Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Soil Improvement Related Abstracts

14 An Engineering Review of Grouting in Soil Improvement Applications

Authors: Mohamad Kazem Zamani, Meldi Suhatril

Abstract:

Soil improvement is one of the main concerns of each civil engineer who is working at soil mechanics and geotechnics. Grouting has been used as a powerful treatment for soil improving. In this paper, we have tried to review the grouting application base on grouts which is used and also we have tried to give a general view of grout applications and where and when can be used.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Soil Improvement, cementious grouting, chemical grouting

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13 Three Dimensional Model of Full Scale Plate Load Test on Stone Column in Sabkha Deposit: Case Study from Jubail Industrial City - Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hassan. A. Abas, Saad A. Aiban

Abstract:

Soil improvement by means of stone column method is used to improve sabkha soils in order to limit total and differential settlement and to achieve the required bearing capacity. Full-scale plate test was performed on site to confirm the achievement of required bearing capacity at the specified settlement. Despite the fact that this technique is widely used to improve sabkha soils, there are no studies focusing on the behavior of stone columns in such problematic soils. Sabkha soils are known for its high compressibility, low strength and water sensitivity due to loss of salt cementation upon flooding during installation of stone columns. Numerical modeling of plate load test assist to understand complicated behavior of sabkha – stone column interaction. This paper presents a three-dimensional Finite element model, using PLAXIS 3D software, to simulate vertical plate load tests on a stone column installed in sabkha. The predicted settlement values are in reasonable agreement with the field measure values and the field load - settlement curve can be predicted with good accuracy.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, stone column, sabkha, PLAXIS 3D

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12 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

Abstract:

Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: Soil Improvement, laterite, black cotton soil, bagasse ash, deficient soil

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11 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr

Abstract:

Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement

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10 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi

Abstract:

The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, geogrid, bearing capacity, soft foundation soil, bridge ramps, PCC piles

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9 Analysis of Bored Piles with and without Geogrid in a Selected Area in Kocaeli/Turkey

Authors: Utkan Mutman, Cihan Dirlik

Abstract:

Kocaeli/TURKEY district in which wastewater held in a chosen field increased property has made piling in order to improve the ground under the aeration basin. In this study, the degree of improvement the ground after bored piling held in the field were investigated. In this context, improving the ground before and after the investigation was carried out and that the solution values obtained by the finite element method analysis using Plaxis program have been made. The diffuses in the aeration basin whose treatment is to aide is influenced with and without geogrid on the ground. On the ground been improved, for the purpose of control of manufactured bored piles, pile continuity, and pile load tests were made. Taking into consideration both the data in the field as well as dynamic loads in the aeration basic, an analysis was made on Plaxis program and compared the data obtained from the analysis result and data obtained in the field.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, geogrid, plaxis, bored pile

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8 Comparison of Improvement with Bored Piling and Stone Column in a Selected Area in Kocaeli

Authors: Utkan Mutman, Omer Ayhan

Abstract:

In highway work in a field that is selected in Kocaeli/TURKEY district to the ground improvement and piling is done. In this study, the degree of improvement was observed on the ground after the columns made of stone and bored piles in the field and compared. In this context, improving the ground before and after analysis and solution analysis made with values obtained by the finite element method, which was made Plaxis program. On the improved ground, in order to control of manufactured bored piles, continuity of bored piles and pile load tests were carried out. In addition, the test of load capacity specified in the project is made of stone columns. Test results of the soil improvement were observed to be successful, the results obtained in the field and the results obtained from Plaxis program were compared.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, plaxis, stone columns, bored piling

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7 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, Soil Improvement, triaxial test, silt, waste bottle chips

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6 The Effect of Pulling and Rotation Speed on the Jet Grout Columns

Authors: İbrahim Hakkı Erkan, Özcan Tan

Abstract:

The performance of jet grout columns was affected by many controlled and uncontrolled parameters. The leading parameters for the controlled ones can be listed as injection pressure, rod pulling speed, rod rotation speed, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and Water/Cement ratio. And the uncontrolled parameters are soil type, soil structure, soil layering condition, underground water level, the changes in strength parameters and the rheologic properties of cement in time. In this study, the performance of jet grout columns and the effects of pulling speed and rotation speed were investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a laboratory type jet grouting system was designed for the experiments. Through this system, jet grout columns were produced in three different conditions. The results of the study showed that the grout pressure and the lifting speed significantly affect the performance of the jet grouting columns.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, sandy soils, jet grout, soilcreate

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5 Using Micropiles to Improve the Anzali's Saturated Loose Silty Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

Today, with the daily advancement of geotechnical engineering on soil improvement and modification of the physical properties and shear strength of soil, it is now possible to construct structures with high-volume and high service load on loose sandy soils. One of such methods is using micropiles, which are mostly used to control asymmetrical subsidence, increase bearing capacity, and prevent soil liquefaction. This study examined the improvement of Anzali's saturated loose silty sand using 192 micropiles with a length of 8 meters and diameter of 75 mm. Bandar-e Anzali is one of Iran's coastal populated cities which are located in a high-seismicity region. The effects of the insertion of micropiles on prevention of liquefaction and improvement of subsidence were examined through comparison of the results of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Plate Load Test (PLT) before and after implementation of the micropiles. The results show that the SPT values and the ultimate bearing capacity of silty sand increased after the implementation of the micropiles. Therefore, the installation of micropiles increases the strength of silty sand improving the resistance of soil against liquefaction.

