Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Social Exclusion Related Abstracts

5 Family Depression and Its Relationship with Disability

Authors: Nyla Anjum, Humara Bano

Abstract:

Disability in any form has great impact not only for the person facing it but also for its family members too. This effect may be so severe that may lead to mal adjustment of any member of the family in society as well. This impact has also been multiplied due to negative attitudes of the society, unawareness about the needs of special needs and no legislation for the parents of children with special needs. As a result not only the separations among the parents have been reported but also the normal siblings in the home are also badly affected in their daily lives. The situation is more challenging when more than one child with disability is present in the family. The main objectives of this paper are to unfold the relationship of variety of disabilities (hearing, visual or physical impairment, mental retardation, speech impairment) in i) developing depression in home setting, ii) social exclusion, iii) anxiety and aggression and iv) development of insecure feelings among family members of the persons with disabilities, as well as, v) to identify coping strategies to manage the special needs by family members too. To reach on conclusion about fifty families (having any sort of disability in their homes) have been interviewed on basis of convenient sampling. Correlation, ANOVA and different analysis have been used to identify the relationship of disability in developing depression among family members in line of above mentioned problems. Results revealed that depression due to disability among families is a common phenomenon and adversely have affected their lives in daily routines as well as in following their life achievements. Coping with the situation and recommending various remedies by parents is the positive reflection of this study too that can help to families in managing their mental health.

Keywords: Depression, Social Exclusion, anxiety and aggression, parents of children with special needs

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4 Thinking about the Loss of Social Networking Sites May Expand the Distress of Social Exclusion

Authors: Wen-Bin Chiou, Hsiao-Chiao Weng

Abstract:

Social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter are low-cost tools that can promote the creation of social connections by providing a convenient platform that can be accessed at any time. In the current research, a laboratory experiment was conducted test the hypothesis that reminders of losing SNS would alter the impact of social events, especially those involving social exclusion. Specifically, this study explored whether losing SNS would intensify perceived social distress induced by exclusionary bogus feedback. Eighty-eight Facebook users (46 females, 42 males; mean age = 22.6 years, SD = 3.1 years) were recruited via campus posters and flyers at a national university in southern Taiwan. After participants provided consent, they were randomly assigned to a 2 (SNS non-use vs. neutral) between-subjects experiment. Participants completed an ostensible survey about online social networking in which we included an item about the time spent on SNS per day. The last question was used to manipulate thoughts about losing SNS access. Participants under the non-use condition were asked to record three conditions that would render them unable to use SNS (e.g., a network adaptor problem, malfunctioning cable modem, or problems with Internet service providers); participants under the neutral condition recorded three conditions that would render them unable to log onto the college website (e.g., server maintenance, local network or firewall problems). Later, this experiment employed a bogus-feedback paradigm to induce social exclusion. Participants then rated their social distress on a four-item scale, identical to that of Experiment 1 (α = .84). The results showed that thoughts of losing SNS intensified distress caused by social exclusion, suggesting that the loss of SNS has a similar effect to the loss of a primary source for social reconnections. Moreover, the priming effects of SNS on perceived distress were more prominent for heavy users. The demonstrated link between the idea of losing SNS use and increased pain of social exclusion manifests the importance of SNS as a crucial gateway for acquiring and rebuilding social connections. Use of online social networking appears to be a two-edged sword for coping with social exclusion in human lives in the e-society.

Keywords: Social Exclusion, online social networking, perceived distress, SNS

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3 Children and Migration in Ghana: Unveiling the Realities of Vulnerability and Social Exclusion

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

Abstract:

In contemporary times, the incessant movement of northern children especially girls to southern Ghana at the detriment of their education is worrisome. Due to the misplaced mindset of the migrants concerning southern Ghana, majority of them move without an idea of where to stay and what to do exposing them to hash conditions of living. Majority find menial work in cocoa farms, illegal mining and head porterage business. This study was conducted in the Kumasi Metropolis to ascertain the major causes of child migration from the northern part of Ghana to the south and their living conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative tools of data collection and analysis were employed. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 90 migrants below 18 years. Specifically, interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the units of analysis. The study revealed that the major cause of child migration from northern Ghana to the south is poverty. It was evident that respondents were vulnerable to the new environment in which they lived. They are exposed to harsh environmental conditions; sexual, verbal and physical assault; and harassment from arm robbers. The paper recommends that policy decisions should be able to create an enabling environment for the labour force in the north to ameliorate the compelling effects poverty has on child migration. Efforts should also be made to create a proper psychological climate in the minds of the children regarding their destination areas through sensitization and education.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Social Exclusion, Ghana, child migration, child labour

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2 Trafficking of Women in International Migration: Issues and Major Challenges in Present Scenario

Authors: Neha Singh, Anshuman Rana

Abstract:

Gender-Based Violence (GBV) is a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination which reinforces inequalities between men and women. It is defined as violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender. There has been increased attention to human trafficking that has exposed to illegal migration. Trafficking is complex, but it generally takes place due to “push and pull factors”. India is both a source as well as a transit country for trafficking. Women are bought and sold with impunity and trafficked to other countries. They are forced to work as sex worker, forced labour and other practices of slavery. Trafficked victims often suffer from serious abuse and physical exhaustion. The effects of violence on women vary widely. GBV typically has physical, psychological and social effects. They face unwanted pregnancies, miscarriages, high rate of infertility and sexually transmitted disease. The social exclusion of women is so great that it constitutes a new form of apartheid. Women are considered as lesser value and deprived of their fundamental rights. Violation of human rights and fundamental freedom such as- trafficking of women, girls for sex trade, forced prostitution and sex tourism have become the focus of internationally organized crimes. My paper will analyse the impact of violence on society as well. Law alone cannot change the scenario and problem of gender-biasness. The whole issue of gender violence needs social awakening and change in attitude of masses, so that due respect and equal status is given to women.

Keywords: Migration, trafficking, Social Exclusion, Law enforcement, gender-based violence, violence impact

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1 Territorial Analysis of the Public Transport Supply: Case Study of Recife City

Authors: Cláudia Alcoforado, Anabela Ribeiro

Abstract:

This paper is part of an ongoing PhD thesis. It seeks to develop a model to identify the spatial failures of the public transportation supply. In the construction of the model, it also seeks to detect the social needs arising from the disadvantage in transport. The case study is carried out for the Brazilian city of Recife. Currently, Recife has a population density of 7,039.64 inhabitants per km². Unfortunately, only 46.9% of urban households on public roads have adequate urbanization. Allied to this reality, the trend of the occupation of the poorest population is that of the peripheries, a fact that has been consolidated in Brazil and Latin America, thus burdening the families' income, since the greater the distances covered for the basic activities and consequently also the transport costs. In this way, there have been great impacts caused by the supply of public transportation to locations with low demand or lack of urban infrastructure. The model under construction uses methods such as Currie’s Gap Assessment associated with the London’s Public Transport Access Level, and the Public Transport Accessibility Index developed by Saghapour. It is intended to present the stage of the thesis with the spatial/need gaps of the neighborhoods of Recife already detected. The benefits of the geographic information system are used in this paper. It should be noted that gaps are determined from the transport supply indices. In this case, considering the presence of walking catchment areas. Still in relation to the detection of gaps, the relevant demand index is also determined. This, in turn, is calculated through indicators that reflect social needs. With the use of the smaller Brazilian geographical unit, the census sector, the model with the inclusion of population density in the study areas should present more consolidated results. Based on the results achieved, an analysis of transportation disadvantage will be carried out as a factor of social exclusion in the study area. It is anticipated that the results obtained up to the present moment, already indicate a strong trend of public transportation in areas of higher income classes, leading to the understanding that the most disadvantaged population migrates to those neighborhoods in search of employment.

Keywords: Social Exclusion, gap assessment, public transport supply, spatial gaps

Procedia PDF Downloads 63