Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Social Support Related Abstracts

32 Health Status, Perception of Self-Efficacy and Social Support of Thailand Aging

Authors: Wipakon Sonsnam, Kanya Napapongsa


The quantitative aim of the study; 1) health conditions, to examine the state of health of the aging, 2) perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging ,3) perceived of social support of the aging, 4) to examine factors associated with self-efficacy in enhancing the health and self-care when illness. 100 samples selected from communities in Dusit, Bangkok, 2014 by random sampling. The questionnaires were used to collect data have 5-point rating scale, consisting of strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree; approved content valid by 3 experts, reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. ST-5, 2Q used for collect mental health. The ability to engage in a daily routine was collected by Barthel ADL index. Founding, the sample group were female (68%). (33%) of them were in the age of 60-65. Most of them were married and still live with their spouse (55%) and do not work (38%). The average annual income was less than 10,000 baht supported by child. Most people think that income was adequate (49.0%) and Satisfaction (61.0%). Most of aging caring them-self, followed by them spouse (26%). Welfare of the public had supported, living for the aging (100%), followed by Join and health volunteers in communities (23%). In terms of health, (53%) of the sample group feels health was fair, hypertension was the most common health condition among sample group (68%), following by diabetes (55%). About eyesight, (42%) have visual acuity. (59.0%) do not need hearing aids. 84% have more than 20 teeth remaining, and have no problem with chewing (61%). In terms of Ability to engage in a daily routine, most of people (84%) in sample group are in type 1. (91%) of the participants don’t have bladder incontinence. For mental condition, (82%) do not have insomnia. (87%) do not have anxiety. (96%) do not have depression. However, (77%) of the sample group is facing stress. In terms of environment in home, bathroom in the home (90.0%) and floor of bathroom was slippery (91.0%). (48%) of the sample group has the skills of how to look after themselves while being sick, and how to keep up healthy lifestyle. Besides, some other factors, such as gender, age and educational background are related to the health perception. The statistical significance was <0.05. Suggestion: The instruments available to national standards such as ST-5, 2Q and Barthel ADL index. Reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. The instrument used to collect perceived of social support must be further developed to study level of influence of social support that affect the health of elderly.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, health status, perception of aging

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31 The Predictors of Self-Esteem among Business School Students

Authors: Suchitra Pal, Arjun Mitra


Objective: The purpose of this empirical study is to ascertain if gender, personality traits and social support predict the self-esteem amongst business school students. Method: The study was conducted through an online survey administered on 160 business school students of which equal-number of males and females were taken, with controls for education and family income status. The participants were contacted through emails. Data was gathered and statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the variables. Results: The results showed that gender was not associated with self-esteem. Whilst all the personality and social support factors were found to be significantly inter-correlated with self-esteem, only extraversion, openness to new experiences, conscientiousness, emotional stability and total perceived social support were found to predict self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings were explained in the light of existing conceptualizations in the field of self-concept. Recommendations for early identification and interventions for a population with lower self-esteem levels have been made based on findings of the study. Major implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

Keywords: Gender, Personality, Social Support, self-concept, self-esteem

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30 What Factors Contributed to the Adaptation Gap during School Transition in Japan?

Authors: Tadaaki Tomiie, Hiroki Shinkawa


The present study was aimed to examine the structure of children’s adaptation during school transition and to identify a commonality and dissimilarity at the elementary and junior high school. 1,983 students in the 6th grade and 2,051 students in the 7th grade were extracted by stratified two-stage random sampling and completed the ASSESS that evaluated the school adaptation from the view point of ‘general satisfaction’, ‘teachers’ support’, ‘friends’ support’, ‘anti-bullying relationship’, ‘prosocial skills’, and ‘academic adaptation’. The 7th graders tend to be worse adaptation than the 6th graders. A structural equation modeling showed the goodness of fit for each grades. Both models were very similar but the 7th graders’ model showed a lower coefficient at the pass from ‘teachers’ support’ to ‘friends’ support’. The role of ‘teachers’ support’ was decreased to keep a good relation in junior high school. We also discussed how we provide a continuous assistance for prevention of the 7th graders’ gap.

Keywords: Social Support, K-12, school transition, psychological adaptation

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29 The Connection between Social Support, Caregiver Burden, and Life Satisfaction of the Parents Whose Children Have Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: A. Uludağ, F. G. Tufekci, N. Ceviz


Aim: The research has been carried out in order to evaluate caregiver burden, life satisfaction and received social support level of the parents whose children have congenital heart disease; to examine the relationship between the social supports received by them and caregiver burden and life satisfaction. Material and Method: The research which is descriptive and which is searching a relationship has been carried out between the dates June 7, 2012- June 30, 2014, in Erzurum Ataturk University Research and Application Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Children Cardiology Polyclinic. In the research, it was collaborated with the parents (N = 157) who accepted to participate in, of children who were between the ages of 3 months- 12 years. While gathering the data, a questionnaire, Zarit Caregiver Burden, Life Satisfaction and Social Support Scales have been used. The statistics of the data acquired has been produced by using percentage distribution, mean, and variance and correlation analysis. Ethical principles are followed in the research. Results: In the research, caregiver burden, life satisfaction and social support level received from family (p < 0.05), have been determined higher in the parents whose children have serious congenital heart disease than that of parents whose children have slight disease and social support received from friends has been found lower. It has been determined that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through negative direction between both social support levels and caregiver burden of parents; and that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through positive direction between both support levels and life satisfaction. Conclusion: That Social Support is in a strong relation with Caregiver Burden through a negative direction and a strong relation with Life Satisfaction through positive direction in parents of all the children who have congenital heart disease requires social support systems to be reinforced. Parents can be led or guided so as to prompt social support systems more.

