Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Social welfare Related Abstracts

8 Urban Poor: The Situations and Characteristics of the Problem and Social Welfare Service of Bangkok Metropolis

Authors: Sanchai Ratthanakwan

Abstract:

This research aims to study situations and characteristics of the problems facing the urban poor. The data and information are collected by focus group and in-depth interview leader and members of Four Regions Slum Network, community representatives and the social welfare officer. The research can be concluded that the problems of the urban poor faced with three major problems: Firstly, the shortage of housing and stability issues in housing; secondly, the problem of substandard quality of life; and thirdly, the debt problem. The study found that a solution will be found in two ways: First way is the creation of housing for the urban poor in slums or community intrusion by the state. Second way is the stability in the housing and subsistence provided by the community center called “housing stability”.

Keywords: Social welfare, Bangkok metropolis, urban poor, housing stability

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7 The Sub-Optimality of the Electricity Subsidy on Tube Wells in Balochistan (Pakistan): An Analysis Based on Socio-Cultural and Policy Distortions

Authors: Rameesha Javaid

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the province of Balochistan which is known as the ‘fruit basket’ of Pakistan. Its climate zones comprising highlands and plateaus, dependent on rain water, are more suited for the production of deciduous fruit. The vagaries of weather and more so the persistent droughts prompted the government to announce flat rates of electricity bills per month irrespective of the size of the farm, quantum or water used and the category of crop group. That has, no doubt, resulted in increased cropping intensity, more production and employment but has enormously burdened the official exchequer which picks up the residual bills in certain percentages amongst the federal and provincial governments and the local electricity company. This study tests the desirability of continuing the subsidy in the present mode. Optimization of social welfare of farmers has been the focus of the study with emphasis on the contribution of positive externalities and distortions caused in terms of negative externalities. By using the optimization technique with due allowance for distortions, it has been established that the subsidy calls for limiting policy distortions as they cause sub-optimal utilization of the tube well subsidy and improved policy programming. The sensitivity analysis with changed rankings of contributing variables towards social welfare does not significantly change the result. Therefore it leads to the net findings and policy recommendations of significantly reducing the subsidy size, correcting and curtailing policy distortions and targeting the subsidy grant more towards small farmers to generate more welfare by saving a sizeable amount from the subsidy for investment in the wellbeing of the farmers in rural Balochistan.

Keywords: Social welfare, distortion, policy distortion, socio-cultural distortion, subsidy

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6 Foreign Human Capital as a Fiscal Burden on the UK's Exchequer: An Intellectual Capital Perspective

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Migration has once again become a lively topic in Europe and UK, in particular. A burgeoning concern in the public debate, however, is driven by the fear that migrants are fiscal burden because they drain public resources by drawing on the generous social transfers introduced in Europe to prevent social exclusion. This study challenges these beliefs by gathering empirical evidence through a qualitative research approach on the subject matter. The analysis suggests that UK provides a rich social and economic environment for intellectual profiles especially, human intellectual capital of migrants to flourish and add value to the exchequer. Contrary to the beliefs held by politicians and general public, the empirical evidence suggests that migrants add higher fiscal contribution by working longer hours, paying consistent taxes, and bringing skills which UK may lack thus, are not fiscal burdens on the UK exchequer.

Keywords: Social welfare, European Union, migrants, united kingdom, austerity, human intellectual capital

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5 Implementing Pro-Poor Policies for Poverty Alleviation: The Case of the White Paper on Families in South Africa

Authors: P. Mbecke

Abstract:

The role of the government to tangibly alleviate poverty, improve and sustain the quality of people’s lives remains a “work in progress” twenty-two years after the dawn of democracy in South Africa despite a host of socio-economic programs and pro-poor policies and legislations. This paper assesses the development process and the implementation of the White Paper on Families in South Africa as one of the pro-poor policies intended to curb poverty and redress the imbalances of the apartheid regime. The paper is the result of a qualitative implementation research theory facilitated through in-depth interviews with social work managers complemented by literature and policy review techniques. It investigates the level of basic knowledge and understanding as well as the implementation challenges of the White Paper on Families as causes of its failure. The paper emphasizes the importance of the family-centered approach in the implementation of pro-poor policies. To facilitate the understanding of the White Paper on Families by its users, the Department of Social Development needs take stock of the identified challenges of its implementation so as to facilitate its success in fostering positive family well-being that will directly contributes to the overall socio-economic development of South Africa.

Keywords: Social Development, Social welfare, Poverty Alleviation, South Africa, pro-poor policy

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4 A Lesson in the Social Welfare System in Mexico: Limited Resources for Unlimited Needs

Authors: Vanessa L. Haro

Abstract:

Beginning with a historical foundation of Mexico, this marks the start of a close examination of this major Latin American country by providing the context needed to understand the reasons for Mexico’s strengths and struggles today, specific to their response to the issue of gender violence. Responding to the challenge of combating gender violence and inequality, Mexico has created social programs and initiatives in hopes of addressing these issues and modernizing their gender norms, which currently disempower and dehumanize women, while simultaneously denying women the necessary tools needed to fight back or bring balance to the gender scales. Nevertheless, women in Mexico have made their voices heard with the most salient image of that of the mothers protesting while holding the photos of their young daughters who lost their lives. This case study on gender issues in Mexico works to acknowledge the diverse forces that contribute to the issue of gender violence, and to make a statement that this is a crisis that requires a more dynamic response within Mexico’s social welfare policies, and should not be allowed to continue to progress as a normative phenomenon. As the advocacy groups and protesters cry out, “Ni una menos! (Not one less), meaning we will not lose one more woman and making the statement that all women’s lives matter.

Keywords: Poverty, Social welfare, Gender Issues, Mexico

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3 Impact of Sociocultural Factors on Management and Utilization of Solid Waste in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olufunmilayo Folaranmi

Abstract:

This research was carried out to examine the impact of socio-cultural factors on the management and utilization of solid waste in Ibadan Metropolis. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study while a systematic and stratified random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents which were categorized into high, middle and low-density areas. Four hypothesis were tested using chi-square test on variables of unavailability of waste disposal facilities and waste management, negligence of contractors to liaise with community members, lack of adequate environmental education and waste management and utilization, low level of motivation of sanitation workers with solid wastes management, lack of community full participation with solid waste management and utilization. Results showed that significant effect of waste disposal facilities on solid waste management and utilization (X2 +16.6, P < .05). Also, there is a significant relationship between negligence of the contractors to liaise with community elites with improper disposal (X2 = 87.5, P < .05). The motivation of sanitation workers is significantly related to solid waste management (X2 = 70.4, P < .05). Adequate environmental education and awareness influenced solid waste management. There was also a significant relationship between lack of community participation with waste management disposal and improper waste disposal. Based on the findings from the study it was recommended that the quality of life in urban centers should be improved, social welfare of the populace enhanced and environment should be adequately attended to. Poverty alleviation programmes should be intensified and made to live beyond the life of a particular administration, micro-credit facilities should be available to community members to promote their welfare. Lastly, sustained environmental education programmes for citizens at all levels of education, formal and informal through the use of agencies like Ethical and Attitudinal Reorientation Commission (EARCOM) and the National Orientation Agency (NOA).

Keywords: Management, Social welfare, Solid Waste, Socio-Cultural Factors

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2 Role of Diplomacy toward Social Welfare, Equity and Economic Growth: Case Study of President Joko Widodo's Economic Diplomacy in Investment Sector in Indonesia

Authors: Raihan Zahirah Mauludy Ridwan, Frisca Devi Choirina

Abstract:

Indonesia with its former presidents has enhanced the bilateral cooperation also multilateral cooperation in terms of economy but the result was not significant towards eradicating poverty, unemployment, income inequality, and economic growth. To eradicate these problems, President Joko Widodo through his several points of Nawacita wants to boost Indonesia’s economic relationship and cooperation which manifested in “Economic Diplomacy” as one of Indonesia’s foreign policy priority and he pitches it in international forums. The economic diplomacy does not only attracts prospective countries but also attracts the foreign businessman and investors. The economic diplomacy includes four sectors which are vital for economic growth, one of them is investment. This paper would like to answer how economic diplomacy can have significant impact towards social welfare, equity and economic growth especially in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of economic diplomacy and its impact toward Indonesia’s welfare, equity, and economic growth. This paper uses the theory of economic diplomacy to link the current international political economic sphere and the impact of economic diplomacy for Indonesia through case study method. The paper affirms that economic diplomacy in investment sector does have significant impact, especially in the development of infrastructures, foreign direct investment in several sectors, and food security.

Keywords: Social welfare, Economic growth, Equity, Indonesia, Joko Widodo, economic diplomacy

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1 The Role of Zakat on Sustainable Economic Development by Rumah Zakat

Authors: Selamat Muliadi

Abstract:

This study aimed to explain conceptual the role of Zakat on sustainable economic development by Rumah Zakat. Rumah Zakat is a philanthropic institution that manages zakat and other social funds through community empowerment programs. In running the program, including economic empowerment and socio health services are designed for these recipients. Rumah Zakat's connection with the establisment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which is to help impoverished recipients economically and socially. It’s an important agenda that the government input into national development, even the region. The primary goal of Zakat on sustainable economic development, not only limited to economic variables but based on Islamic principles, has comprehensive characteristics. The characteristics include moral, material, spiritual, and social aspects. In other words, sustainable economic development is closely related to improving people’s living standard (Mustahiq). The findings provide empiricial evidence regarding the positive contribution and effectiveness of zakat targeting in reducing poverty and improve the welfare of people related with the management of zakat. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of Zakat on sustainable economic development, which was applied by Rumah Zakat. This study used descriptive method and qualitative analysis. The data source was secondary data collected from documents and texts related to the research topic, be it books, articles, newspapers, journals, or others. The results showed that the role of zakat on sustainable economic development by Rumah Zakat has been quite good and in accordance with the principle of Islamic economics. Rumah Zakat programs are adapted to support intended development. The contribution of the productive program implementation has been aligned with four goals in the Sustainable Development Goals, i.e., Senyum Juara (Quality Education), Senyum Lestari (Clean Water and Sanitation), Senyum Mandiri (Entrepreneur Program) and Senyum Sehat (Free Maternity Clinic). The performance of zakat in the sustainable economic empowerment community at Rumah Zakat is taking into account dimensions such as input, process, output, and outcome.

Keywords: Social welfare, zakat, charity, Sustainable Economic Development

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