the range of 0.20 – 6.10 mg/Kg in 2013 and 0.60 – 5.60 mg/Kg in 2014 respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in cadmium levels across the locations and seasons for soil and vegetable analyzed. Pearson correlation results for cadmium concentrations between the year 2013 and 2014 revealed negligible (r = 0.002) relationship for soils while low (r = 0.395) relationship was obtained for vegetable and these were attributed to heavy application of fertilizers and nature of wastewater use for irrigation. Cadmium levels for both soil and vegetable exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by Standard Organization such as FAO and WHO.

Keywords: Soil, Vegetables, cadmium, level

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58 Water Balance in the Forest Basins Essential for the Water Supply in Central America

Authors: Elena Listo Ubeda, Miguel Marchamalo Sacristan


The demand for water doubles every twenty years, at a rate which is twice as fast as the world´s population growth. Despite it´s great importance, water is one of the most degraded natural resources in the world, mainly because of the reduction of natural vegetation coverage, population growth, contamination and changes in the soil use which reduces its capacity to collect water. This situation is especially serious in Central America, as reflected in the Human Development reports. The objective of this project is to assist in the improvement of water production and quality in Central America. In order to do these two watersheds in Costa Rica were selected as experiments: that of the Virilla-Durazno River, located in the extreme north east of the central valley which has an Atlantic influence; and that of the Jabillo River, which flows directly into the Pacific. The Virilla river watershed is located over andisols, and that of the Jabillo River is over alfisols, and both are of great importance for water supply to the Greater Metropolitan Area and the future tourist resorts respectively, as well as for the production of agriculture, livestock and hydroelectricity. The hydrological reaction in different soil-cover complexes, varying from the secondary forest to natural vegetation and degraded pasture, was analyzed according to the evaluation of the properties of the soil, infiltration, soil compaction, as well as the effects of the soil cover complex on erosion, calculated by the C factor of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). A water balance was defined for each watershed, in which the volume of water that enters and leaves were estimated, as well as the evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration. Two future scenarios, representing the implementation of reforestation and deforestation plans, were proposed, and were analyzed for the effects of the soil cover complex on the water balance in each case. The results obtained show an increase of the ground water recharge in the humid forest areas, and an extension of the study of the dry areas is proposed since the ground water recharge here is diminishing. These results are of great significance for the planning, design of Payment Schemes for Environmental Services and the improvement of the existing water supply systems. In Central America spatial planning is a priority, as are the watersheds, in order to assess the water resource socially and economically, and securing its availability for the future.

Keywords: Water, Soil, infiltration, Costa Rica

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57 Structural Behavior of Subsoil Depending on Constitutive Model in Calculation Model of Pavement Structure-Subsoil System

Authors: M. Kadela


The load caused by the traffic movement should be transferred in the road constructions in a harmless way to the pavement as follows: − on the stiff upper layers of the structure (e.g. layers of asphalt: abrading and binding), and − through the layers of principal and secondary substructure, − on the subsoil, directly or through an improved subsoil layer. Reliable description of the interaction proceeding in a system “road construction – subsoil” should be in such case one of the basic requirements of the assessment of the size of internal forces of structure and its durability. Analyses of road constructions are based on: − elements of mechanics, which allows to create computational models, and − results of the experiments included in the criteria of fatigue life analyses. Above approach is a fundamental feature of commonly used mechanistic methods. They allow to use in the conducted evaluations of the fatigue life of structures arbitrarily complex numerical computational models. Considering the work of the system “road construction – subsoil”, it is commonly accepted that, as a result of repetitive loads on the subsoil under pavement, the growth of relatively small deformation in the initial phase is recognized, then this increase disappears, and the deformation takes the character completely reversible. The reliability of calculation model is combined with appropriate use (for a given type of analysis) of constitutive relationships. Phenomena occurring in the initial stage of the system “road construction – subsoil” is unfortunately difficult to interpret in the modeling process. The classic interpretation of the behavior of the material in the elastic-plastic model (e-p) is that elastic phase of the work (e) is undergoing to phase (e-p) by increasing the load (or growth of deformation in the damaging structure). The paper presents the essence of the calibration process of cooperating subsystem in the calculation model of the system “road construction – subsoil”, created for the mechanistic analysis. Calibration process was directed to show the impact of applied constitutive models on its deformation and stress response. The proper comparative base for assessing the reliability of created. This work was supported by the on-going research project “Stabilization of weak soil by application of layer of foamed concrete used in contact with subsoil” (LIDER/022/537/L-4/NCBR/2013) financed by The National Centre for Research and Development within the LIDER Programme. M. Kadela is with the Department of Building Construction Elements and Building Structures on Mining Areas, Building Research Institute, Silesian Branch, Katowice, Poland (phone: +48 32 730 29 47; fax: +48 32 730 25 22; e-mail: [email protected] models should be, however, the actual, monitored system “road construction – subsoil”. The paper presents too behavior of subsoil under cyclic load transmitted by pavement layers. The response of subsoil to cyclic load is recorded in situ by the observation system (sensors) installed on the testing ground prepared for this purpose, being a part of the test road near Katowice, in Poland. A different behavior of the homogeneous subsoil under pavement is observed for different seasons of the year, when pavement construction works as a flexible structure in summer, and as a rigid plate in winter. Albeit the observed character of subsoil response is the same regardless of the applied load and area values, this response can be divided into: - zone of indirect action of the applied load; this zone extends to the depth of 1,0 m under the pavement, - zone of a small strain, extending to about 2,0 m.