Keywords: Child, Social Support, Congenital Heart Disease, Parents, Life Satisfaction, caregiver burden

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28 Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia

Authors: Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Johana Johari, Nur Haffiza Rahaman


The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took part in the survey via random sampling. The depression, anxiety, and stress scales were utilized to measure stress while The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure the quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that there were significant correlations between variables in the study. The findings show a significant negative relation between stress and quality of life, and significant positive correlations between support from family as well as support from friends with the quality of life. Stress and support from family were found to be significant predictors and influences the quality of life among flood victims.

Keywords: Quality of Life, stress, Social Support, flood victims

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27 How Social Support, Interaction with Clients and Work-Family Conflict Contribute to Mental Well-Being for Employees in the Human Service System

Authors: Uwe C. Fischer


Mental health and well-being for employees working in the human service system are getting more and more important given the increasing rate of absenteeism at work. Besides individual capacities, social and community factors seem to be important in the working setting. Starting from a demand resource framework including the classical demand control aspects, social support systems, specific demands and resources of the client work, and work-family conflict were considered in the present study. We state hypothetically, that these factors have a meaningful association with the mental quality of life of employees working in the field of social, educational and health sectors. 1140 employees, working in human service organizations (education, youth care, nursing etc.) were asked for strains and resources at work (selected scales from Salutogenetic Subjective Work Assessment SALSA and own new scales for client work), work-family conflict, and mental quality of life from the German Short Form Health Survey. Considering the complex influences of the variables, we conducted a multiple hierarchical regression analysis. One third of the whole variance of the mental quality of life can be declared by the different variables of the model. When the variables concerning social influences were included in the hierarchical regression, the influence of work related control resource decreased. Excessive workload, work-family conflict, social support by supervisors, co-workers and other persons outside work, as well as strains and resources associated with client work had significant regression coefficients. Conclusions: Social support systems are crucial in the social, educational and health related service sector, regarding the influence on mental well-being. Especially the work-family conflict focuses on the importance of the work-life balance. Also the specific strains and resources of the client work, measured with new constructed scales, showed great impact on mental health. Therefore occupational health promotion should focus more on the social factors within and outside the working place.

Keywords: Mental Health, Social Support, work-family conflict, client interaction, human service system

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26 The Relationship between Selfesteem, Social Support, and Mental Health among High School Students in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Shahbakhti


The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, social support and mental health in a sample of government high school students in Eshtehard city in Alborz Province in Iran. Three hundred and eleven students (boys) were included in this study. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS -12), and Self-Esteem Scale (SS-10). The results revealed that self-esteem was positively associated with social support. Self-esteem and social support negatively associated with psychological distress. Self-esteem and social support to influence on mental health.

Keywords: Mental Health, Social Support, high school students, self-esteem

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25 Job Resource, Personal Resource, Engagement and Performance with Balanced Score Card in the Integrated Textile Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Nurlaila Effendy


Companies in Asia face a number of constraints in tight competitiveness in ASEAN Economic Community 2015 and globalization. An economic capitalism system as an integral part of globalization processing brings broad impacts. They need to improve business performance in globalization and ASEAN Economic Community. Organizational development has quite clearly demonstrated that aligning individual’s personal goals with the goals of the organization translates into measurable and sustained performance improvement. Human capital is a key to achieve company performance. Employee Engagement (EE) creates and expresses themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally to achieve company goals and individual goals. One will experience a total involvement when they undertake their jobs and feel a self integration to their job and organization. A leader plays key role in attaining the goals and objectives of a company/organization. Any Manager in a company needs to have leadership competence and global mindset. As one the of positive organizational behavior developments, psychological capital (PsyCap) is assumed to be one of the most important capitals in the global mindset, in addition to intellectual capital and social capital. Textile companies also need to face a number of constraints in tight competitiveness in regional and global. This research involved 42 managers in two textiles and a spinning companies in a group, in Central Java, Indonesia. It is a quantitative research with Partial Least Squares (PLS) studying job resource (Social Support & Organizational Climate) and Personal Resource (4 dimensions of Psychological Capital & Leadership Competence) as prediction of Employee Engagement, also Employee Engagement and leadership competence as prediction of leader’s performance. The performance of a leader is measured by means of achievement on objective strategies in terms of 4 perspectives (financial and non-financial perspectives) in a Balanced Score Card (BSC). It took one year during a business plan of year 2014, from January to December 2014. The result of this research is there is correlation between Job Resource (coefficient value of Social Support is 0.036 & coefficient value of organizational climate is 0.220) and Personal Resource (coefficient value of PsyCap is 0.513 & coefficient value of Leadership Competence is 0.249) with employee engagement. There is correlation between employee engagement (coefficient value is 0.279) and leadership competence (coefficient value is 0.581) with performance.

