Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

social entrepreneurship Related Abstracts

26 Factors Effecting the Success and Failure of Social Enterprise in Thailand

Authors: Jatuporn Juyjingam, Pitak Siriwong

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This paper presents a study of factors effecting the success and failure of social enterprise in Thailand identifying communication as one of the criteria for measuring the social impact of social enterprise. The study focused on the communication driver of the SCALERS model. The research examines how communication is viewed in Thailand social enterprise. The research aims to determine how selected social enterprise uses communication in their operations. More specifically, the study aims to 1) describe the profile of social enterprise in Thailand, 2) identify the different roles of communication in the operation of social enterprise in Thailand, 3) determine Thailand social enterprise concept of communication. The study made use of the case study and cross case study research designs. For the profiling of the social enterprises, the case study was used. The researchers made use of the cross-case research design in identifying trends across the ten social enterprises and in determining the social entrepreneurs’ concept of communication. Key informant interviews were conducted with the heads or representatives of selected social enterprises, a three-part interview schedule was used to facilitate data gathering. The three parts included are 1) Profile of social enterprise in Thailand 2) How social enterprises apply communication in their operations 3) What is the key success in using communication among social enterprise in Thailand. This study is an exploratory research.

Keywords: Communication, social entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise, sustainability development

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25 Social Entrepreneurship on Islamic Perspective: Identifying Research Gap

Authors: Shuhairimi Abdullah, Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Azizan Bahari

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Problem: The research problem is lacking of model on social entrepreneurship that focus on Islamic perspective. Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse the existing model on social entrepreneurship and to identify the research gap on Islamic perspective from existing models. Research Methodology: The research method used in this study is literature review and comparative analysis from 6 existing models of social entrepreneurship. Finding: The research finding shows that 6 existing models on social entrepreneurship has been analysed and it shows that the existing models on social entrepreneurship do not emphasize on Islamic perspective.

Keywords: Business Management, social entrepreneurship, Islamic perspective, research gap

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24 NGO Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Abroad: The Effects on Local Social Economies

Authors: Renee Nank

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Nongovernmental organizations that operate in other countries are, under American law, permitted to apply for and receive special tax status even when their programs and services are situated in other countries. NGO's are lauded as incubators for innovation as they typically tackle difficult problems that public and private organizations are unable or uninterested in addressing. Little research has been undertaken that explores both the extent of these organizations in number and reach, their impact on addressing local issues they seek to resolve, and their effect on local social economies - namely job creation. This study explores the landscape of these NGOs that are afforded tax benefits in the U.S., but operate in other countries, the degree to which they are entrepreneurial and innovate, and their effect on local social economies. This applies this lens to particular cases by exploring in greater depth several American NGO's operating in Mexico.

Keywords: Civil Society, social entrepreneurship, social economy, nongovernmental organizations, NGO innovation

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23 Initial Concept of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship: Identification of Research Gap from Existing Model

Authors: Mohd Adib Abd Muin

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Social entrepreneurship has become a new phenomenon in a country in order to reduce social problems and eradicate poverty communities. However, the study based on Islamic social entrepreneurship from the social entrepreneurial activity is still new especially in the Islamic perspective. In addition, this research found that is lacking of model on social entrepreneurship that focus on Islamic perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify the issues and research gap based on Islamic perspective from existing models and to develop a concept of Islamic social entrepreneurship according to Islamic perspective and Maqasid Shari’ah. The research method used in this study is literature review and comparative analysis from 11 existing models of social entrepreneurship. The research finding shows that 11 existing models on social entrepreneurship has been analyzed and it shows that the existing models on social entrepreneurship do not emphasize on Islamic perspective.

Keywords: Component, social entrepreneurship, Islamic perspective, research gap

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22 Social Entrepreneurship and Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Wan Norhayate Wan Daud, Fakhrul Anwar Zainol, Zulhamri Abdullah and Mohd Rafi Yaacob

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Malaysia has made great strides in eradicating poverty. Based on the latest figures of the 9th Malaysian Plan Mid-term review, the overall hardcore poverty percentage is down to 0.7%, and only 3.6% of the Malaysian population is living below the overall poverty line. While in the past significant efforts had been taken by the government through various developmental project to alleviate poverty in rural area had proven successful. Today, urban poverty in Malaysia is an increasingly visible phenomenon due to rural-urban migration and the natural population growth in urban areas. Given the changing dimensions and emerging new forms of poverty as a result of unwanted effects of development there is a dire need to re-examine and re-visit urban poverty in Malaysia. Based on the leaders’ perceptions, this study affirmed that social entrepreneurship organizations in Malaysia have try to overcome the urban poverty through social entrepreneurship. The new framework has been developed from the results of this study. It shows that social entrepreneurship contributed to the organizational effectiveness. This result indicates that it is important to have social entrepreneurship in order to increase the socio economy and achieve the organization’s mission. Therefore, this study has proven that social entrepreneurship is beneficial to the Malaysian.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Urban poverty, Organizational Effectiveness, Malaysia