Keywords: Soil, FEA, Pavement, constitutive model, road structure, calculation model, response of soil, monitored system

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56 The Effect of the Rain Intensity on the Hydrodynamic Behavior of the Low-Floor ChéLiffe

Authors: Ahmed Abbas


Land degradation in the Lower Cheliff region leads to loss of their fertility, physical and chemical properties by secondary salinization and film forming surface or surface crust. The main factor related to runoff and soil erosion is their susceptibility to crusting caused by the impact of raindrops, which causes the reduction of the filterability of the soil. The present study aims to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of five types of soil taken from the plain of low Cheliff under simulated rainfall by using two intensities, one moderate, and others correspond to heavy rains at low kinetic energies. Experimental results demonstrate the influence of chemical and mechanical physical properties of soils on their hydrodynamic behavior and the influence of heavy rain on the modality of the reduction in the filterability and the amount of transported sediment.

Keywords: Soil, erosion, hydrodynamic behavior, rain simulation

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55 Railway Transport as a Potential Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil

Authors: Nataša Stojić, Mira Pucarević, Nebojša Ralević, Vojislava Bursić, Gordan Stojić


Surface soil (0 – 10 cm) samples from 52 sampling sites along the length of railway tracks on the territory of Srem (the western part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, itself part of Serbia) were collected and analyzed for 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in order to see how the distance from the railroad on the one hand and dump on the other hand, affect the concentration of PCBs (CPCBs) in the soil. Samples were taken at a distance of 0.03 to 4.19 km from the railway and 0.43 to 3.35 km from the landfills. For the soil extraction the Soxhlet extraction (USEPA 3540S) was used. The extracts were purified on a silica-gel column (USEPA 3630C). The analysis of the extracts was performed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PCBs were not detected only at two locations. Mean total concentration of PCBs for all other sampling locations was 0,0043 ppm dry weight (dw) with a range of 0,0005 to 0,0227 ppm dw. On the part of the data that were interesting for this research with statistical methods (PCA) were isolated factors that affect the concentration of PCBs. Data were also analyzed using the Pearson's chi-squared test which showed that the hypothesis of independence of CPCBs and distance from the railway can be rejected. Hypothesis of independence between CPCB and the percentage of humus in the soil can also be rejected, in contrast to dependence of CPCB and the distance from the landfill where the hypothesis of independence cannot be rejected. Based on these results can be said that railway transport is a potential source of PCBs. The next step in this research is to establish the position of transformers which are located near sampling sites as another important factor that affects the concentration of PCBs in the soil.

Keywords: railway, Soil, Landfill, GC/MS, PCB

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54 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman


Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.

Keywords: Soil, Techniques, Stabilization, review

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53 Quantification of Extent of Pollution from Total Lead in the Shooting Ranges Found in Southern and Central Botswana: A Pioneering Study

Authors: Nicholas Sehube, Rosemary Kelebemang, Pogisego Dinake


The extent of Pb contamination of shooting range soils has never been ascertained in Botswana, this was the first attempt in evaluating the deposition of Pb into the soils emanating from munitions. A total of 8 military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the 8 shooting ranges at the berm (stop butt), target line, 50 and 100 m from the berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest concentrations were found in the berm soils. The highest Pb concentrations of 38 406.87 mg/Kg were found in the berm soils of Thebephatshwa shooting range which is enclosed within a military camp with staff residential dwelling only a kilometre away. Most of the shooting ranges soils contained elevated levels of Pb in the ranges above 2000 mg/kg far exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) critical value of 400 mg/Kg. Mobilization of lead at high pH is attributed to low organic matter and such was the case with Thebephatshwa shooting range with a percept organic matter of 0.35±0.08. The predominant weathering products in these shooting ranges were cerussite (PbCO3), hydrocerussite (Pb(CO3)2(OH)2 and massicot (PbO). The detailed examination and characterization of the extent of pollution will help in the development and implementation of scientifically sound remediation and restoration of shooting ranges soils.

Keywords: Pollution, Soil, Botswana, ammunition

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52 Preliminary Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Farmland Soils of Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: W. M. Buba, J. G. Nangbes, J. P. Butven


This research was undertaken to evolve community based awareness on the arsenic contamination from agricultural practices in Communities of Bokkos local government area. Contaminated farmland soil samples were collected from the surface for tailings and at various depths (50, 100, 150 cm intervals) in eight holes drilled in each farm at different locations using hand auger. A total of sixty- four (64) soil samples were collected from eight (8) different communities. A standard titrimetric method was applied for the determination of arsenic. It was found that the average concentration of arsenic in the surface soil (0-150cm) for the entire study areas was 0.0525mg/kg with range 0.0425 -0.0601mg/kg which is well above the recommended the soil to plant concentration guideline range of 2.3 – 4.3 x10-4 mg/kg value. This indicates that the arsenic concentration in the study areas does pose health risk for agricultural practices via potential bioaccumulation in plant food crops. However, some risks measures could follow the arsenic occurrence through direct exposure such as those resulting from the inhalation, oral or dermal intake of arsenic during agricultural practices and in the course of stay on the contaminated soil.

Keywords: Soil, Arsenic, Agrochemicals, Contamination, bokkos

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