Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

socioeconomic Related Abstracts

8 Socioeconomic Values and Administration in Northern Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of Dearth of Values

Authors: Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim, Hassan Alhaji Hassan

Abstract:

The research looks at the decaying socioeconomic values in northern Nigeria, which is directly affecting the administration of service at different levels. The aim is to establish the consequence of a valueless society on individual and public life at different levels. The result of governments’ continued neglect of education, societal values, which have negatively affected societal development and indeed development in general. Therefore, focus is on governments’ poor performance in Nigeria, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research asserts the need for the application of the values of some traditional values as personal principles and good governance as the way out of the present deteriorating conditions.

Keywords: Education, Good Governance, Values, socioeconomic, Northern Nigeria

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7 Pricing Effects on Equitable Distribution of Forest Products and Livelihood Improvement in Nepalese Community Forestry

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri

Abstract:

Despite the large number of in-depth case studies focused on policy analysis, institutional arrangement, and collective action of common property resource management; how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in community forest management and what kinds of effects produce it, the answers of these questions are largely silent among the policy-makers and researchers alike. The study examined how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in the lowland community forestry of Nepal and how the decisions affect to equitable distribution of benefits and livelihood improvement which are also objectives of Nepalese community forestry. The study assumes that forest products pricing decisions have multiple effects on equitable distribution and livelihood improvement in the areas having heterogeneous socio-economic conditions. The dissertation was carried out at four community forests of lowland, Nepal that has characteristics of high value species, matured-experience of community forest management and better record-keeping system of forest products production, pricing and distribution. The questionnaire survey, individual to group discussions and direct field observation were applied for data collection from the field, and Lorenz curve, gini-coefficient, χ²-text, and SWOT (Strong, Weak, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis were performed for data analysis and results interpretation. The dissertation demonstrates that the low pricing strategy of high-value forest products was supposed crucial to increase the access of socio-economically weak households, and to and control over the important forest products such as timber, but found counter productive as the strategy increased the access of socio-economically better-off households at higher rate. In addition, the strategy contradicts to collect a large-scale community fund and carry out livelihood improvement activities as per the community forestry objectives. The crucial part of the study is despite the fact of low pricing strategy; the timber alone contributed large part of community fund collection. The results revealed close relation between pricing decisions and livelihood objectives. The action research result shows that positive price discrimination can slightly reduce the prevailing inequality and increase the fund. However, it lacks to harness the full price of forest products and collects a large-scale community fund. For broader outcomes of common property resource management in terms of resource sustainability, equity, and livelihood opportunity, the study suggests local institutions to harness the full price of resource products with respect to the local market.

Keywords: Community, Forest, livelihood, Nepal, socioeconomic, equitable

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6 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas: A Case Study in Qabel Street, Old Jeddah

Authors: Hossam Hassan Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

Abstract:

The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Urban Conservation, socioeconomic, urban strategy

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5 A Systematic Review of Pedometer-or Accelerometer-Based Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity in Low Socioeconomic Groups

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, James B. Etter, John B. F. de Wit

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity (PA) on health are well documented. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health, with PA a suggested mediator. Pedometers and accelerometers offer an effective behavior change tool to increase PA levels. While the role of pedometer and accelerometer use in increasing PA is recognized in many populations, little is known in low-SES groups. We are aiming to assess the effectiveness of pedometer- and accelerometer-based interventions for increasing PA step count and improving subsequent health outcomes among low-SES groups of high-income countries. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and SportDiscus databases were searched to identify articles published before 10th July, 2015; using search terms developed from previous systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria are: low-SES participants classified by income, geography, education, occupation or ethnicity; study duration minimum 4 weeks; an intervention and control group; wearing of an unsealed pedometer or accelerometer to objectively measure PA as step counts per day for the duration of the study. We retrieved 2,142 articles from our database searches, after removal of duplicates. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts of these articles (50% each) and a combined 20% sample were reviewed to account for inter-assessor variation. We are currently verifying the full texts of 430 articles. Included studies will be critically appraised for risk of bias using guidelines suggested by the Cochrane Public Health Group. Two investigators will extract data concerning the intervention; study design; comparators; steps per day; participants; context and presence or absence of obesity and/or chronic disease. Heterogeneity amongst studies is anticipated, thus a narrative synthesis of data will be conducted with the simplification of selected results into percentage increases from baseline to allow for between-study comparison. Results will be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: Physical Activity, accelerometer, socioeconomic, pedometer, step count

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4 A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Physical Activity Intervention in a Low Socioeconomic Population: Focus on Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, John B. F. de Wit

Abstract:

Low physical activity (PA) levels are a major public health concern in Australia. There is some evidence that PA interventions can increase PA levels via various methods, including online delivery. Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) people participate in less PA than the rest of the population, partly due to poor self-regulation behaviors associated with socioeconomic characteristics. Interventions that involve a particular method of self-regulation, Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII), has regularly achieved healthy behavior change, but few studies focus on PA behavior outcomes and no studies examining the effect of MCII on the PA behaviors of low SES people has been done. In this study, a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) will deliver MCII for PA behavior change to individuals of relative disadvantage for the first time. The current pilot study will predict sample size for a future full RCT and test the hypothesis that sedentary participants from areas of relative socioeconomic disadvantage of Sydney, who learn the MCII technique will be more physically active, have improved anthropometry and psychological indicators at the completion of a 12-week intervention compared to baseline and control. Eligible participants of relative socioeconomic disadvantage will be randomly assigned to either the ‘PA Information Plus MCII Intervention Group’ or a ‘PA Information-Only Control Group’. Both groups will attend a baseline and 12-week face-to-face consultation; where PA, anthropometric and psychological data will be gathered. The intervention group will be guided through an MCII session at the baseline appointment to establish a PA goal to aim to achieve over 12 weeks. Other than these baseline and 12-week consultations, all participant interaction will occur online. All participants will receive a ‘Fitbit’ accelerometer to record objectively. PA as a daily step count, along with a PA diary for the duration of the study. PA data will be recorded on a personalized online spreadsheet. Both groups will receive a standard PA information email at weeks 2, 4, and 8. The intervention group will also receive scripted follow-up online appointments to discuss goal progress. The current pilot study is in recruitment stage with findings to be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Motivation, socioeconomic, pedometer, implementation intentions, mental contrasting

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3 Foreign Football League and Its Socio-Economic Implications in Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Usman Dutse, Dalhatu Sa’idu

Abstract:

The popularity of foreign football leagues are getting a soaring in Africa. Nigerian youths are following these leagues with high sense of dedication and devotion. The paper examines the factors behind the growing popularity of foreign football league in Nigeria and its socio economic implications on the country. Primary data were largely used for the study and collected through the use of questionnaire and interview. The data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive and qualitative methods of analysis. The findings made from the analysis indicates that the reasons why foreign league is popular in Nigeria is because the quality of national league in Nigeria is poor, the matches are not mostly televised, corruption/match fixing is common; for the above mentioned reasons national football league become uninteresting compared to foreign leagues. It was also confirmed that the overwhelming popularity of foreign league has the following social effects: friendship and acquaintance are created between supporters of the same club via social media and viewing centres, it has increased the knowledge and awareness of youth about the economics and politics of international sports. However, it has also brewed rivalry between supporters of clubs, drugs are sold in viewing centres and it sometimes serves as a meeting point for miscreants and criminals. Some of the economic effects were also identified as follows: small entrepreneurs establish commercial viewing centres and they employ other supporting staff to operate. On the strength of the above findings, the following were recommended: There is the urgent need to reform our national league to an acceptable standard; improve the quality of the team, the facilities and media coverage of the matches. This might make Nigerians to channel some of the love for foreign leagues to the local leagues.

Keywords: Foreign, implications, socioeconomic, league

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2 A Systematic Review on Assistive Technology Robotics in Lower and Middle-Income Settings

Authors: Sumudu Sameera Perera Kimmantudawage, Chapal Khasnabis

Abstract:

Technology is changing at a rapid rate, with innovations in robotics being hailed and tested in countries such as Japan, the United States and Australia, however the conversation in a public health context is stagnant. While obvious barriers to robotics use in low and middle-income countries and regions exist, the avoidance of attempting to address these regions of the world may potentially lead to an ever-increasing divide between those of high income countries and those of less. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the number of projects involving research, development and testing of robotics considered low and middle-income regions. Major findings indicate that an overwhelmingly significant number of projects failed to consider low and middle-income countries or regions. These results are unsurprising however alarming, as bridging the divide is an important step forward in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It is hoped that this research would spawn future robotics research that focusses on lower and middle-income regions.

Keywords: Robotics, assistive technology, socioeconomic, health equality

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1 Socioeconomic Benefits in Agroforestry Practices by Rural Community: Case Study in Paitan District, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: J. Kodoh, H. L. Dumil, M. Maid

Abstract:

Agroforestry system has been widely documented that provide benefits to rural livelihoods and improved socioeconomic status. This study concerns on agroforestry practices in generating local socioeconomic livelihoods. The general approach is to survey local community involvement in the agroforestry activities at four selected rural villages in Paitan district, using a structured questionnaire through personal interview technique. A total of 200 respondents were interviewed where the largest age group of the respondents was more than 50 years old (31%). Almost all respondents had former education (76%), and majority of them were employed (97%) either in the government and private sectors or self-employed. All respondents (100%) were involved in agroforestry activities where agroforestry products as their source of income (Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus, Elaeis guinensis) and foods (Manihot esculenta, Mangifera sp., Musa sp.) The mean monthly income from selling agroforestry products contributed 16.6% (USD130.37) of the mean total monthly income of the respondents (r=0.407, r²=0.166, p < 0.01). This study also showed that the main driven factor for the respondents (93%) to adopt and sustain the agroforestry practices is their traditional ways of farming that transferred from generation to generation.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Rural Community, socioeconomic, Paitan district

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