Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Soil Contamination Related Abstracts

8 Bioremediation of PAHs-Contaminated Soil Using Land Treatment Processes

Authors: Somaye Eskandary

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in crude oil and its derivatives contaminate soil and also increase carcinogen and mutagen contamination, which is a concern for researchers. Land farming is one of the methods that remove pollutants from the soil by native microorganisms. It seems that this technology is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and causes less debris problem to be disposed. This study aimed to refine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil-contaminated soil using the land farming method. In addition to examine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-FID, some characteristics such as soil microbial respiration and dehydrogenase, peroxidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme concentration were also measured. The results showed that after land farming process the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dropped to 50 percent. The results showed that the enzyme concentration is reduced by reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons and microbial respiration. These results emphasize the process of land farming for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil by indigenous microorganisms.

Keywords: Soil Contamination, Carcinogen, Gas Chromatography, native microorganisms, soil enzymes, microbial respiration

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7 Spatial Variability of Soil Metal Contamination to Detect Cancer Risk Zones in Coimbatore Region of India

Authors: Janani Selvaraj, M. Prashanthi Devi, P. B. Harathi, Aarthi Mariappan

Abstract:

Anthropogenic modification of the urban environment has largely increased in the recent years in order to sustain the growing human population. Intense industrial activity, permanent and high traffic on the roads, a developed subterranean infrastructure network, land use patterns are just some specific characteristics. Every day, the urban environment is polluted by more or less toxic emissions, organic or metals wastes discharged from specific activities such as industrial, commercial, municipal. When these eventually deposit into the soil, the physical and chemical properties of the surrounding soil is changed, transforming it into a human exposure indicator. Metals are non-degradable and occur cumulative in soil due to regular deposits are a result of permanent human activity. Due to this, metals are a contaminant factor for soil when persistent over a long period of time and a possible danger for inhabitant’s health on prolonged exposure. Metals accumulated in contaminated soil may be transferred to humans directly, by inhaling the dust raised from top soil, or by ingesting, or by dermal contact and indirectly, through plants and animals grown on contaminated soil and used for food. Some metals, like Cu, Mn, Zn, are beneficial for human’s health and represent a danger only if their concentration is above permissible levels, but other metals, like Pb, As, Cd, Hg, are toxic even at trace level causing gastrointestinal and lung cancers. In urban areas, metals can be emitted from a wide variety of sources like industrial, residential, commercial activities. Our study interrogates the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil in relation to their permissible levels and their association with the health risk to the urban population in Coimbatore, India. Coimbatore region is a high cancer risk zone and case records of gastro intestinal and respiratory cancer patients were collected from hospitals and geocoded in ArcGIS10.1. The data of patients pertaining to the urban limits were retained and checked for their diseases history based on their diagnosis and treatment. A disease map of cancer was prepared to show the disease distribution. It has been observed that in our study area Cr, Pb, As, Fe and Mg exceeded their permissible levels in the soil. Using spatial overlay analysis a relationship between environmental exposure to these potentially toxic elements in soil and cancer distribution in Coimbatore district was established to show areas of cancer risk. Through this, our study throws light on the impact of prolonged exposure to soil contamination in soil in the urban zones, thereby exploring the possibility to detect cancer risk zones and to create awareness among the exposed groups on cancer risk.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, India, Soil Contamination, Cancer Risk

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6 Spatial Assessment of Soil Contamination from Informal E-Waste Recycling Site in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

Authors: Kyere Vincent Nartey, Klaus Greve, Atiemo Sampson

Abstract:

E-waste is discarded electrical electronic equipment inclusive of all components, sub-assemblies and consumables which are part of the product at the time of discarding and known to contain both hazardous and valuable fractions. E-waste is recycled within the proposed ecological restoration of the Agbogbloshie enclave using crude and rudimental recycling procedures such as open burning and manual dismantling which result in pollution and contamination of soil, water and air. Using GIS, this study was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and extent of soil contamination by heavy metals from the e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie. From the month of August to November 2013, 146 soil samples were collected in addition to their coordinates using GPS. Elemental analysis performed on the collected soil samples using X-Ray fluorescence revealed over 30 elements including, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn. Using geostatistical techniques in ArcGIS 10.1 spatial assessment and distribution maps were generated. Mathematical models or equations were used to estimate the degree of contamination and pollution index. Results from soil analysis from the Agbogbloshie enclave showed that levels of measured or observed elements were significantly higher than the Canadian EPA and Dutch environmental standards.

Keywords: Geostatistics, E-Waste, Soil Contamination, Spatial Distribution

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5 Different Tools and Complex Approach for Improving Phytoremediation Technology

Authors: T. Varazi, M. Pruidze, M. Kurashvili, N. Gagelidze, M. Sutton

Abstract:

The complex phytoremediation approach given in the presented work implies joint application of natural sorbents, microorganisms, natural biosurfactants and plants. The approach is based on using the natural mineral composites, microorganism strains with high detoxification abilities, plants-phytoremediators and natural biosurfactants for enhancing the uptake of intermediates of pollutants by plant roots. In this complex strategy of phytoremediation technology, the sorbent serves to uptake and trap the pollutants and thus restrain their emission in the environment. The role of microorganisms is to accomplish the first stage biodegradation of organic contaminants. This is followed by application of a phytoremediation technology through purposeful planting of selected plants. Thus, using of different tools will provide restoration of polluted environment and prevention of toxic compounds’ dissemination from hotbeds of pollution for a considerable length of time. The main idea and novelty of the carried out work is the development of a new approach for the ecological safety. The wide spectrum of contaminants: Organochlorine pesticide – DDT, heavy metal –Cu, oil hydrocarbon (hexadecane) and wax have been used in this work. The presented complex biotechnology is important from the viewpoint of prevention, providing total rehabilitation of soil. It is unique to chemical pollutants, ecologically friendly and provides the control of erosion of soils.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, Soil Contamination, Pollutants