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21 Identity Conflict between Social and Business Entrepreneurs: The Challenge of Constructing a Novel Social Identity

Authors: Rui G. Serôdio, Carina Martins, Alexandra Serra, José A. Lima, Luísa Catita, Paula Lopes

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Building on social identity approach, we tested the impact of social categorization and comparison in the psychosocial process by which social entrepreneurs define their group identity. Specifically, we address how both differentiation and assimilation processes are set of in the context of constructing a novel, distinctive and socially salient – social entrepreneurs. As part of a larger research line, a quasi-experimental study with Social and Business Entrepreneurs, as well as “Lay People” provided evidence consistent with our predictions: (1) Social Entrepreneurs, in contrast with Lay People and Business Entrepreneurs, value more strongly social identity than personal identity, and the later is the only group that values Personal Differentiation; (2) unlike Entrepreneurs, Social Entrepreneurs display an ingroup bias across group evaluations; (3) Lay People, display a self-serving bias, although, overall, they allocate a more positive image to the target groups; (4) combining own vs. others evaluations across all groups, Social Entrepreneurs receive the more positive value. From the standpoint of social identity and self-categorization theories and their approach to group process, we discuss the processes of intergroup comparison and differentiation as core processes in the construction of a positive social identity. We illustrate it within the context of social entrepreneurship, a political and social “wave” that flows across Europe at this time.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Social identity, Group Processes, business entrepreneurs

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20 Crowdfunding: Could it be Beneficial to Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Berrachid Dounia, Bellihi Hassan

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The financial crisis made a barrier in front of small projects that are looking for funding, but in the other hand it has had at least an interesting side effect which is the rise of alternative and increasingly creative forms of financing. The traditional forms of financing has known a recession due to the new difficult situation of economical recession that all parts of the world have known. Having an innovating idea that has an effect on both sides, the economic one and social one is very beneficial for those who wants to get rid of the economical crisis. In this case, entrepreneurs who want to be successful are looking for the means of financing that are going to get their projects to the reality. The financing could be various, whether the entrepreneur can use his own resources, or go to the three “Fs”(Family, friends, and fools),look for Angel Investors, or try for the academic solution like universities and private incubators, but sometimes, entrepreneurs feels uncomfortable about those means and start looking to newer, less traditional forms of financing their projects. In the last few years, people have shown a great interest to the use of internet for many reasons (information, social networking, communication, entertainment, transaction, etc.). The use of internet facilitates relations between people and eases the maintenance of existing relationships ,it increases also the number of exchanges which leads to a “collective creativity”, moreover, internet gives an opportunity to create new tool for mobilizing civil society, which makes the participation in a project company much easier. The new atmosphere of business forces the project leaders to look for new solution of financing that cut out the financial intermediaries. Using platforms in order to finance projects is an alternative that is changing the traditional solutions of financing projects. New creative ways of lending money appears like Peer to Peer (person to person or P2P)lending. This digital directly intermediary got his origins from microcredit principles. Crowdfunding also, like P2P, involves getting individuals to pool their resources to finance a project without a typical financial intermediary. For Lambert and Schwienbacher "Crowdfunding involves an open call, essentially through the Internet, for the provision of financial resources either in the form of donations (without rewards) or in exchange for some form of reward and/or voting rights in order to support initiatives for specific purposes". The idea of this proposal for investors and entrepreneurs is to encourage small contributions from a large number of funders "the crowd" in order to raise money to fund projects. All those conditions made from crowdfunding a useful alternative to project leaders, and especially the ones who are carrying special ideas that need special funds. As mentioned before by Laflamme. S. et Lafortune. S. internet is a tool for mobilizing civil society. In our case, the crowdfunding is the tool that funds social entrepreneurship, in the case of not for profit organizations, it focuses his attention on social problems which could be resolved by mobilizing different resources, creating innovative initiatives, and building new social arrangements which call up the civil society. Social entrepreneurs are mostly the ones who goes onto crowdfunding web site, so they propose the amount which is expected to realize their project and then they receive the funds from crowd funders. Something the crowd funders expect something in return, like a product from the business (a sample from a product (case of a cooperative) or a CD (in the case of films or songs)), but not their money back. Thus, we cannot say that their lands are donations, because a donator did not expect anything back. However, in order to encourage "crowd-funders", rewards motivates people to get interested by projects and made some money from internet. The operation of crowd funding is making all parts satisfied investors, entrepreneurs and also crowdfunding sites owners. This paper aims to give a view of the mechanism of crowdfunding, by clarifying the techniques and its different categories, and social entrepreneurship as a sponsor of social development. Also, it aims to show how this alternative of financing could be beneficial for social entrepreneurs and how it is bringing a solution to fund social projects. The article concludes with a discussion of the contribution of crowdfunding in social entrepreneurship especially in the Moroccan context.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Financing, crowd-funding, projects funding