Keywords: Performance, Organizational Climate, Social Support, Employee Engagement, psychological capital leadership competence, integrated textile companies

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24 Cyber-Victimization among Higher Education Students as Related to Academic and Personal Factors

Authors: T. Heiman, D. Olenik-Shemesh


Over the past decade, with the rapid growth of electronic communication, the internet and, in particular, social networking has become an inseparable part of people's daily lives. Along with its benefits, a new type of online aggression has emerged, defined as cyber bullying, a form of interpersonal aggressive behavior that takes place through electronic means. Cyber-bullying is characterized by repetitive behavior over time of maladaptive authority and power usage using computers and cell phones via sending insulting messages and hurtful pictures. Preliminary findings suggest that the prevalence of involvement in cyber-bullying among higher education students varies between 10 and 35%. As to date, universities are facing an uphill effort in trying to restrain online misbehavior. As no studies examined the relationships between cyber-bullying involvement with personal aspects, and its impacts on academic achievement and work functioning, this present study examined the nature of cyber-bullying involvement among 1,052 undergraduate students (mean age = 27.25, S.D = 4.81; 66.2% female), coping with, as well as the effects of social support, perceived self-efficacy, well-being, and body-perception, in relation to cyber-victimization. We assume that students in higher education are a vulnerable population and at high risk of being cyber-victims. We hypothesize that social support might serve as a protective factor and will moderate the relationships between the socio-emotional variables and the occurrence of cyber- victimization. The findings of this study will present the relationships between cyber-victimization and the social-emotional aspects, which constitute risk and protective factors. After receiving approval from the Ethics Committee of the University, a Google Drive questionnaire was sent to a random sample of students, studying in the various University study centers. Students' participation was voluntary, and they completed the five questionnaires anonymously: Cyber-bullying, perceived self-efficacy, subjective well-being, social support and body perception. Results revealed that 11.6% of the students reported being cyber-victims during last year. Examining the emotional and behavioral reactions to cyber-victimization revealed that female emotional and behavioral reactions were significantly greater than the male reactions (p < .001). Moreover, females reported on a significant higher social support compared to men; male reported significantly on a lower social capability than female; and men's body perception was significantly more positive than women's scores. No gender differences were observed for subjective well-being scale. Significant positive correlations were found between cyber-victimization and fewer friends, lower grades, and work ineffectiveness (r = 0.37- .40, p < 0 .001). The results of the Hierarchical regression indicated significantly that cyber-victimization can be predicted by lower social support, lower body perception, and gender (female), that explained 5.6% of the variance (R2 = 0.056, F(5,1047) = 12.47, p < 0.001). The findings deepen our understanding of the students' involvement in cyber-bullying, and present the relationships of the social-emotional and academic aspects on cyber-victim students. In view of our findings, higher education policy could help facilitate coping with cyber-bullying incidents, and student support units could develop intervention programs aimed at reducing cyber-bullying and its impacts.

Keywords: Higher Education, Social Support, academic and personal factors, cyber-victimization

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23 Examining the Predicting Effect of Mindfulness on Psychological Well-Being among Undergraduate Students

Authors: Piyanee Klainin-Yobas, Debbie Ramirez, Zenaida Fernandez, Jenneth Sarmiento, Wareerat Thanoi, Jeanette Ignacio, Ying Lau


In many countries, university students experience various stressors that may negatively affect their psychological well-being (PWB). Hence, they are at risk for physical and mental problems. This research aimed to examine the predicting effects of mindfulness, self-efficacy, and social support on psychological well-being among undergraduate students. A non-experimental research was conducted at a university in the Philippines. All students enrolled in undergraduate programs were eligible for this study unless they had chronic medical or mental health problems. Power analysis was used to calculate an adequate sample size and a convenience sampling of 630 was recruited. Data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires from year 2013 to 2015. All self-reported scales used in this study had sound psychometric properties. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and structural equation modeling were performed to analyze the research data. Results showed that the participants were mostly Filipino, female, Christian, and in Schools of Nursing. Mindfulness, self-efficacy, support from family, support from friends, and support from significant others were significant predictors of psychological well-being. Mindfulness was the strongest predictor of positive psychological well-being whereas self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of negative psychological well-being. In conclusion, findings from this study add knowledge to the existing literature regarding the predictors of psychological well-being. Psychosocial interventions, with the focus on strengthening mindfulness and self-efficacy, could be delivered to undergraduate students to help them enhance psychological well-being. More studies can be undertaken to test the interventions and multi-centered research can be conducted to enhance generalizability of research findings.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, Mindfulness, psychological wellbeing

