Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

smartphone Related Abstracts

28 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak

Abstract:

In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (www.sulamadenetim.com).

Keywords: Sensors, Arduino, Android operating system, smartphone, irrigation System

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27 Agile Smartphone Porting and App Integration of Signal Processing Algorithms Obtained through Rapid Development

Authors: Marvin Chibuzo Offiah, Susanne Rosenthal, Markus Borschbach

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Certain research projects in Computer Science often involve research on existing signal processing algorithms and developing improvements on them. Research budgets are usually limited, hence there is limited time for implementing the algorithms from scratch. It is therefore common practice, to use implementations provided by other researchers as a template. These are most commonly provided in a rapid development, i.e. 4th generation, programming language, usually Matlab. Rapid development is a common method in Computer Science research for quickly implementing and testing new developed algorithms, which is also a common task within agile project organization. The growing relevance of mobile devices in the computer market also gives rise to the need to demonstrate the successful executability and performance measurement of these algorithms on a mobile device operating system and processor, particularly on a smartphone. Open mobile systems such as Android, are most suitable for this task, which is to be performed most efficiently. Furthermore, efficiently implementing an interaction between the algorithm and a graphical user interface (GUI) that runs exclusively on the mobile device is necessary in cases where the project’s goal statement also includes such a task. This paper examines different proposed solutions for porting computer algorithms obtained through rapid development into a GUI-based smartphone Android app and evaluates their feasibilities. Accordingly, the feasible methods are tested and a short success report is given for each tested method.

Keywords: Programming languages, MATLAB, android, GUI, Java, smartphone, SMARTNAVI, App, Rapid Development, Octave, C/C++, NDK, SDK, Linux, Ubuntu, Emulation

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26 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy

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By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: Energy Conversion, smartphone, gas leak, explosion, LPG

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25 Comparison of Number of Waves Surfed and Duration Using Global Positioning System and Inertial Sensors

Authors: Ines Sousa, João Madureira, Ricardo Lagido, Fraunhofer Portugal

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Surf is an increasingly popular sport and its performance evaluation is often qualitative. This work aims at using a smartphone to collect and analyze the GPS and inertial sensors data in order to obtain quantitative metrics of the surfing performance. Two approaches are compared for detection of wave rides, computing the number of waves rode in a surfing session, the starting time of each wave and its duration. The first approach is based on computing the velocity from the Global Positioning System (GPS) signal and finding the velocity thresholds that allow identifying the start and end of each wave ride. The second approach adds information from the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) of the smartphone, to the velocity thresholds obtained from the GPS unit, to determine the start and end of each wave ride. The two methods were evaluated using GPS and IMU data from two surfing sessions and validated with similar metrics extracted from video data collected from the beach. The second method, combining GPS and IMU data, was found to be more accurate in determining the number of waves, start time and duration. This paper shows that it is feasible to use smartphones for quantification of performance metrics during surfing. In particular, detection of the waves rode and their duration can be accurately determined using the smartphone GPS and IMU.

Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS), smartphone, inertial measurement unit (IMU), surfing performance

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24 The Role of Smartphones on Iranian Couples' Relationship: An Analysis

Authors: Niloofar Hooman

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The present study aims at investigating the positive and negative effects of using Smartphones on couples committed relationships. Despite the fact that many couples may benefit from the positive aspects of Smartphones, it is not clear how their feeling of trust, intimacy and connection in their relationships get affected by Smartphones. This is important as it highlights the ambivalent influences of Smartphones on couple’s relationships. On the one hand, Smartphones can enhance their social and emotional interactions and on the other hand, they can cause mistrust and isolation between them. Trust, intimacy and honesty are of important factors through which a stable relationship can be constructed. Nevertheless, some characteristics of Smartphones such as being fluid and personalized can harm the relationship and consequently destroy it. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how Iranian couples in committed relationships use Smartphone to manage their relationship and how couples feel Smartphone have enhanced or detracted a sense of trust, intimacy and connection with their partner? In the first phase of the study, in-depth-interview will be conducted with 30 couples and data will be analyzed using NVIVO software. In the next phase of the study, 1500 participants aged 20 and above will be selected based on cluster sampling. Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: Internet, Trust, Family, smartphone, couple, intimacy