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19 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani

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Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Interest groups, social inequality, Business Entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social interests, interest conflicts

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18 Human Resource Development and Social Entrepreneurship: A Pan-African Perspective

Authors: Leon C. Prieto, Simone T. A. Phipps

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There is a need to promote social entrepreneurship in order to solve some of the complex problems facing various countries in Africa (poverty, unemployment, crime, HIV, etc.). For example, one possible consequence of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Zimbabwe and elsewhere is a deterioration in the educational opportunities for orphans and other vulnerable children. Given that high returns are associated with education, the loss of education for a large segment of the population would likely worsen the already dire economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Using a systems approach, this paper argues that social entrepreneurship can be used as a vehicle to promote national human resource development, which will assist in the alleviation of societal ills on the national level as well as throughout Africa.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise, Human Resource Development, pan-african

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17 Exploring Partnership Brokering Science in Social Entrepreneurship: A Literature Review

Authors: Lani Fraizer

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Increasingly, individuals from diverse professional and academic backgrounds are making a conscious choice to pursue careers related to social change; a sophisticated understanding of social entrepreneur education is becoming ever more important. Social entrepreneurs are impassioned change makers who characteristically combine leadership and entrepreneurial spirits to problem solve social ills affecting our planet. Generating partnership opportunities and nurturing them is an important part of their change-making work. Faced with the complexities of these partnerships, social entrepreneurs and people who work with them need to be well prepared to tackle new and unforeseen challenges faced. As partnerships become even more critical to advance initiatives at scale, for example, understanding the partnership brokering role is even more important for educators who prepare these leaders to establish and sustain multi-stakeholder partnerships. This paper aims to provide practitioners in social entrepreneurship with enhanced knowledge of partnership brokering and identify directions for future research. A literature review search from January 1977 to May 2015 was conducted using the combined keywords ‘partnership brokering’ and ‘social entrepreneurship’ via WorldCat, one of the largest database catalogs in the world with collections of more than 10,000 worldwide. This query focused on literature written in the English language and analyzed solely the role of partnership brokering in social entrepreneurship. The synthesis of the literature review found three main themes emerging: the need for more professional awareness of partnership brokering and its value add in systems change-making work, the need for more knowledge on developing partnership brokering competencies, and the need for more applied research in the area of partnership brokering and how it is practiced by practitioners in social entrepreneurship. The results of the review serve to emphasize and reiterate the importance of partnership brokers in social entrepreneurship work, and act as a reminder of the need for further scholarly research in this area to bridge the gap between practice and research.

Keywords: Leadership, social entrepreneurship, partnership brokering, systems changemaking

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16 Partnership Brokering as a Driver of Social Business

Authors: Lani Fraizer, Faiz Shah

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Extreme poverty continues to plague the world. Forty-seven million people live well-below the poverty line in Bangladesh, enduring poor quality of life, often with no access to basic human needs like shelter and healthcare. It is not surprising that poverty eradication is central to the mission of social change makers, such as Muhammad Yunus, who have demonstrated how enterprise-led development initiatives empower individuals at the grassroots, and can galvanize entire communities to emerge out of poverty. Such strategies call for system-wide change, and like a number of systems leaders, social business champions have typically challenged the status quo, and broken out of silos to catalyze vibrant multi-stakeholder partnerships across sectors. Apart from individual charisma, social change makers succeed because they garner collaborative impact through socially beneficial partnerships. So while enterprise-led social development evolves in scope and complexity, in step with the need to create and sustain partnerships, Partnership Brokering is emerging as an approach to facilitate collaborative processes. As such, it may now be possible for anyone motivated by the idea of social business to acquire the skills and sophistication necessary for building enriching partnerships that harness the power of the market to address poverty. This paper examines dimensions of partnership brokering in the context of social business, and explores the implications of this emerging approach on fostering poverty eradication.

Keywords: Poverty, social entrepreneurship, Social Business, partnership brokering, systems change, enterprise-led development, change making

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15 Schools of Thought in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship

Authors: Cris Bravo

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Social entrepreneurship is a new and exciting topic that holds a great promise in helping alleviate the social problems of the world. As a new subject, the meaning of the term is too broad and this is counterproductive in trying to build understanding around the concept. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the elements of social entrepreneurship as defined by seven international organizations leading social entrepreneurship projects: Ashoka Foundation, Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation and Yunus Center; as well as from three other institutions fostering social entrepreneurship: Global Social Benefit Institute, BRAC University, and Socialab. The study used document analysis from Skoll Foundation, Schwab Foundation, Yunus Center and Ashoka Foundation; and open ended interview to experts from the Global Social Benefit Institute at Santa Clara University in United States, BRAC University from Bangladesh, and Socialab from Argentina. The study identified three clearly differentiated schools of thought, based on their views on revenue, scalability, replicability and geographic location. While this study is by no means exhaustive, it provides an indication of the patterns of ideas fostered by important players in the field. By clearly identifying the similarities and differences in the concept of social entrepreneurship, research and practitioners are better equipped to build on the subject, and to promote more adequate and accurate social policies to foster the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Scalability, social entrepreneurship, Schools of thought, revenue, replicability