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22 Effect of Pregnancy Intention, Postnatal Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Early Childhood Stunting: Findings from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Background: According to United Nation Children’s Fund, it has been estimated that worldwide about 165 million children were stunted in 2012 and India alone accounts for 38% of global burden of stunting. In terms of incidence, India is home of more than 60 million stunted children worldwide. Our study aims to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. We hypothesized that effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were mediated by social support. Methods: We used data from first wave of Young Lives Study India. Out of 2011 children recruited in original cohort, 1833 children had complete information on pregnancy intention, maternal depression and other variables. A series of multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting. Results: Bivariate result indicates that a higher percent of children born after unintended pregnancy (40%) were stunted than children of intended pregnancy (26%). Likewise, proportion of stunted children was also higher among women of high postnatal depressive symptoms (35%) than low level of depression (24%). Results of multivariate logistic regression model indicate that children born after unintended pregnancy were significantly more likely to be stunted than children born after intended pregnancy (Coefficient: 1.70, CI: 1.17, 2.48). Likewise, early childhood stunting was also associated with maternal postnatal depressive symptoms among women (Coefficient: 1.48, CI: 1.16, 1.88). The effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting remains unchanged after controlling for social support and other variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide conclusive evidence regarding consequences of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. Therefore, there is need to identify the women with unintended pregnancy and incorporate the promotion of mental health into their national reproductive and child health programme.

Keywords: Social Support, India, pregnancy intention, postnatal depressive symptoms, childhood stunting, young lives study

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21 Perception of Authorities in Social Support by Students under the Conditions of Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebenarova, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková


The interconnections between supportive sources of authorities at school and students have been proved. Lacking research in this field in Slovakia translates into absenting perception of social support by students with special educational needs. The aim of this paper (presented by the poster) is to reveal and interpret the perception of frequency and importance of authorities at school from students' perspective. The sample included 718 students aged 10 years and 1 month on average. Eighty nine students of this count were students with special educational needs. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS) for students. Mutual relations between teachers acting as the source of support and students were not significant. Neither was significant the support of other school employees. Both groups of students assessed the frequency and importance of social support from teachers more positively than the support from other school employees.

Keywords: Social Support, pupil with special education needs, intact student, pedagogue, school employee

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20 Impacts of Social Support on Perceived Level of Stress and Self-Esteem among Students of Private Universities of Karachi-Pakistan

Authors: Sheeba Farhan


This study is conducted to explore the predictive relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem with social support of students and to explore the factors, which contribute to develop or enhance the level of stress in students of private universities in Karachi-Pakistan. After literature review following hypotheses were formulated; 1)social support would predict perceived stress of students of business administration of private organizations of Higher education, 2) social support would predict the self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 3) there will be a relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 4) there will be a relationship of self esteem and social support of students of private organizations of Higher education. Sample of the study is comprise of 100 students of private organizations of Higher education in Karachi- Pakistan (i.e. males= 50 & females= 50). The age range of participants is 18-26 years. The measures, used in the study are: Demographic information form, a semi structured interview form, Rosenberg self esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and perceived stress scale (Cohen, Kamarck, and Mermelstein, 1983) and multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Zimet, 1988) Descriptive statistics is used for getting a better statistical view of characteristics of sample. Regression analysis is used to explore the predictive relationship of study related stress and self esteem with academic achievement of students of private organizations of Higher education. Percentages and ratios were calculated to explore the level of perceived stress with respect to Socio-demographic characteristics in students of private organizations of Higher education. Finding shows that social support is significantly associated with the higher level of self-esteem among students of graduation but insignificantly associated with stress that has been experienced by them. These results are correlated with a wide variety of studies in which social support has proposed to be a predictor of well being for the students.

Keywords: stress, Social Support, self-esteem, private universities of Karachi-Pakistan

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19 Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Sajed Yaghoubnezhad, Mina Karimi, Seyede Marjan Modirkhazeni


The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).

Keywords: Depression, Social Support, codependency, mothers of children with ID

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18 Correlates of Work-Family Role Conflict and Well-Being: A Comparative Analysis by Gender

Authors: Liat Kulik


The main goal of the present study was to examine gender differences in the variables that explain the experience of role conflict and well-being among Jewish working fathers and mothers in the Israel. The experience of work-family conflict arises from simultaneous pressures from the work and family domains that are mutually incompatible. In light of the expansion of women's role set following the addition of paid employment outside of the home, most of the studies dealing with the impact of multiple roles on well-being have been conducted among women. However, changes in gender roles in recent years have also affected men's role set, as reflected in the terms ‘new men’ and ‘new fathers’. Based on structural equation modeling, the study examined gender differences in variables that explain the experience of two types of role conflict – family interferes with work (FIW) and work interferes with family (WIF), as well as with the sense of well-being (positive and negative affect) among 611 employed Jewish mothers and fathers in Israel. The findings revealed that for women, both FIW and WIF conflict correlated negatively with well-being, whereas for men, a negative correlation with well-being was found only in the case of FIW conflict. For both men and women, egalitarian gender role ideology correlated with the dimension of positive effect, but the correlation was stronger for men. The findings highlight the contribution of egalitarian gender role ideology to alleviating the experience of role conflict and improving the emotional well-being of both men and women. Contrary to expectations, social support contributed more to mitigating negative effect among men than women. On the whole, the findings highlight the changes that men have experienced in the work-family system. In sum, the research findings shed new light on the masculine image in terms of the experience of FIW conflict. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that FIW role conflict is predominant among women, the findings of this study indicate that today, this type of role conflict is experienced equally by men and women whereas WIF conflict is predominant among men. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, levels of perceived social support were found to be similar for men and women, and men benefited from it even more than women did.

