Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Smoking Related Abstracts

16 The Role of Androgens in Prediction of Success in Smoking Cessation in Women

Authors: Michaela Duskova, Martin Hill, Kateřina Šimůnková, Hana Hruškovičová, Hana Pospíšilová, Eva Králíková, Luboslav Stárka

Abstract:

Smoking represents the most widespread substance dependence in the world. Several studies show the nicotine's ability to alter women hormonal homeostasis. Women smokers have higher testosterone and lower estradiol levels throughout life compared to non-smoker women. We monitored the effect of smoking discontinuation on steroid spectrum with 40 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal women smokers. These women had been examined before they discontinued smoking and also after 6, 12, 24, and 48 weeks of abstinence. At each examination, blood was collected to determine steroid spectrum (measured by GC-MS), LH, FSH, and SHBG (measured by IRMA). Repeated measures ANOVA model was used for evaluation of the data. The study has been approved by the local Ethics Committee. Given the small number of premenopausal women who endured not to smoke, only the first 6 week period data could be analyzed. A slight increase in androgens after the smoking discontinuation occurred. In postmenopausal women, an increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and other androgens occurred, too. Nicotine replacement therapy, weight changes, and age does not play any role in the androgen level increase. The higher androgens levels correlated with failure in smoking cessation. Women smokers have higher androgen levels, which might play a role in smoking dependence development. Women successful in smoking cessation, compared to the non-successful ones, have lower androgen levels initially and also after smoking discontinuation. The question is what androgen levels women have before they start smoking.

Keywords: Addiction, Smoking, cessation, androgens

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15 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Tyrone Donnon, Jac J. W. Andrews

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Overweight, Childhood Obesity, Risk Factors, Smoking, Parents

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14 Influence of Smoking on Fine And Ultrafine Air Pollution Pm in Their Pulmonary Genetic and Epigenetic Toxicity

Authors: F. Ledoux, F. Cazier, P. Shirali, D. Courcot, Y. Landkocz, P. Gosset, S. Billet, F. Sichel, C. Lepers, P.J. Martin, B. Fougère, F. Roy Saint-Georges. A. Verdin

Abstract:

In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and fine particles as carcinogenic to humans. Causal relationships exist between elevated ambient levels of airborne particles and increase of mortality and morbidity including pulmonary diseases, like lung cancer. However, due to a double complexity of both physicochemical Particulate Matter (PM) properties and tumor mechanistic processes, mechanisms of action remain not fully elucidated. Furthermore, because of several common properties between air pollution PM and tobacco smoke, like the same route of exposure and chemical composition, potential mechanisms of synergy could exist. Therefore, smoking could be an aggravating factor of the particles toxicity. In order to identify some mechanisms of action of particles according to their size, two samples of PM were collected: PM0.03 2.5 and PM0.33 2.5 in the urban-industrial area of Dunkerque. The overall cytotoxicity of the fine particles was determined on human bronchial cells (BEAS-2B). Toxicological study focused then on the metabolic activation of the organic compounds coated onto PM and some genetic and epigenetic changes induced on a co-culture model of BEAS-2B and alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages performed in smokers and non-smokers. The results showed (i) the contribution of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric particles to genotoxic (eg. DNA double-strand breaks) and epigenetic mechanisms (eg. promoter methylation) involved in tumor processes, and (ii) the influence of smoking on the cellular response. Three main conclusions can be discussed. First, our results showed the ability of the particles to induce deleterious effects potentially involved in the stages of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. The second conclusion is that smoking affects the nature of the induced genotoxic effects. Finally, the in vitro developed cell model, using bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages can take into account quite realistically, some of the existing cell interactions existing in the lung.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Smoking, fine and ultrafine particles, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations

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13 Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Cigarette Smoking Prevention among College Students

Authors: Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Abbas Aghaei, Farzad Jalilian, Behzad Karami Matin, Ahmad Ali Eslami

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is introduced as one of the main risky factors to develop different types of diseases around the world, especially related to non-contagious diseases. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of web based education program to prevent cigarette smoking among college students. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, during 2014, 150 male college students in Isfahan and Kermanshah University of medical sciences were assigned to intervention group (receiving web based education program) and control groups. The study information was analyzed by SPSS software version 21 using cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures and GEE. Results: It was found significantly that average response for attitude towards cigarette smoking and sensation seeking after education reduced (P < 0.05). After intervention there was no significant difference between intervention and control group of cigarette smoking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: web based education have usefulness to reduce belief towards cigarette smoking.