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14 Entrepreneurial Intention and Social Entrepreneurship among Students in Malaysian Higher Education

Authors: Norasmah Othman, Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahman, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie, Hariyaty Ab. Wahid

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The recent instability in economy was found to be influencing the situation in Malaysia whether directly or indirectly. Taking that into consideration, the government needs to find the best approach to balance its citizen’s socio-economic strata level urgently. Through education platform is among the efforts planned and acted upon for the purpose of balancing the effects of the influence, through the exposure of social entrepreneurial activity towards youth especially those in higher institution level. Armed with knowledge and skills that they gained, with the support by entrepreneurial culture and environment while in campus; indirectly, the students will lean more on making social entrepreneurship as a career option when they graduate. Following the issues of marketability and workability of current graduates that are becoming dire, research involving how far the willingness of student to create social innovation that contribute to the society without focusing solely on personal gain is relevant enough to be conducted. With that, this research is conducted with the purpose of identifying the level of entrepreneurial intention and social entrepreneurship among higher institution students in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling involves 355 undergraduate students from five public universities had been made as research respondents and data were collected through surveys. The data was then analyzed descriptively using min score and standard deviation. The study found that the entrepreneurial intention of higher education students are on moderate level, however it is the contrary for social entrepreneurship activities, where it was shown on a high level. This means that while the students only have moderate level of willingness to be a social entrepreneur, they are very committed to created social innovation through the social entrepreneurship activities conducted. The implication from this study can be contributed towards the higher institution authorities in prediction the tendency of student in becoming social entrepreneurs. Thus, the opportunities and facilities for realizing the courses related to social entrepreneurship must be created expansively so that the vision of creating as many social entrepreneurs as possible can be achieved.

Keywords: Gender, social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, higher education institutions (HEIs), social entrepreneurial activity

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13 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Gyula Fülöp, Krisztina Szegedi, Ádám Bereczk

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The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: Social innovation, social entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR

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12 An Analysis of Institutional Environments on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Nigerian Renewable Energy Firms

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, E. K. Rowland Worlu, Ayodele Maxwell Olokundun

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Several studies have proposed a one-size fit all approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such that CSR as it applies to developed countries is adapted to developing countries, ignoring the differing institutional environments (such as the regulative, economic, social and political environments), which affects the profitability and practices of businesses operating in them. CSR as it applies to filling institutional gaps in developing countries, was categorized into four themes: environmental protection, product and service innovation, social innovation and local cluster development. Based on the four themes, the study employed a qualitative research approach through the use of interviews and review of available publications to study the influence of institutional environments on CSR practices engaged in by three renewable energy firms operating in Nigeria. Over the course of three 60-minutes sessions with the top management and selected workers of the firms, four propositions were made: regulatory environment influences environmental protection practice of Nigerian renewable firms, economic environment influences product and service innovation practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms, the social environment impacts on social innovation in Nigerian renewable energy firms, and political environment affects local cluster development practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms. It was also observed that beyond institutional environments, the international exposure of an organization’s managers reflected in their approach to CSR. This finding on the influence of international exposure on CSR practices creates an area for further study. Insights from this paper are set to help policy makers in developing countries, CSR managers, and future researchers.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility, institutional environment, renewable energy firms

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11 A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory

Authors: Anh T. P. Tran, Harald Von Korflesch

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Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intention, social cognitive career theory, social entrepreneurial intention

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10 Factors of Self-Sustainability in Social Entrepreneurship: Case Studies of ACT Group Čakovec and Friskis and Svettis Stockholm

Authors: Drazen Simlesa, Filip Majetić, Jelena Puđak, Anita Bušljeta Tonković, Svitlana Pinchuk