Keywords: Social Support, overload, FIW conflict, WIF conflict, egalitarian gender role ideology

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17 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati


This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: Social Support, Mothers, household problems, poor households

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16 Facilitating Familial Support of Saudi Arabians Living with HIV/AIDS

Authors: Noor Attar


This paper provides an overview of the current situation of HIV/AIDS patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and a literature review of the concepts of stigma communication, communication of social support. These concepts provide the basis for the proposed methods, which will include conducting a textual analysis of materials that are currently distributed to family members of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/A) in KSA and creating an educational brochure. The brochure will aim to help families of PLWHIV/A in KSA (1) understand how stigma shapes the experience of PLWHIV/A, (2) realize the role of positive communication as a helpful social support, and (3) develop the ability to provide positive social support for their loved ones.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Social Support, Saudi Arabia, stigma communication

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15 Social Support in the Tradition for Pregnant Mother Care In East Nusa Tenggara

Authors: Sri Widati, Ira Nurmala


The Se’i Tradition was considered to contribute highly to the high maternal mortality rate in South Amanuban, East Nusa Tenggara. This tradition is still preserved due to the social support that has influenced the decision to carry out the Se’i to pregnant women and post-partum women. The purpose of this study is to analyze this social support towards the Se’i Tradition on pregnant women in East Nusa Tenggara. This research was an explorative study with in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions (FGD) in collecting the data. This study showed that emotional support towards Se’i was commonly given by families, specifically by the mother-in laws. Instrumental support was shown by the husbands and the traditional midwives who helped delivered the babies. Informational support was found on the pregnant women and their mother-in laws. Appraisal support was given by all the neighbors and relatives of the pregnant women by telling how comfortable it was to go through this tradition which eventually affected those women to carry it out themselves. The Se’i Tradition is still carried out and mostly supported by the relatives of the pregnant women. The first recommendation of this study is to suggest people to only follow the suggestions from the local health staff to give birth in the local health centers and not to do the tradition anymore. The second recommendation is to urge the government to give support in the form of transportation facilities for pregnant women to reach the local health staff.

Keywords: Social Support, Pregnant Women, maternal mortality, the Se’i tradition, post-partum women

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14 An Acerbate Psychotics Symptoms, Social Support, Stressful Life Events, Medication Use Self-Efficacy Impact on Social Dysfunction: A Cross Sectional Self-Rated Study of Persons with Schizophrenia Patient and Misusing Methamphetamines

Authors: Ek-Uma Imkome, Jintana Yunibhand, Waraporn Chaiyawat


Background: Persons with schizophrenia patient and misusing methamphetamines suffering from social dysfunction that impact on their quality of life. Knowledge of factors related to social dysfunction will guide the effective intervention. Objectives: To determine the direct effect, indirect effect and total effect of an acerbate Psychotics’ Symptoms, Social Support, Stressful life events, Medication use self-efficacy impact on social dysfunction in Thai schizophrenic patient and methamphetamine misuse. Methods: Data were collected from schizophrenic and methamphetamine misuse patient by self report. A linear structural relationship was used to test the hypothesized path model. Results: The hypothesized model was found to fit the empirical data and explained 54% of the variance of the psychotic symptoms (X2 = 114.35, df = 92, p-value = 0.05, X2 /df = 1.24, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.92, CFI = 1.00, NFI = 0.99, NNFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.02). The highest total effect on social dysfunction was psychotic symptoms (0.67, p<0.05). Medication use self-efficacy had a direct effect on psychotic symptoms (-0.25, p<0.01), and social support had direct effect on medication use self efficacy (0.36, p <0.01). Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms and stressful life events were the significance factors that influenced direct on social dysfunctioning. Therefore, interventions that are designed to manage these factors are crucial in order to enhance social functioning in this population.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Social Support, social dysfunction, methamphetamine, psychotic symptoms, stressful life events, medication use self efficacy

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13 Relationship between Pain, Social Support and Socio-Economic Indicators in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Zahra Khazaeipour, Ehsan Ahmadipour, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Fereshteh Ahmadipour


Research Objectives: Chronic pain is one of the common problems associated with spinal cord injuries (SCI), which causes many complications. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the relationship between pain and demographic, injury characteristics, socio-economic and social support in individuals with spinal cord Injury in Iran. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between 2012 and 2013. Participants: The participants were 140 individuals with SCI, 101 (72%) men and 39 (28%) women, with mean age of 29.4 ±7.9 years. Main Outcome Measure: The Persian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used to measure the pain, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure social support. Results: About 50.7% complained about having pain, which 79.3% had bilateral pain. The most common locations of pain were lower limbs and back. The most quality of pain was described as aching (41.4%), and tingling (32.9%). Patients with a medium level of education had the least pain compared to high and low level of education. SCI individuals with good economic situation reported higher frequency of having pain. There was no significant relationship between pain and social support. There was positive correlation between pain and impairment of mood, normal work, relations with other people and lack of sleep (P < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings revealed the importance of socioeconomic factors such as economic situation and educational level in understanding chronic pain in people with SCI and provide further support for the bio-psychosocial model. Hence, multidisciplinary evaluations and treatment strategies are advocated, including biomedical, psychological, and psycho-social interventions.

