Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

sodium alginate Related Abstracts

6 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima


Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, drug-delivery, sodium alginate

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5 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola


Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: Biomedical, nanocomposite, SEM, hydroxyapatite, FTIR, XRD, sodium alginate

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4 Design of Nanoreinforced Polyacrylamide-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Anuj KUMAR, Kummara M. Rao, Sung S. Han


Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potentially alternative method for localized bone defects or diseases, congenital deformation, and surgical reconstruction. The designing and the fabrication of the ideal scaffold is a great challenge, in restoring of the damaged bone tissues via cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation under three-dimensional (3D) biological micro-/nano-environment. In this case, hydrogel system composed of high hydrophilic 3D polymeric-network that is able to mimic some of the functional physical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and possibly may provide a suitable 3D micro-/nano-environment (i.e., resemblance of native bone tissues). Thus, this proposed hydrogel system is highly permeable and facilitates the transport of the nutrients and metabolites. However, the use of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering is limited because of their low mechanical properties (toughness and stiffness) that continue to posing challenges in designing and fabrication of tough and stiff hydrogels along with improved bioactive properties. For this purpose, in our lab, polyacrylamide-based hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by involving sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals and silica-based glass using one-step free-radical polymerization. The results showed good in vitro apatite-forming ability (biomineralization) and improved mechanical properties (under compression in the form of strength and stiffness in both wet and dry conditions), and in vitro osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) cytocompatibility. For in vitro cytocompatibility assessment, both qualitative (attachment and spreading of cells using FESEM) and quantitative (cell viability and proliferation using MTT assay) analyses were performed. The obtained hybrid hydrogels may potentially be used in bone tissue engineering applications after establishment of in vivo characterization.

Keywords: Hydrogels, Bone Tissue Engineering, polyacrylamide, sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals

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3 Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Based Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Ferhat Şen


This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, carbon and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using hydroxyethyl cellulose, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries.

Keywords: antimicrobial food packaging, polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose

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2 Pomegranate Peel Based Edible Coating Treatment for Safety and Quality of Chicken Nuggets

Authors: Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Sadaf Bashir


In this study, the effects of pomegranate peel based edible coating were determined on safety and quality of chicken nuggets. Four treatment groups were prepared as control (without coating), coating with sodium alginate (SA) (1.5%), pomegranate peel powder (PPP) (1.5%), and combination of SA and PPP. There was a significant variation observed with respect to coating treatments and storage intervals. The chicken nuggets were subjected to refrigerated storage (40C) and were analyzed at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14 1 and 21 days. The microbiological quality was determined by total aerobic and coliform counts. Total aerobic (5.09±0.05 log CFU/g) and coliforms (3.91±0.06 log CFU/g) counts were higher in uncoated chicken nuggets whereas lower was observed in coated chicken nuggets having combination of SA and PPP. Likewise, antioxidants potential of chicken nuggets was observed by assessing total phenolic contents (TPC) and DPPH activity. Higher TPC (135.66 GAE/100g) and DPPH (64.65%) were found in combination with SA and PPP, whereas minimum TPC (91.38) and DPPH (41.48) was observed in uncoated chicken nuggets. Regarding the stability analysis of chicken nuggets, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) were determined. Higher TBARS (1.62±0.03 MDA/Kg) and POV (0.92±0.03 meq peroxide/kg) were found in uncoated chicken nuggets. Hunter color values were also observed in both uncoated and coated chicken nuggets. Sensorial attributes were also observed by the trained panelists. The higher sensory score for appearance, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability were observed in control (uncoated) while in coated treatments, it was found within acceptable limits. In nutshell, the combination of SA and PPP enhanced the overall quality, antioxidant potential, and stability of chicken nuggets.

Keywords: pomegranate peel powder, sodium alginate, edible coatings, chicken nuggets

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1 Floating Oral in Situ Gelling System of Anticancer Drug

Authors: Umme Hani, Mohammed Rahmatulla, Mohammed Ghazwani, Ali Alqahtani, Yahya Alhamhoom


Background and introduction: Neratinib is a potent anticancer drug used for the treatment of breast cancer. It is poorly soluble at higher pH, which tends to minimize the therapeutic effects in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) leading to poor bioavailability. An attempt has been made to prepare and develop a gastro-retentive system of Neratinib to improve the drug bioavailability in the GIT by enhancing the gastric retention time. Materials and methods: In the present study a three-factor at two-level (23) factorial design based optimization was used to inspect the effects of three independent variables (factors) such as sodium alginate (A), sodium bicarbonate (B) and sodium citrate (C) on the dependent variables like in vitro gelation, in vitro floating, water uptake and percentage drug release. Results: All the formulations showed pH in the range 6.7 ±0.25 to 7.4 ±0.24, percentage drug content was observed to be 96.3±0.27 to 99.5 ±0.28%, in vitro gelation observed as gelation immediate remains for an extended period. Percentage of water uptake was in the range between 9.01±0.15 to 31.01±0.25%, floating lag time was estimated form 7±0.39 to 57±0.36 sec. F4 and F5 showed floating even after 12hrs. All formulations showed a release of around 90% drug release within 12hr. It was observed that the selected independent variables affect the dependent variables. Conclusion: The developed system may be a promising and alternative approach to augment gastric retention of drugs and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the drug.

Keywords: in situ gelling system, floating, sodium alginate, neratinib

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