Keywords: students, Smoking, Iran, web-based intervention

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12 Manifestations of Tuberculosis in Otorhinolaryngology Practice: A Retrospective Study Conducted in a Coastal City of South India

Authors: Rithika Sriram, Kiran M. Bhojwani

Abstract:

Introduction : Tuberculosis of the head and neck has proved to be a diagnostic challenge for otorhinolarynologists around the world. These lesions are often misdiagnosed as cancer. So in order to contribute to a better understanding of these lesions, we have conducted our study among patients affected by TB in the head and neck region with the objective of assessing the various manifestations, presentations, diagnostic techniques, risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, coexisting illnesses and treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted over a three year period (2012-2014) in 2 hospitals affliated to Kasturba Medical College in Mangalore, South India. A semi structured proforma was used to capture information from the medical records pertaining to the various objectives of the study such as clinical features and history of smoking. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and results obtained were depicted as percentages. Chi square test was used to find association between the variables and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 104 patients were found to have TB of the head and neck and among them,the most common manifestation was found to be Tubercular Lymphadenitis (86.53%), followed by laryngeal TB (4.8%), submandibular gland TB (3.8%), deep neck space abscess(3.8%) and adenotonsillar TB. FNAC was found to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of TB disease of the lymph node.26% of the patients had coexisting HIV infection and 16.3% of the patients had associated pulmonary TB. More than 20% of the patients were smokers. Most patients were treated using ATT. Conclusion: Tuberculosis affecting regions of head and neck is no longer uncommon. Sufficient knowledge and appropriate diagnostic means is required while dealing with these lesions and must be included in the differential diagnosis of pathological lesions of head and neck.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Smoking, FNAC, Mangalore

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11 The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Campaign towards Young Adults (A Case Study in Bandar Sunway Institution)

Authors: Intan Abida Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of anti-smoking campaign towards youth in Bandar Sunway institution. Based from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the national newspapers in the country reveal that the campaigns were not effective enough to curb smoking in Malaysia. In the past, from the year 2004 to 2014, the Malaysian Health Ministry were determined to curb the smoking issue that were arising in the country especially among the youths. “Tak Nak” smoking campaign was launched and broadcast on all forms of media in Malaysia. The campaigns are to educate and create an awareness to encourage people to quit smoking besides discourage non-smokers from starting to smoke. The main objective of this research is to investigate and study the concept, storyline and appeal of ‘Tak Nak Merokok’ advertisement campaigns from 2004 to 2014. Data from questionnaires and focus group discussions indicate that the advertisement contained fear and emotional appeal with good concept and storyline are more appealing and effective compared to the humour and informational rational appeal. This research could be a guideline for advertisers who want to come up with creative anti-smoking campaigns in Malaysia. In the future, the focus group can be expanded and more feedbacks and reviews could contribute to marketers and advertisers to determine the most suitable advertisements to tackle this smoking issue.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Smoking, young adults, anti-smoking campaign

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10 Attitude and Practice of Family Physicians in Giving Smoking Cessation Advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh

Authors: Mohammed Alateeq, Abdulaziz Alrshoud

Abstract:

Objectives: To examine the attitude and practice of family physicians in giving smoking cessation advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh. Methods: Cross sectional study using validated self-reported questionnaire that distributed to all family physicians and primary health care doctors at the four main family medicine and primary health care centers, KAMC, Riyadh. Results: 73 physicians are contributed in this study. 28 (38.4%) physicians were from (KASHM ALAN) clinic, 26 (35.6%) physicians were from (UM ALHAMAM) Clinic. 13 (17.8%) physicians were from (ISKAN) clinic. 6 (8.2%) physicians were from the Employee Health Clinic. 73 (100%) of the target population agreed that giving brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. 67 (91.7%) agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice. Only 5 (6.84%) received training courses (1-4 weeks) in smoking cessation interventions. Conclusion: Most of the target population agreed that brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. Also, they agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice although most of them did not received a formal training in smoking cessation advice.