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23 A Review of Travel Data Collection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato

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Household trip data is of crucial importance for managing present transportation infrastructure as well as to plan and design future facilities. It also provides basis for new policies implemented under Transportation Demand Management. The methods used for household trip data collection have changed with passage of time, starting with the conventional face-to-face interviews or paper-and-pencil interviews and reaching to the recent approach of employing smartphones. This study summarizes the step-wise evolution in the travel data collection methods. It provides a comprehensive review of the topic, for readers interested to know the changing trends in the data collection field.

Keywords: Computer, Telephone, smartphone, travel survey

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22 A Smartphone-Based Real-Time Activity Recognition and Fall Detection System

Authors: Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Rawiphorn Srivilai, Paweena Pongsopha

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Fall is the most serious accident leading to increased unintentional injuries and mortality. Falls are not only the cause of suffering and functional impairments to the individuals, but also the cause of increasing medical cost and days away from work. The early detection of falls could be an advantage to reduce fall-related injuries and consequences of falls. Smartphones, embedded accelerometer, have become a common device in everyday life due to decreasing technology cost. This paper explores a physical activity monitoring and fall detection application in smartphones which is a non-invasive biomedical device to determine physical activities and fall event. The combination of application and sensors could perform as a biomedical sensor to monitor physical activities and recognize a fall. We have chosen Android-based smartphone in this study since android operating system is an open-source and no cost. Moreover, android phone users become a majority of Thai’s smartphone users. We developed Thai 3 Axis (TH3AX) as a physical activities and fall detection application which included command, manual, results in Thai language. The smartphone was attached to right hip of 10 young, healthy adult subjects (5 males, 5 females; aged< 35y) to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data during performing physical activities (e.g., walking, running, sitting, and lying down) and falling to determine threshold for each activity. Dependent variables are including accelerometer data (acceleration, peak acceleration, average resultant acceleration, and time between peak acceleration). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to test whether there are any differences between DVs’ means. Statistical analyses were considered significant at p<0.05. After finding threshold, the results were used as training data for a predictive model of activity recognition. In the future, accuracies of activity recognition will be performed to assess the overall performance of the classifier. Moreover, to help improve the quality of life, our system will be implemented with patients and elderly people who need intensive care in hospitals and nursing homes in Thailand.

Keywords: Activity Recognition, gyroscope, accelerometer, smartphone, fall

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21 Filmmaking with a Smartphone and National Cinema of Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Bilal

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Digital and convergent media can be helpful in terms of acquiring film production skills and knowledge, and it has also reduced the cost of production. Thus, allowing filmmakers greater opportunities and access to the medium of film. Both these dimensions of new and convergent media have been challenging the established cinema of Pakistan, as traditionally, it has been controlled by the authorities through censorship policies. The use of the smartphone as a movie camera, editing machine, and a transmitter can further challenge the control in a postcolonial society. To explore the impact of new and convergent media on the art of filmmaking, a film 'Sohni Dharti: An untrue story' is produced. It is shot both on a smartphone and a Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera (DSLR), with almost zero budgets. It is distributed through Vimeo from Pakistan. This process reveals how the technologies that are available today, and the increased knowledge of film production that they bring, allow a more inclusive experience of the film production and distribution. At the same time, however, it also discloses the limitations that accompany new technologies within the context of a postcolonial society. This paper will investigate the role of technology to bring filmmaking at a level of pencil and paper.

Keywords: Pakistan, Filmmaking, smartphone, convergent media

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20 Use of Smartphones in 6th and 7th Grade (Elementary Schools) in Istria: Pilot Study

Authors: Maja Ruzic-Baf, Vedrana Keteles, Andrea Debeljuh

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Younger and younger children are now using a smartphone, a device which has become ‘a must have’ and the life of children would be almost ‘unthinkable’ without one. Devices are becoming lighter and lighter but offering an array of options and applications as well as the unavoidable access to the Internet, without which it would be almost unusable. Numerous features such as taking of photographs, listening to music, information search on the Internet, access to social networks, usage of some of the chatting and messaging services, are only some of the numerous features offered by ‘smart’ devices. They have replaced the alarm clock, home phone, camera, tablet and other devices. Their use and possession have become a part of the everyday image of young people. Apart from the positive aspects, the use of smartphones has also some downsides. For instance, free time was usually spent in nature, playing, doing sports or other activities enabling children an adequate psychophysiological growth and development. The greater usage of smartphones during classes to check statuses on social networks, message your friends, play online games, are just some of the possible negative aspects of their application. Considering that the age of the population using smartphones is decreasing and that smartphones are no longer ‘foreign’ to children of pre-school age (smartphones are used at home or in coffee shops or shopping centers while waiting for their parents, playing video games often inappropriate to their age), particular attention must be paid to a very sensitive group, the teenagers who almost never separate from their ‘pets’. This paper is divided into two sections, theoretical and empirical ones. The theoretical section gives an overview of the pros and cons of the usage of smartphones, while the empirical section presents the results of a research conducted in three elementary schools regarding the usage of smartphones and, specifically, their usage during classes, during breaks and to search information on the Internet, check status updates and 'likes’ on the Facebook social network.

Keywords: Social Networks, Education, teenagers, smartphone

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19 Physics’s Practical Based on Android as a Motivator in Learning Physics

Authors: Yuni Rochmawati, Luluk Il Mukarromah

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Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the linux kerrnel and currently developed by google. With a user interface based on direct manipulation, Android is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile deviced such as smartphone and tablet computer, with specialized user interface for television (Android TV), cars (Android Auto), and wrist watches (Android Wear). Now, almost all peoples using smartphone. Smartphone seems to be a must-have object, because smartphone has many benefits. In addition, of course smartphone have many benefits for education, like resume of lesson that form of e-book. However, this article is not about resume of lesson. This article is about practical based on android, exactly for physics. Therefore, we will explain our idea about physics’s practical based on android and for output, we wish many students will be like to studying physics and always remember about physics’s phenomenon by physics’s practical based on android.

Keywords: Physics, android, smartphone, practical

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18 Optimal Design of Linear Generator to Recharge the Smartphone Battery

Authors: Dong-Jin Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Yujeong Shin, Seong-Jin Cho, U-Syn Ha

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Due to the development of the information industry and technologies, cellular phones have must not only function to communicate, but also have functions such as the Internet, e-banking, entertainment, etc. These phones are called smartphones. The performance of smartphones has improved, because of the various functions of smartphones, and the capacity of the battery has been increased gradually. Recently, linear generators have been embedded in smartphones in order to recharge the smartphone's battery. In this study, optimization is performed and an array change of permanent magnets is examined in order to increase efficiency. We propose an optimal design using design of experiments (DOE) to maximize the generated induced voltage. The thickness of the poleshoe and permanent magnet (PM), the height of the poleshoe and PM, and the thickness of the coil are determined to be design variables. We made 25 sampling points using an orthogonal array according to four design variables. We performed electromagnetic finite element analysis to predict the generated induced voltage using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software ANSYS Maxwell. Then, we made an approximate model using the Kriging algorithm, and derived optimal values of the design variables using an evolutionary algorithm. The commercial optimization software PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation, and Optimization) was used with these algorithms. The result of the optimization shows that the generated induced voltage is improved.

Keywords: Optimal Design, design of experiment, smartphone, linear generator, approximate model

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17 Human-Computer Interaction: Strategies for Ensuring the Design of User-Centered Web Interfaces for Smartphones

Authors: Maria Visitacion N. Gumabay, Byron Joseph A. Hallar, Annjeannette Alain D. