Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

social function Related Abstracts

2 A Doctrinal Research and Review of Hashtag Trademarks

Authors: Hetvi Trivedi


Technological escalation cannot be negated. The same is true for the benefits of technology. However, such escalation has interfered with the traditional theories of protection under Intellectual Property Rights. Out of the many trends that have disrupted the old-school understanding of Intellectual Property Rights, one is hashtags. What began modestly in the year 2007 has now earned a remarkable status, and coupled with the unprecedented rise in social media the hashtag culture has witnessed a monstrous growth. A tiny symbol on the keypad of phones or computers is now a major trend which also serves companies as a critical investment measure in establishing their brand in the market. Due to this a section of the Intellectual Property Rights- Trademarks is undergoing a humungous transformation with hashtags like #icebucket, #tbt or #smilewithacoke, getting trademark protection. So, as the traditional theories of IP take on the modern trends, it is necessary to understand the change and challenge at a theoretical and proportional level and where need be, question the change. Traditionally, Intellectual Property Rights serves the societal need for intellectual productions that ensure its holistic development as well as cultural, economic, social and technological progress. In a two-pronged effort at ensuring continuity of creativity, IPRs recognize the investment of individual efforts that go into creation by way of offering protection. Commonly placed under two major theories- Utilitarian and Natural, IPRs aim to accord protection and recognition to an individual’s creation or invention which serve as an incentive for further creations or inventions, thus fully protecting the creative, inventive or commercial labour invested in the same. In return, the creator by lending the public the access to the creation reaps various benefits. This way Intellectual Property Rights form a ‘social contract’ between the author and society. IPRs are similarly attached to a social function, whereby individual rights must be weighed against competing rights and to the farthest limit possible, both sets of rights must be treated in a balanced manner. To put it differently, both the society and the creator must be put on an equal footing with neither party’s rights subservient to the other. A close look through doctrinal research, at the recent trend of trademark protection, makes the social function of IPRs seem to be moving far from the basic philosophy. Thus, where technology interferes with the philosophies of law, it is important to check and allow such growth only in moderation, for none is superior than the other. The human expansionist nature may need everything under the sky that can be tweaked slightly to be counted and protected as Intellectual Property- like a common parlance word transformed into a hashtag, however IP in order to survive on its philosophies needs to strike a balance. A unanimous global decision on the judicious use of IPR recognition and protection is the need of the hour.

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Technology, hashtag trademarks, social function

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1 Correlation between Visual Perception and Social Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Candy Chieh Lee


Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia. The specific aims are: 1) To explore performances in visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia 2) to examine the correlation between visual perceptual skills and social function in patients with schizophrenia The long-term goal is to be able to provide the most adequate intervention program for promoting patients’ visual perceptual skills and social function, as well as compensatory techniques. Background: Perceptual deficits in schizophrenia have been well documented in the visual system. Clinically, a considerable portion (up to 60%) of schizophrenia patients report distorted visual experiences such as visual perception of motion, color, size, and facial expression. Visual perception is required for the successful performance of most activities of daily living, such as dressing, making a cup of tea, driving a car and reading. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia usually exhibit psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucination and delusions which tend to alter their perception of reality and affect their quality of interpersonal relationship and limit their participation in various social situations. Social function plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with schizophrenia; lower social functioning skills can lead to poorer prognosis. Investigations on the relationship between social functioning and perceptual ability in patients with schizophrenia are relatively new but important as the results could provide information for effective intervention on visual perception and social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited 50 participants with schizophrenia in the mental health hospital (Taipei City Hospital, Songde branch, Taipei, Taiwan) acute ward. Participants who have signed consent forms, diagnosis of schizophrenia and having no organic vision deficits were included. Participants were administered the test of visual-perceptual skills (non-motor), third edition (TVPS-3) and the personal and social performance scale (PSP) for assessing visual perceptual skill and social function. The assessments will take about 70-90 minutes to complete. Data Analysis: The IBM SPSS 21.0 will be used to perform the statistical analysis. First, descriptive statistics will be performed to describe the characteristics and performance of the participants. Lastly, Pearson correlation will be computed to examine the correlation between PSP and TVPS-3 scores. Results: Significant differences were found between the means of participants’ TVPS-3 raw scores of each subtest with the age equivalent raw score provided by the TVPS-3 manual. Significant correlations were found between all 7 subtests of TVPS-3 and PSP total score. Conclusions: The results showed that patients with schizophrenia do exhibit visual perceptual deficits and is correlated social functions. Understanding these facts of patients with schizophrenia can assist health care professionals in designing and implementing adequate rehabilitative treatment according to patients’ needs.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Schizophrenia, Visual Perception, social function

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