Keywords: Strength, Soil Improvement, silty sand, SPT, micropiles, PLT

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4 Evaluation of Numerical Modeling of Jet Grouting Design Using in situ Loading Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Ehsan Azini

Abstract:

Jet grouting (JG) is one of the methods of improving and increasing the strength and bearing of soil in which the high pressure water or grout is injected through the nozzles into the soil. During this process, a part of the soil and grout particles comes out of the drill borehole, and the other part is mixed up with the grout in place, as a result of this process, a mass of modified soil is created. The purpose of this method is to change the soil into a mixture of soil and cement, commonly known as "soil-cement". In this paper, first, the principles of high pressure injection and then the effective parameters in the JG method are described. Then, the tests on the samples taken from the columns formed from the excavation around the soil-cement columns, as well as the static loading test on the created column, are discussed. In the other part of this paper, the soil behavior models for numerical modeling in PLAXIS software are mentioned. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of numerical modeling based on in-situ static loading tests. The results indicate an acceptable agreement between the results of the tests mentioned and the modeling results. Also, modeling with this software as an appropriate option for technical feasibility can be used to soil improvement using JG.

Keywords: numerical modeling, Soil Improvement, jet grouting column, in-situ loading test

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3 Effect of Nanobentonite Particles on Geotechnical Properties of Kerman Clay

Authors: A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand

Abstract:

Improving the geotechnical properties of soil has always been one of the issues in geotechnical engineering. Traditional materials have been used to improve and stabilize soils to date, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Although the soil stabilization by adding materials such as cement, lime, bitumen, etc. is one of the effective methods to improve the geotechnical properties of soil, but nanoparticles are one of the newest additives which can improve the loose soils. This research is intended to study the effect of adding nanobentonite on soil engineering properties, especially the unconfined compression strength and maximum dry unit weight, using clayey soil with low liquid limit (CL) from Kerman (Iran). Nanobentonite was mixed with soil in three different percentages (i.e. 3, 5, 7% by weight of the parent soil) with different curing time (1, 7 and 28 days). The unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits and plasticity index of treated specimens were measured by unconfined compression and Atterberg limits test. It was found that increase in nanobentonite content resulted in increase in the unconfined compression strength, liquid and plastic limits of the clayey soil and reduce in plasticity index.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress, nanobentonite particles

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2 Influence of Nanozeolite Particles on Improvement of Clayey Soil

Authors: A. Goodarzian, A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand

Abstract:

The problem of soil stabilization has been one of the important issues in geotechnical engineering. Nowadays, nanomaterials have revolutionized many industries. In this research, improvement of the Kerman fine-grained soil by nanozeolite and nanobentonite additives separately has been investigated using Atterberg Limits and unconfined compression test. In unconfined compression test, the samples were prepared with 3, 5 and 7% nano additives, with 1, 7 and 28 days curing time with strain control method. Finally, the effect of different percentages of nanozeolite and nanobentonite on the geotechnical behavior and characteristics of Kerman fine-grained soil was investigated. The results showed that with increasing the amount of nanozeolite and also nanobentonite to fine-grained soil, the soil exhibits more compression strength. So that by adding 7% nanozeolite and nanobentonite with 1 day curing, the unconfined compression strength is 1.18 and 2.1 times higher than the unstabilized soil. In addition, the failure strain decreases in samples containing nanozeolite, whereas it increases in the presence of nanobentonite. Increasing the percentage of nanozeolite and nanobentonite also increased the elasticity modulus of soil.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Soil Improvement, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress

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1 Applicability of Soybean as Bio-Catalyst in Calcite Precipitated Method for Soil Improvement

Authors: Heriansyah Putra, Erizal Erizal, Sutoyo Sutoyo, Hideaki Yasuhara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the possibility of organic waste material, i.e., soybean, as the bio-catalyst agent on the calcite precipitation method. Several combinations of soybean powder and jack bean extract are used as the bio-catalyst and mixed with the reagent composed of calcium chloride and urea. Its productivity in promoting calcite crystal is evaluated through a transparent test-tube experiment. The morphological and mineralogical aspects of precipitated calcite are also investigated using scanning electromagnetic (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The applicability of this material to improve the engineering properties of soil are examined using the direct shear and unconfined compressive test. The result of this study shows that the utilization of soybean powder brings about a significant effect on soil strength. In addition, the use of soybean powder as a substitution material of urease enzyme also increases the efficacy of calcite crystal as the binder materials. The low calcite content promotes the high strength of the soil. The strength of 300 kPa is obtained in the presence of 2% of calcite content within the soil. The result of this study elucidated that substitution of soybean to jack bean extract is the potential and valuable alternative to improve the applicability of calcite precipitation method as soil improvement technique.

Keywords: soybean, Soil Improvement, calcite precipitation, jack bean

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