Keywords: Smoking, attitude, cessation, advice, family physicians

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9 Factor Associated with Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Woman: A Systematic Review

Authors: Galila Aisyah Latif Amini, Husnul Khatimah, Citra Amelia

Abstract:

Smoking among women is of particular concern for the maternal and child health community due to the strong association between prenatal smoking and adverse birth outcomes. Pregnancy is perceived to be a unique reason for smoking cessation, as motivation to care for the unborn fetus. This study aimed to find out the determinants of smoking cessation among pregnant women. Method that we use in this study is systematic review. We identified relevant studies by searching on science database online through SAGE journals, Proquest, Scopus, Emerald, JSTOR, and Springerlink. Journals were screened by title and abstract according to the research topic then filtered using the criteria exclusion and inclusion. And then we did critical appraisal. The results of the four studies reviewed were found that the determinant of smoking cessation are parity, the level of education, socioeconomic status, household SHS exposure, smoking habits of both parents, partner smoking status, psychological factors, antenatal care, intervention for health care provider, age smoking duration. The factor most strongly associated with smoking cessation is parity (OR 2,55; Cl 2,34-2,77). The results of this study are expected to give advice for developing future smoking cessation and relapse prevention programs.

Keywords: pregnancy, Smoking cessation, Smoking, tobacco use cessation

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8 Impact of Adolescent Smoking on the Behaviour, Academic and Health Aspects in Qatar

Authors: Abdelsalam Gomaa, Mahjabeen Ramzan, Tooba Ali Akbar, Huma Nadeem

Abstract:

The use of tobacco and the health risks linked to it are well known in this day and age due to the presence of easily available information through the internet. The media is a powerful platform that is used by many anti-smoking awareness campaigns to reach their target audience; yet, it has been found that adolescents are taking up smoking every passing day. Half of this smoking population of youngsters resides in Asia alone, which includes Qatar, the focus country of this study. As smoking happens to be one of the largest avoidable causes of serious diseases like cancers and heart problems, children are taking up smoking at an alarming rate everywhere including Qatar. Importance of the health of the citizens of Qatar is one of the pillars of the Qatar vision 2030, which is to ensure a healthy population, both physically and mentally. Since the youth makes up a significant percentage of the population and in order to achieve the health objectives of the Qatar vision 2030, it is essential to ensure the health and well-being of this part of the population of the country as they are the future of Qatar. Children, especially boys who tend to be more aggressive by nature, are highly likely to develop behavioral and health issues due to smoking at an early age. Research conducted around the world has also emphasized on this association between the smokers developing a bad behaviour as well as poor social communication skills. However, due to lack of research into this association, very little is known about the extent to which smoking impacts the children’s academics, health and behaviour. Moreover, a study of this nature has not yet been conducted in Qatar previously as most of the studies focus on adult smokers and ways to minimize the number of smoking habits in universities and workplaces. This study solely focuses on identifying a relationship between smoking and its impacts on the adolescents by conducting a research on different schools across Qatar.

Keywords: Adolescents, Smoking, Qatar, modelling techniques

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7 The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on the Production of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in Human Platelet

Authors: Yazun Jarrar

Abstract:

Smoking has effect on platelet aggregation and the activity of anti-platelet drugs. The chemical 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cardiotoxic arachidonic acid metabolite which increases platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the influence of cigarette smoking on 20-HETE levels and protein expression of 20-HETE producing enzyme CYP4A11 in isolated platelets from smoker and non-smoker volunteers. The protein expression and 20-HETE levels were analyzed using immunoblot and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (HPL-MS) assays. The results showed that 20-HETE level was higher significantly among smokers than non-smokers (t-test, p-value<0.05). The protein expression of CYP4A11 was significantly higher (t-test, p-value<0.05) among the platelets of smokers. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased the level of platelet activator 20-HETE through increasing the protein expression of CYP4A11. These findings may increase the understanding of smoking-drug interaction during antiplatelets therapy.