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4 Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 2”, and the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 3”. The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Soil Contamination, Armenia, Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, enrichment factor (EF)

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3 Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Electrochemical Method

Authors: D. M. Cocârță, I. A. Istrate, C. Streche, D. M. Dumitru

Abstract:

Soil contamination phenomena are a wide world issue that has received the important attention in the last decades. The main pollutants that have affected soils are especially those resulted from the oil extraction, transport and processing. This paper presents results obtained in the framework of a research project focused on the management of contaminated sites with petroleum products/ REMPET. One of the specific objectives of the REMPET project was to assess the electrochemical treatment (improved with polarity change respect to the typical approach) as a treatment option for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbon compounds attach to soil components and are difficult to remove and degrade. Electrochemical treatment is a physicochemical treatment that has gained acceptance as an alternative method, for the remediation of organic contaminated soils comparing with the traditional methods as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. This type of treatment need short time and have high removal efficiency, being usually applied in heterogeneous soils with low permeability. During the experimental tests, the following parameters were monitored: pH, redox potential, humidity, current intensity, energy consumption. The electrochemical method was applied in an experimental setup with the next dimensions: 450 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm (L x l x h). The setup length was devised in three electrochemical cells that were connected at two power supplies. The power supplies configuration was provided in such manner that each cell has a cathode and an anode without overlapping. The initial value of TPH concentration in soil was of 1420.28 mg/kgdw. The remediation method has been applied for only 21 days, when it was already noticed an average removal efficiency of 31 %, with better results in the anode area respect to the cathode one (33% respect to 27%). The energy consumption registered after the development of the experiment was 10.6 kWh for exterior power supply and 16.1 kWh for the interior one. Taking into account that at national level, the most used methods for soil remediation are bioremediation (which needs too much time to be implemented and depends on many factors) and thermal desorption (which involves high costs in order to be implemented), the study of electrochemical treatment will give an alternative to these two methods (and their limitations).

Keywords: Pollution, Soil Contamination, electrochemical remediation, total petroleum hydrocarbons

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2 Geostatistical Analysis of Contamination of Soils in an Urban Area in Ghana

Authors: S. K. Appiah, E. N. Aidoo, D. Asamoah Owusu, M. W. Nuonabuor

Abstract:

Urbanization remains one of the unique predominant factors which is linked to the destruction of urban environment and its associated cases of soil contamination by heavy metals through the natural and anthropogenic activities. These activities are important sources of toxic heavy metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Often, these heavy metals lead to increased levels in some areas due to the impact of atmospheric deposition caused by their proximity to industrial plants or the indiscriminately burning of substances. Information gathered on potentially hazardous levels of these heavy metals in soils leads to establish serious health and urban agriculture implications. However, characterization of spatial variations of soil contamination by heavy metals in Ghana is limited. Kumasi is a Metropolitan city in Ghana, West Africa and is challenged with the recent spate of deteriorating soil quality due to rapid economic development and other human activities such as “Galamsey”, illegal mining operations within the metropolis. The paper seeks to use both univariate and multivariate geostatistical techniques to assess the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and the potential risk associated with ingestion of sources of soil contamination in the Metropolis. Geostatistical tools have the ability to detect changes in correlation structure and how a good knowledge of the study area can help to explain the different scales of variation detected. To achieve this task, point referenced data on heavy metals measured from topsoil samples in a previous study, were collected at various locations. Linear models of regionalisation and coregionalisation were fitted to all experimental semivariograms to describe the spatial dependence between the topsoil heavy metals at different spatial scales, which led to ordinary kriging and cokriging at unsampled locations and production of risk maps of soil contamination by these heavy metals. Results obtained from both the univariate and multivariate semivariogram models showed strong spatial dependence with range of autocorrelations ranging from 100 to 300 meters. The risk maps produced show strong spatial heterogeneity for almost all the soil heavy metals with extremely risk of contamination found close to areas with commercial and industrial activities. Hence, ongoing pollution interventions should be geared towards these highly risk areas for efficient management of soil contamination to avert further pollution in the metropolis.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Soil Contamination, Spatial Distribution, coregionalization, multivariate geostatistical analysis

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1 Multi-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Change within High Contaminated Watersheds by Superfund Sites in Wisconsin

Authors: Punwath Prum

Abstract:

Superfund site is recognized publicly to be a severe environmental problem to surrounding communities and biodiversity due to its hazardous chemical waste from industrial activities. It contaminates the soil and water but also is a leading potential point-source pollution affecting ecosystem in watershed areas from chemical substances. The risks of Superfund site on watershed can be effectively measured by utilizing publicly available data and geospatial analysis by free and open source application. This study analyzed the vegetation change within high risked contaminated watersheds in Wisconsin. The high risk watersheds were measured by which watershed contained high number Superfund sites. The study identified two potential risk watersheds in Lafayette and analyzed the temporal changes of vegetation within the areas based on Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis. The raster statistic was used to compare the change of NDVI value over the period. The analysis results showed that the NDVI value within the Superfund sites’ boundary has a significant lower value than nearby surrounding and provides an analogy for environmental hazard affect by the chemical contamination in Superfund site.

Keywords: watershed, Spatial analysis, Soil Contamination

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