Keywords: Pain, Spinal Cord Injury, Social Support, socio-economic indicators

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12 The Role of Formal and Informal Social Support in Predicting the Involvement of Mothers and Fathers of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Adi Sharabi, Dafna Marom-Golan


Parents’ involvement in the care of their children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and its beneficial effect on the children’s developmental and educational outcomes is well documented. At the same time, parents of children with ASD tend to experience greater psychological distress than parents of children with other developmental disabilities or with typical development. Positive social support is an important resource used by parents to reduce their psychological distress. The goal of the current research was to examine the contribution of formal and informal social support in explaining mothers’ and fathers’ involvement with their young children with ASD. The sample consisted of 107 parents who live in Israel (61 mothers and 46 fathers) of children aged between 2 and 7, all diagnosed with ASD and attending special kindergartens or special day care for children with ASD. Parental involvement and social support perception were assessed. Initial analysis focused on the relations between involvement, support, and demographic variables. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test differences between mothers and fathers. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predicted factors in the involvement model while controlling for group (mothers/fathers). Results indicate that mothers reported significantly higher levels of parenting involvement than fathers. Mothers reported higher levels of general involvement and all sub-types of involvement. For example, mothers reported that they were more interested in and have higher levels of attendance in their child’s educational program. They were also more collaborative in their child’s educational therapeutic program, and socialized with other parents of children from their child’s kindergarten than fathers. Mothers’ involvement was found to be related to their informal support (non-formal relatives). Findings also reveal significant differences between mothers and fathers on the formal support subscale measure of specializes services. Fathers, more than mothers, reported more specializes services support such as social workers or professional therapists. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a unique gender difference in the factors that explained parental involvement. Specifically, informal support only had a unique positive contribution in explaining mothers’, but not fathers’ involvement. This study highlights the central role of mothers in maintaining constant contact with the educational system and the professionals who help care for their child with ASD. At the same time, this research emphasizes the crucial role of both mothers and fathers in their child's development and well-being at every development stage, particularly in early development. Further, different kinds of social support seem to relate to the different kinds of parental involvement. It is in the best interest of educators and family therapists who work with families with children with ASD to support the cohesiveness of the family and the collaboration of the parents by understanding and respecting the way each member addresses the responsibilities of parenting a child with ASD, and her or his need for different types of social support.

Keywords: Social Support, parental involvement, parental differences, specialized support services

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11 The Effect of Occupational Calling and Social Support on the Anxiety of Navies Who Are Sent Overseas

Authors: Yonguk L. Park, Jeonghoon Seol


The Republic of Korea is facing a special situation as it is the only divided country in the world. Even though Korea is facing such unstable circumstances in terms of a foreign diplomacy situation, Korea is one of the countries who, in concern for world peace, have been sending troops overseas. The troops spend more than a year at sea and may suffer from different types of psychological disorders. The purpose of this study is to try to find factors that promote psychological well-being of troops and improve their psychological health. We investigated the effect of dispatch sailors’ occupational calling and social support on anxiety before they are sent overseas and also examined the interaction between occupational calling and social support on anxiety. One hundred thirty-eight dispatched sailors participated in this study, wherein they completed the Korean calling scale, multifaceted social support scale, and anxiety scale –Y form. We analyzed the data using hierarchical regression. The results showed that after controlling gender, marital status, and the previous experiences of dispatch, those who have a higher level of occupational calling and perceived social support experienced a low level of anxiety before they are sent (β = -.276, β = -.395). Furthermore, we examined the interaction effect. If the troops’ perceived social support is high, they experience a low level of anxiety—even if they have a low level of occupational calling. This study confirms that both occupational calling and social support reduce the level of anxiety of the troops. The research provides meaningful information in understanding those who serve in the Navy’s distinctive situations and contributes to improving their psychological well-being. We suggest that sailors undergo training to have a higher occupational calling and healthy relationships with friends, families, and co-workers who provide emotional and social support.

Keywords: Anxiety, Social Support, navy, occupational calling

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10 The Antecedents of Internet Addiction toward Smartphone Usage

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Chechen Liao, Hen-Yi Huang


Twenty years after Internet development, scholars have started to identify the negative impacts brought by the Internet. Overuse of Internet could develop Internet dependency and in turn cause addiction behavior. Therefore understanding the phenomenon of Internet addiction is important. With the joint efforts of experts and scholars, Internet addiction has been officially listed as a symptom that affects public health, and the diagnosis, causes and treatment of the symptom have also been explored. On the other hand, in the area of smartphone Internet usage, most studies are still focusing on the motivation factors of smartphone usage. Not much research has been done on smartphone Internet addiction. In view of the increasing adoption of smartphones, this paper is intended to find out whether smartphone Internet addiction exists in modern society or not. This study adopted the research methodology of online survey targeting users with smartphone Internet experience. A total of 434 effective samples were recovered. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. Software chosen for statistical analysis is SPSS 20.0 for windows and SmartPLS 2.0. The research result successfully proved that smartphone users who access Internet service via smartphone could also develop smartphone Internet addiction. Factors including flow experience, depression, virtual social support, smartphone Internet affinity and maladaptive cognition all have significant and positive influence on smartphone Internet addiction. In the scenario of smartphone Internet use, descriptive norm has a positive and significant influence on perceived playfulness, while perceived playfulness also has a significant and positive influence on flow experience. Depression, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by actual social support and positive influenced by the virtual social support.

Keywords: Social Support, Internet Addiction, smartphone usage, perceived playfulness

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9 Health, Social Integration and Social Justice: The Lived Experiences of Young Middle-Eastern Refugees in Australia

Authors: Pranee Liamputtong, Hala Kurban


Based on the therapeutic landscape theory, this paper examines how young Middle-Eastern refugee individuals perceive their health and well-being and address the barriers they face in their new homeland and the means that helped them to form social connections in their new social environment. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and mapping activities) were conducted with ten young people from refugee backgrounds. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Findings suggested that the young refugees face various structural and cultural inequalities that significantly influenced their health and well-being. Mental health well-being was their greatest health concern. All reported the significant influence the English language had on their ability to adapt and form connections with their social environment. The presence of positive social support in their new social environment had a great impact on the health and well-being of the participants. The findings of this study have implications for social justice among refugees. They also contributed to the role of therapeutic landscapes and social support in helping young refugees to feel that they belonged to the society, and hence assisted them to adapt to their new living situation.

Keywords: Social Justice, Social Support, young refugees, Middle-Eastern

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8 The Study of Participant Motivation, Social Support, and Training Satisfaction of Collegiate Teakwondo Athlete

Authors: Li-Wei Liu, Wen-Goang Yang, Peli-Ling Liu


The purpose of this study was to explore relations among athletic participant motivation, social support, and training satisfaction. The approach was tested using structural equation modeling, involving 300 Teakwondo Athletics from 2017 National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, using a revised scale for Participant Motivation, Social Support, and Training Satisfaction. Statistical method included descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM. The results of the research as a follow: (1) The athletes ‘participant motivation’ positively effects the ‘social support’. (2) The athletes ‘participant motivation’ positively effects the ‘training satisfaction’. (3) The athletes ‘social support’ positively effects the ‘training satisfaction’.

Keywords: Social Support, PLS-SEM, teakwondo, collegiate athlete

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7 Social Support and Quality of Life of Youth Suffering from Cerebral Palsy Temporarily Orphaned Due to Emigration of a Parent

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła


The article is concerned in the issue of social support and quality of life of youth suffering from cerebral palsy, who are temporarily orphaned due to the emigration of a parent. Migration causes multi-aspect consequences in various spheres of life. They are particularly severe for the functioning of families. Temporal parting of parents and children, especially the disabled, is a difficult situation. In this case, the family structure is changed, as well as the quality of life of its members. Children can handle migration parting in a better or worse way; these can be divided into properly functioning and manifesting behaviour disorders. In conditions of the progressing phenomenon of labour migration of Poles and a wide spectrum of consequences for the whole social life, it is essential to undertake actions aimed at support of migrants and their families. This article focuses mainly on social support and quality of families members, of which, are the labour migrants perceived by youth suffering from cerebral palsy. The quantitative method was used in this study. In the study, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener, was used. The analysed group consisted of 50 persons (37 girls and 13 boys), aged 16 years to 18 years, whose parents are labour migrants. The results indicate that the quality of life and social support for youth suffering from cerebral palsy who are temporarily orphaned is at a low and average level.

Keywords: Migration, Quality of Life, Social Support, Cerebral Palsy

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6 Stress Perception, Social Supports and Family Function among Military Inpatients with Adjustment Disorders in Taiwan

Authors: Huey-Fang Sun, Wei-Kai Weng, Mei-Kuang Chao, Hui-Shan Hsu, Tsai-Yin Shih


Psycho-social stress is important for mental illness and the presence of emotional and behavioral symptoms to an identifiable event is the central feature of adjustment disorders. However, whether patients with adjustment disorders have been raised in family with poor family functions and social supports and have higher stress perception than their peer group when they both experienced a similar stressful environment remains unknown. The specific aims of the study are to investigate the correlation among the family function, social supports and the level of stress perception and to test the hypothesis that military patients with adjustment disorders would have lower family function, lower social supports and higher stress perception than their healthy colleagues recruited in the same cohort for military services given their common exposure to similar stressful environments. Methods: The study was conducted in four hospitals of northern part of Taiwan from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017 and a matched case-control study design was used. The inclusion criteria for potential patient participants were psychiatric inpatients that serviced in military during the study period and met the diagnosis of adjustment disorders. Patients who had been admitted to psychiatric ward before or had illiteracy problem were excluded. A healthy military control sample matched by the same military service unit, gender, and recruited cohort was invited to participate the study as well. Totally 74 participants (37 patients and 37 controls) completed the consent forms and filled out the research questionnaires. Questionnaires used in the study included Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) as a measure of stress perception; Family APGAR as a measure of family function, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) as a measure of social supports. Pearson correlation analysis and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. Results: The analysis results showed that PSS level significantly negatively correlated with three social support subscales (family subscale, r= -.37, P < .05; friend subscale, r= -.38, P < .05; significant other subscale, r= -.39, P < .05). A negative correlation between PSS level and Family APGAR only reached a borderline significant level (P= .06). The t-test results for PSS scores, Family APGAR levels, and three subscale scores of MSPSS between patient and control participants were all significantly different (P < .001, P < .05, P < .05, P < .05, P < .05, respectively) and the patient participants had higher stress perception scores, lower social supports and lower family function scores than the healthy control participants. Conclusions: Our study suggested that family function and social supports were negatively correlated with patients’ subjective stress perception. Military patients with adjustment disorders tended to have higher stress perception and lower family function and social supports than those military peers who remained healthy and still provided services in their military units.