Keywords: Smoking, platelet, CYP4A11

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6 The Difference of Serum Tnf-α Levels between Patients Schizophrenic Male with Smoking and Healthy Control

Authors: Rona Hanani Simamora, Bahagia Loebis, M. Surya Husada

Abstract:

Background: The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several etiology theories have been proposed for the disease, including immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Cytokines including Tnf-α has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the effects of pharmacological treatment with antipsychotics. Nicotine is widespread effects on the brain, immune system and cytokine levels. Smoking among schizophrenic patients could play a role in the altered cytokine profiles of schizophrenia such as Tnf-α. Aims: To determine differences of serum Tnf-α levels between schizophrenic patients with smoking in male and healthy control. Methods: This study was a comparative analytic study, divided into two groups: 1) group of male schizophrenic patients with smoking (n1=30) with inclusion criteria were patients who have been diagnosed schizophrenic based PPDGJ-III, 20-60 years old, male, smoking, chronic schizophrenic patients in the stable phase and willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having other mental disorders and comorbidity with other medical illnesses. 2) healthy control group (n2=30) with inclusion criteria were 20-60 years old, male, smoking, willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having mental disorder, a family history of psychiatric disorders, the other medical illnesses, a history of alcohol and other substances abuse (except caffeine and nicotine). Serum Tnf-α were analyzed using the Quantikine HS Human Tnf –α Immunoassay. Results: Serum Tnf-α level measure in patient schizophrenia male with smoking and compared with the healthy control subjects. Tnf-α levels were significantly higher in patients schizophrenic male with smoking (25,79±27,96) to healthy control subjects (2,74±2,19), by using the Mann Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference was observed for serum Tnf-α level (p < 0,001). Conclusions: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and this study shows an increase Tnf-α as pro-inflammation cytokines in schizophrenics. These results suggest an immune abnormalities may be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Keywords: Male, Smoking, TNF alpha, schizophrenic

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5 First Step into a Smoke-Free Life: The Effectivity of Peer Education Programme of Midwifery Students

Authors: Rabia Genc, Aysun Eksioglu, Emine Serap Sarican, Sibel Icke

Abstract:

Today the habit of cigarette smoking is among one of the most important public health concerns because of the health problems it leads to. The most important and hazardous group to use tobacco and tobacco products is adolescents and teenagers. And one of the most effective ways to prevent them from starting to smoke is education. This research is a kind of educational intervention study which was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of peer education on the teenagers' knowledge about smoking. The research was carried out between October 15, 2013 and September 9, 2015 at Ege University Ataturk Vocational Health School. The population of the research comprised of the students that have been studying at Ege University Atatürk Vocational Health School, Midwifery Department (N=390). The peer educator group that would give training on smoking consisted of 10 people, and the peer groups that would be trained were divided into two groups via simple randomization as experimental group (n=185) and control group (n=185). Questionnaire, information evaluation form, and informed consent forms were used as date collection tools. The analysis of the data which were collected in the study was carried out on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 15.0). It was found out that 62.5 % of the students who were in peer educator group had smoked in some period of their lives; however, none of them continued to smoke. When they were asked about their reasons to start smoking, 25% said they just wanted to try it, and 25% of them answered that it was because of their friend groups. When the pre-peer education and post-peer education point averages of peer educator group were evaluated, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the point averages (p < 0.05). When the cigarette use of experimental group and the control group were evaluated, it was clear that 18.2% of the experimental group and 24.2%of the control group still smokes. 9.1% of the experimental group and 14.8% of control group stated that they started smoking because of their friend groups. Among the students who smoke 15.9% of the ones who belongs to the experimental group and 21.9% of the ones who belong to the control group stated they are thinking of quitting smoking. It was clear that there is a significant difference between the pre-education and post-education point averages of experimental group statistically (p ≤ 0.05); however, in terms of control group, there were no significant differences between the pre-test post-test averages statistically. Between the pre-test post-test averages of experimental and control groups there were not any statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). It was found out in the study that the peer education programme is not effective on the smoking habit of Vocational Health School students. When the future studies are being planned in order to evaluate the peer education activity, it can be taken into consideration that the peer education takes a long term and the students in the educator group will be more enthusiastic and a kind of leader in their environment.

Keywords: Midwifery, Smoking, peer, peer education

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4 Health Belief Model on Smoking Behaviors Causing Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

Authors: Dujrudee Chinwong, Chanida Prompantakorn, Ubonphan Chaichana, Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