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This paper focuses on the self-sustainability aspect of social entrepreneurship (SE). We define SE as a form of entrepreneurship that is social/ecological mission oriented. It means SE organizations start and run businesses and use them to accomplish their social/ecological missions i.e. to solve social/ecological problems or fulfill social/ecological needs. Self-sustainability is defined as the capability of an SE organization to operate by relying on the money earned through trading its products in the free market. For various reasons, the achievement of self-sustainability represents a fundamental (business) challenge for many SE organizations. Those that are not able to operate using the money made through commercial activities, in order to remain active, rely on alternative, non-commercial streams of income such as grants, donations, and public subsidies. Starting from this widespread (business) challenge, we are interested in exploring elements that (could) influence the self-sustainability in SE organizations. Therefore, the research goal is to empirically investigate some of the self-sustainability factors of two notable SE organizations from different socio-economic contexts. A qualitative research, using the multiple case study approach, was conducted. ACT Group Čakovec (ACT) from Croatia was selected for the first case because it represents one of the leading and most self-sustainable SE organization in the region (in 2015 55% of the organization’s budget came from commercial activities); Friskis&Svettis Stockholm (F&S) from Sweden was selected for the second case because it is a rare example of completely self-sustainable SE organization in Europe (100% of the organization’s budget comes from commercial activities). The data collection primarily consists of conducting in-depth interviews. Additionally, the content of some of the organizations' official materials are analyzed (e.g. business reports, marketing materials). The interviewees are selected purposively and include: six highly ranked F&S members who represent five different levels in the hierarchy of their organization; five highly ranked ACT members who represent three different levels in the hierarchy of the organization. All of the interviews contain five themes: a) social values of the organization, b) organization of work, c) non-commercial income sources, d) marketing/collaborations, and e) familiarity with the industry characteristics and trends. The gathered data is thematically analyzed through the coding process for which Atlas.ti software for qualitative data analysis is used. For the purpose of creating thematic categories (codes), the open coding is used. The research results intend to provide new theoretical insights on factors of SE self-sustainability and, preferably, encourage practical improvements in the field.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Stockholm, Friskis&Svettis, self-sustainability factors

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9 Social Enterprises in India: Conceptualization and Challenges

Authors: Prajakta Khare

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There is a huge number of social enterprises operating in India, across all enterprise sizes and forms addressing diverse social issues. Some cases such as such as Aravind eye care, Narayana Hridalaya, SEWA have been studied extensively in management literature and are known cases in social entrepreneurship. But there are several smaller social enterprises in India that are not called so per se due to the lack of understanding of the concept. There is a lack of academic research on social entrepreneurship in India and the term ‘social entrepreneurship’ is not yet widely known in the country, even by people working in this field as was found by this study. The present study aims to identify the most prominent form of social enterprises in India, the profile of the entrepreneurs, challenges faced, the lessons (theory and practices) emerging from their functioning and finally the factors contributing to the enterprises’ success. This is a preliminary exploratory study using primary data from 30 social enterprises in India. The study used snow ball sampling and a qualitative analysis. Data was collected from founders of social enterprises through written structured questionnaires, open-ended interviews and field visits to enterprises. The sample covered enterprises across sectors such as environment, affordable education, children’s rights, rain water harvesting, women empowerment etc. The interview questions focused on founder’s background and motivation, qualifications, funding, challenges, founder’s understanding and perspectives on social entrepreneurship, government support, linkages with other organizations etc. apart from several others. The interviews were conducted across 3 languages - Hindi, Marathi, English and were then translated and transcribed. 50% of founders were women and 65% of the total founders were highly qualified with a MBA, PhD or MBBS. The most important challenge faced by these entrepreneurs is recruiting skilled people. When asked about their understanding of the term, founders had diverse perspectives. Also, their understandings about the term social enterprise and social entrepreneur were extremely varied. Some founders identified the terms with doing something good for the society, some thought that every business can be called a social enterprise. 35% of the founders were not aware of the term social entrepreneur/ social entrepreneurship. They said that they could identify themselves as social entrepreneurs after discussions with the researcher. The general perception in India is that ‘NGOs are corrupt’- fighting against this perception to secure funds is also another problem as pointed out by some founders. There are unique challenges that social entrepreneurs in India face, as the political, social, economic environment around them is rapidly changing; and getting adequate support from the government is a problem. The research in its subsequent stages aims to clarify existing, missing and new definitions of the term to provide deeper insights in the terminology and issues relating to Social Entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: Challenges, social entrepreneurship, India, social entrepreneurs

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8 Interface between Personal Values and Social Entrepreneurship in Social Projects That Develop Sports Practice

Authors: Leticia Lengler, Jefferson Oliveira, Vania Estivalete, Jordana Marques Kneipp