Keywords: Social Support, adjustment disorders, family function, stress perception

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5 Cultural Orientation as a Moderator between Social Support Needs and Psychological Well-Being among Canadian University Students

Authors: Allison Streutker, Josephine Tan


Universities across Canada have experienced unprecedented growth in international student enrollment from across the world. As cultural diversity in Canada and other countries increases, understanding the social support needs of all students is important for providing them with the assistance they need to thrive psychologically and academically. Those from individualistic cultural orientations tend to seek explicit social support, which involves expressly asking for assistance in times of stress. However, those from collectivistic cultural orientations are more likely to seek implicit social support, where encouragement is obtained from spending time among valued social groups without explicitly talking about problems. This study explored whether the relationship between the type of social support needs (implicit or explicit) and psychological and academic functioning might be moderated by cultural orientations (individualistic, collectivistic) among university students. Participants were 110 university students (70 women, 40 men; mean age = 24.8 years, SD = 6.6). They completed the Individualism and Collectivism Scale (ICS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) which assesses implicit and explicit social support, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) which yields positive and negative experience scores, Flourishing Scale (FS), and reported their grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic performance. Moderated regression analysis demonstrated that, for those scoring lower on individualism, reporting lower level of implicit support predicted higher levels of perceived stress. For those scoring higher on individualism, lower levels of explicit social support predicted higher levels of perceived stress and a greater number of negative experiences. Generally, higher levels of implicit support were associated with greater satisfaction with life for all students, with the association becoming stronger among students with higher collectivism scores. No other significant findings were found. The results point to the value of considering the cultural orientations of students when designing programs to maintain and improve their sense of well-being.

Keywords: Well-being, Social Support, university students, cultural orientation

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4 Culture, Trust and Adaptation: A Study of International Students in Japan

Authors: Shaoyu Ye


This study aims to investigate the relationship between international students’ (ISs) trust of others (Japanese people and other different-language speakers) and intercultural adaptation in Japan, controlling for the effects of language abilities (both Japanese and English) and their liking of Japanese students. A total of 206 ISs completed a questionnaire survey measuring their degree of liking of general Japanese students (JSs) and trust of others, their most frequently contact persons and their communication ways, their received social support from same-language speakers, Japanese native speakers and other different-language speakers, and their degree of feeling been accepted, and so on. The following results were observed. (a) Neither Japanese language nor English language had significant effects on their sense of acceptance, while their degree of liking of JSs and trust of others had significant positive effects on it; (b) ISs’ Japanese language, along with their trust of others, led them to receive more social support from Japanese people, which helped raise their sense of acceptance in Japan; (c) ISs’ English language and their trust of others helped them receive more social support from other different- language speakers, which led them to feel been accepted in Japan. The importance of distinguishing between the effects of trust of Japanese people on intercultural adaptation and the effects of trust of other different-language speakers on intercultural adaptation is discussed.

Keywords: Social Support, international students in Japan, language abilities, sense of acceptance, trust of others

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3 Contextual and Personal Factors as Predictor of Academic Resilience among Female Undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ndidi Ofole


Ongoing Boko Haram crisis and instability in North-Eastern Nigeria has placed additional stress on academic resilience of female undergraduates who are already challenged by gender discrimination in educational opportunities. Students without resilience lack stress hardiness to cope with academic challenges. There is a limited study on academic resilience targeting this disadvantaged population in Nigeria. Consequently, survey research design was employed to investigate the contextual and personal factors that could predict academic resilience among female undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern, Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty female students with age range of 18 to 24 years ( = 19.2; SD=6.9) were randomly drawn from 3 Universities in North-Eastern Nigeria. They responded to five instruments, namely; Academic Resilience scale (r=0.72); Social Support questionnaire (r=0. 64); Social Connectedness questionnaire (r=0.75); Self-Efficacy scale (r=0. 68) and Emotional Regulation questionnaire (r=78). Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between the four independent variables and academic resilience. The variables jointly contributed 5.9% variance in the prediction of academic resilience. In terms of magnitude, social support was most potent while self-efficacy was the least. It concluded that the factors considered in this study are academic resilience facilitators. The outcomes of the study have both theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, Emotional Regulation, academic resilience, school connectedness

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