Objective: Understanding the university students’ perceptions on smoking caused lung cancer based on the Health Belief Model should help health care providers in assisting them to quit smoking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the University students’ health belief in smoking behaviors caused lung cancer, which based on the Health Belief Model. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were students studying at a University in northern Thailand who were current smokers; they were selected using snowball sampling. Results: Of 361 students, 84% were males; 78% smoked not more than 10 cigarettes a day; 68% intended to quit smoking. Our findings, based on the health belief model, showed that 1) perceived susceptibility: participants strongly believed that if they did not stop smoking, they were at high risk of lung cancer (88%); 2) perceived severity: they strongly believed that they had a high chance of death from lung cancer if they continued smoking (84%); 3) perceived benefits: they strongly believed that quitting smoking could reduce the chance of developing lung cancer; 4) perceived barriers of quitting smoking: they strongly believed in the difficulty of quitting smoking because it needed a high effort and strong intention (69%); 5) perceived self-efficacy: however, they strongly believed that they can quit smoking right away if they had a strong intention to quit smoking (70%); 6) cues to action: they strongly believed in the support of parents (85%) and lovers (78%) in helping them to quit smoking. Further, they believed that limitation on smoking area in the University and smoking cessation services provided by the University can assist them to quit smoking. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model helps us to understand students’ smoking behaviors caused lung cancer. This could lead to designing a smoking cessation program to assist students to quit smoking.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Thailand, Smoking, health belief model

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3 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: Smoking, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events

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2 Non-Communicable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Risk Factors among Secondary School Students in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: A. Al-Ali, A. Al-Wandi, R. Dali, Y. Al-Karaghouli

Abstract:

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become an alarming health problem across the globe. The risk of developing those diseases begins in childhood and develops gradually under the influence of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking and decreased physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the risk factors of lifestyle induced chronic diseases (non-communicable diseases) among secondary school students in Sharjah city. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-one school children, from grades 10 to 12, formed the study sample, using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Four governmental schools were chosen, for each gender. Data was collected through a pretested, close-ended questionnaire consisting of five sections; demographics, physical activity, diet, smoking and sleeping patterns. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS 23. Results: The data showed 64.6% of students had low knowledge of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Concerning physical activity, 58.2 % were physically inactive and females being less active than males. More than 2/3 of students didn’t fulfill the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (75.9%). 8% reported to be smokers with cigarettes being the most encountered tobacco product. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated a low level of knowledge and practices yet, positive attitudes towards risk factors of chronic diseases. We recommend implementation of thorough awareness campaigns through public health education about the risk factors of non-communicable diseases.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Knowledge, diet, Practices, attitudes, Non-communicable diseases, Smoking

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1 The Potential of Role Models in Enhancing Smokers' Readiness to Change (Decision to Quit Smoking): A Case Study of Saudi National Anti-Smoking Campaign

Authors: Ghada M. AlSwayied, Anas N. AlHumaid

Abstract:

Smoking has been linked to thousands of deaths worldwide. Around three million adults continue to use tobacco each day in Saudi Arabia; a sign that smoking is prevalent among Saudi population and obviously considered as a public health threat. Although the awareness against smoking is continuously running, it can be observed that smoking behavior increases noticeably as common practice especially among young adults across the world. Therefore, it was an essential step to guess what does motivate smokers to think about quit smoking. Can a graphic and emotional ad that is focusing on health consequences do really make a difference? A case study has been conducted on the Annual Anti-Smoking National Campaign, which was provided by Saudi Ministry of Health in the period of May 2017. To assess campaign’s effects on the number of calls, the number of visits and online access to health messages during and after the campaign period from May to August compared with the previous campaign in 2016. The educational video was selected as a primary tool to deliver the smoking health message. The Minister of Health who is acting as a role model for young adults was used to deliver a direct message to smokers with an avoidance of smoking cues usage. Due to serious consequences of smoking, the Minister of Health delivered the news of canceling the media campaign and directing the budget to smoking cessation clinics. It was shown that the positive responses and interactions on the campaign were obviously remarkable; achieving a high rate of recall and recognition. During the campaign, the number of calls to book for a visit reached 45880 phone calls, and the total online views ran to 1,253,879. Whereas, clinic visit raised up to 213 cumulative percent. Interestingly, a total number of 15,192 patients visited the clinics along three months compared with the last year campaign’s period, which was merely 4850 patients. Furthermore, around half of patients who visited the clinics were in the age from 26 to 40-year-old. There was a great progress in enhancing public awareness on: 'where to go' to assist smokers in making a quit attempt. With regard to the stages of change theory, it was predicted that by following direct-message technique; the proportion of patients in the contemplation and preparation stages would be increased. There was no process evaluation obtained to assess implementation of the campaigns’ activities.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Community Health, Intervention, Smoking, role model, educational material

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