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The context of social, economic and environmental transformations has driven innumerable changes in the organizational environment, influencing the social interactions that occur in this scenario. In this sense, social entrepreneurship emerges as a unique opportunity to challenge, question, rethink certain concepts and traditional theories widely discussed in relation to entrepreneurship. Therefore, the interest in studying personal values has been based on the idea that they might be predictors of the behavior of individuals. As an attempt to relate personal values with the characteristics of social entrepreneurs, this study aims to investigate the salient values and the social entrepreneurship perceptions that occur in two social projects responsible for developing sports skills among the students. For purposes of analysis, it is intended to consider: (i) a description of both Social Projects and their respective institutions, considering their history and relevance in the context; (ii) analysis of the personal values of the idealizers and teachers responsible for the projects, (iii) identification of the characteristics of social entrepreneurship manifested in the two projects, and (iv) discussion of similarities and disparities of the categories identified among the participants of the projects. Therefore, this study will carry a qualitative analysis from the interviews with 10 participants of each social project (named Projeto Remar/ASENA and Projeto Mãos Dadas/JUDÔ SANTA MARIA): 2 projects coordinators, 2 students, 2 parents of students, 2 physical education internships and 2 businessmen who stablished a partnership with each project. The data collection will be done through semi-structured interviews that are going to last around 30 minutes each, being recorded, transcribed and later analyzed, through the categorical analysis. The option for categorical analysis is supported by the fact that it is the best alternative when one wants to study values, opinions, attitudes and beliefs, through qualitative ones. In the present research, the pre-analysis phase consisted of an organization of the material collected during the research with Remar and Mãos Dadas Project, and a dynamic reading of this material, seeking to identify the characteristics of social entrepreneurship and values addressed in the study. In the analytical description phase, a more in-depth analysis of the material collected in the research will be carried out. The third phase, referred to as referential interpretation or treatment of results obtained will allow to verify the homogeneity and the heterogeneity among the participants' perceptions of the projects. Some preliminary results coming from the first interviews revealed the projects are guided by values such as cooperation, respect, well-being and nature preservation. These values are linked to the social entrepreneurship perception of the projects managers, who established their activities in behalf of the local community.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, personal values, social projects, sports participants

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7 Barriers to Social Entrepreneurship by Refugees: An Explorative Study How Prior Experience Influences Social Orientation

Authors: D. M. Koers, A. J. Groen, P. D. Englis, R. Harms

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We are witnessing the largest level of displacement of people since World War II. Refugees want to become independent as quickly as possible and build a new, safe future; however, access to the labor market is difficult and they face many problems that are not easily solved. This makes self-employment including social entrepreneurship a valuable alternative. Our research studied refugee-based entrepreneurship and examined whether prior knowledge, unmet personal needs and contextual factors influence how refugees recognize opportunities and if this influences their social orientation. In addition, we examine the barriers refugees face when starting up a company in the Netherlands. We use a case study design with a mixed-method approach, combining in-depth interviews and survey data. Data was collected from two Dutch entrepreneurial training programs in the Netherlands. We have a sample size of 27 latent refugee entrepreneurs. Our results show that refugees score high on the social entrepreneurial measures. They perceive themselves as having a strong social vision and are determined to defend a social need. They also score high on sustainability and state that their business ideas improve the quality of life on the long run. Based on these findings, we did not expect that only 5 participants had business ideas with a social orientation. In this group, 37,5% started a company before and 77.8% used their personal experience to come up with this business idea. Another 70,3% had the higher professional education or academic education. In the interviews, we found that they often copy and paste their gained experience from a previous profession on their new context and expect that it would work well. The social aspect lies in their cultural values and personal beliefs but is not reflected in their business models. One of the reasons could be that the context in which the refugee operates as a moderator suppressing the social mission and social value creation opportunities. Refugees are first and foremost focused on their survival. They do not want to be on social welfare and feel a strong need to be independent. Since they cannot access the labor market easily and face labor market discrimination they want to start a company. Another factor that explains lack of the social orientation in their business ideas is that social entrepreneurship is not a known concept in their home countries. Their idea of entrepreneurship differs substantially. We found that a huge barrier for refugees is their expectations about setting up a business, which are often not realistic because they have little knowledge about the system, institutions and corresponding red tape. In those instances, can the institutional configuration of a country, cultural differences, and perspective on entrepreneurship hinders social entrepreneurship. In conclusion, there might be latent potential for social entrepreneurship in refugees but there are many barriers to overcome. Overcoming these barriers can enhance local communities and enhance integration. In addition it has a positive financial impact on the host country because it reduces the pressure on the social system and stimulate the economy.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, immigrant entrepreneurship, refugee entrepreneurship, prior experience, opportunity recognition

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6 Transformational Entrepreneurship: Exploring Pedagogy in Tertiary Education

Authors: S. Karmokar

Abstract:

Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing interest in the topic of entrepreneurship education as it is seen in many countries as a way of enhancing the enterprise culture and promote capability building among community. There is also rapid growth of emerging technologies across the globe and forced entrepreneurs to searching for a new model of economic growth. There are two movements that are dominating and creating waves, Technology Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurship. An increasing number of entrepreneurs are awakening to the possibility of combining the scalable tools and methodology of Technology Entrepreneurship with the value system of Social Entrepreneurship–‘Transformational Entrepreneurship’. To do this transitional educational institute’s need to figure out how to unite the scalable tools of Technology Entrepreneurship with the moral ethos of Social Entrepreneurship. The traditional entrepreneurship education model is wedded to top-down instructive approaches, that is widely used in management education have led to passive educational model. Despite the effort, disruptive’ pedagogies are rare in higher education; they remain underused and often marginalized. High impact and transformational entrepreneurship education and training require universities to adopt new practices and revise current, traditional ways of working. This is a conceptual research paper exploring the potential and growth of transformational entrepreneurship, investigating links between social entrepreneurship. Based on empirical studies and theoretical approaches, this paper outlines some educational approach for both academics and educational institutes to deliver emerging transformational entrepreneurship in tertiary education. The paper presents recommendations for tertiary educators to inform the designing of teaching practices, revise current delivery methods and encourage students to fulfill their potential as entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Emerging Technologies, social entrepreneurship, educational pedagogies, transformational entrepreneurship

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5 Social Entrepreneurship against Depopulation: Network Analysis within the Theoretical Framework of the Quadruple Helix

Authors: Esperanza Garcia-Uceda, Josefina L. Murillo-Luna, M. Pilar Latorre-Martinez, Marta Ferrer-Serrano

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Social entrepreneurship represents an innovation of traditional business models. During the last decade, its important role in contributing to rural and regional development has been widely recognized, due to its capacity to combat the problem of depopulation through the creation of employment. However, the success of this type of innovative business initiatives depends to a large extent on the existence of an adequate ecosystem of support resources. Based on the theoretical framework of the quadruple helix (QH), which highlights the need for collaboration between different interest groups -university, industry, government and civil society- for the development of regional innovations, in this work the network analysis is applied to study the ecosystem of resources to support social entrepreneurship in the rural area of the province of Zaragoza (Spain). It is a quantitative analysis that can be used to measure the interactions between the different actors that make up the quadruple helix, as well as the networks created between the different institutions and support organizations, through the study of the complex networks they form. The results show the importance of the involvement of local governments and the university, as key elements in the development process, but also allow identifying other issues that are susceptible to improvement.

Keywords: Network Analysis, social entrepreneurship, ecosystem of support resources, quadruple helix

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4 Understanding the Construction of Social Enterprises in India: Through Identity and Context of Social Entrepreneurs

Authors: K. Bose

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India is one of the largest democracies in the global south, which demonstrates the highest social enterprise activities in the subcontinent. Although there has been a meteoric rise in social enterprise activities, it is not a new phenomenon, as it dates back to Vinoba Bhave's Land Gift movement in 1950. India also has a rich history of a welfare mix where non-governmental organisations played a significant role in the public welfare provision. Lately, the government’s impetus on entrepreneurship has contributed to a burgeoning social enterprise sector in the country; however, there is a lack in understanding of how social enterprises are constructed in India. Social entrepreneurship as practice has been conceptualised as a multi-dimensional concept, which is predominantly explained through the characteristics of a social entrepreneur. Social enterprise organisation, which is a component of social entrepreneurship practice are also classified through the role of the social entrepreneur; thus making social entrepreneur a vital unit shaping organisation and practice. Hence, individual identity of the social entrepreneur acts as a steering agent for defining organisation and practice. Individual identity does not operate in a vacuum and different isomorphic pressures (resource-rich actors/institutions) leads to negotiation in these identities. Dey and Teasdale's work investigated this identity work of non-profit practitioners within the practice of social enterprises in England. Furthermore, the construction of social enterprises is predominantly understood through two approaches i.e. an institutional logic perspective emerging from Europe and process and outcome perspective derived from the United States. These two approaches explain social enterprise as an inevitable institutional outcome in a linear and simplistic manner. Such linear institutional transition is inferred from structural policy reforms and austerity measures adopted by the government, which led to heightened competition for funds in the non-profit sector. These political and economic challenges were specific to the global north, which is different from transitions experienced in the global south, thus further investigation would help understand social enterprise activities as a contextual phenomenon. There is a growing interest in understanding the role of the context within the entrepreneurship literature, additionally, there is growing recognition in entrepreneurship research that economic behaviour is realised far better within its historical, temporal, institutional, spatial and social context, as these contexts provide boundaries to individuals in terms of opportunities and actions. Social enterprise phenomenon too is realised as contextual phenomenon though it differs from traditional entrepreneurship in terms of its dual mission (social and economic), however, the understanding of the role of context in social entrepreneurship has been limited. Hence, this work in progress study integrates identity work of social entrepreneur and the role of context. It investigates the identities of social entrepreneur and its negotiation within its context. Further, how this negotiated identity transcends into organisational practice in turn shaping how social enterprises are constructed in a specific region. The study employs a qualitative inquiry of semi-structured interviews and ethnographic institutionalism. Interviews were analysed using critical discourse analysis and the preliminary outcomes are currently a work in progress.

Keywords: Identity, social entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise, context, social entrepreneurs, Dey and Teasdale

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3 Social Entrepreneurship Core Dimensions and Influential Perspectives: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Filipa Lancastre, Carmen Lages, Filipe Santos

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The concept of social entrepreneurship (SE) remains ambiguous and deprived of a widely accepted operational definition. We argue that an awareness about the consensual constituent elements of SE from all key players from its ecosystem as well as a deeper understanding of apparently divergent perspectives will allow the different stakeholders (social entrepreneurs, corporations, investors, policymakers, the beneficiaries themselves) to bridge and cooperate for societal value co-creation in trying to solve our most pressing societal issues. To address our research question –what are the dimensions of SE that are consensual and controversial across existing perspectives? – We designed a two-step qualitative study. In a first step, we conducted an extensive literature review, collecting and analyzing 155 different SE definitions. From this initial step, we extracted and characterized three consensual and six controversial dimensions of the SE concept. In a second step, we conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with practitioners that are actively involved in the SE field. The goal of this second step was to verify if the literature did not capture any key dimension, understand how the dimensions related to each other and to understand the rationale behind them. The dimensions of the SE concept were extracted based on the relevance of each theme and on the theoretical relationship among them. To identify the relevance, we used as a proxy the frequency of each theme was referred to in our sample of definitions. To understand relationships, as identified in the previous section, we included concepts from both the management and psychology literature, such as the Entrepreneurial Orientation concept from the entrepreneurship literature, the Subjective Well Being construct from psychology literature, and the Resource-Based Theory from the strategy literature. This study has two main contributions; First, the identification of (consensual and controversial) dimensions of SE that exist across scattered definitions from the academic and practitioner literature. Second, a framework that parsimoniously synthesizes four dominant perspectives of SE and relates them with the SE dimensions. Assuming the contested nature of the SE concept, it is not expected that these views will be reconciled at the academic or practitioner field level. In future research, academics can, however, be aware of the existence of different understandings of SE and avoid bias towards a single view, developing holistic studies on SE phenomena or comparing differences by studying their underlying assumptions. Additionally, it is important that researchers make explicit the perspective they are embracing to ensure consistency among the research question, sampling procedures and implications of results. At the practitioner level, individuals or groups following different logics are predictably mutually suspicious and might benefit from taking stock of other perspectives on SE, building bridges and fostering cross-fertilization to the benefit of the SE ecosystem for which all contribute.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Conceptualization, Perspectives, dimensions

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2 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

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Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: Measurement, Social Change, social entrepreneurship, Social impact, Value Creation, social value, social problem

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1 The Perceived Impact of Consultancy Organisations and Social Enterprises: Converging and Diverging Discourses

Authors: Seda Muftugil-Yalcin

Abstract:

With the proliferation of the number of social enterprises worldwide, there is now a whole ecosystem full of different organisational actors revolving around social enterprises. Impact hubs, incubation centers, and organisations (profit or non-profit) that offer consultancy services to social enterprises can be said to constitute one such cluster in the eco-system. These organisations offer a variety of services to social enterprises which desire to maximize their positive social impact. Especially with regards to impact measurement, there are numerous systems/guides/approaches/tools developed that claim to benefit social enterprises. Many organisations choose one of the existing tools and craft programs that help social enterprises to measure and to manage their social impacts. However, empirical evidence with regards to how the services of these consultancy organisations are precisely utilized on the field is scarce. This inevitably casts doubt on the impact of these organisations themselves. This research dwells on four case studies from the Netherlands and Turkey. In each country, two university-affiliated impact centers and two independent consultancy agencies that work with social entrepreneurs in the area of social impact measurement are closely examined. The overarching research question has been 'With regards to impact measurement, how do the founders/managers of these organisations perceive and make sense of their contribution to social enterprises and to the social entrepreneurship eco-system at large?' As for methodology, in-depth interviews were carried out with the managers/founders of these organisations and discourse analysis method has been used for data analysis together with grounded theory. The comparison between Turkey and Netherlands elucidate common denominators of impact measurement hype and discourses that are currently existing worldwide. In addition, it also reveals differing priorities of social enterprises in these different settings, which shape the expectations of social enterprises of consultancy organisations. Comparison between university affiliated impact hubs and independent consultancy organisations also give away important data about how different forms of consultancy organisations (in this case university based and independent) position themselves in relation to alike organisations with similar aims. The overall aim of the research is to reveal the contribution of the consultancy organisations that work with social enterprises to the social entrepreneurship field as perceived by them through a cross cultural study. The findings indicate that in both settings, the organisations that were claiming to bring positive social impact on the social entrepreneurship eco-system through their impact measurement trainings were themselves having a hard time in concretizing their own contributions; which indicated that these organisations were in need of a different impact measurement discourse than the ones they were championing.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, consultancy organisations, social impact measurement, social impact discourse

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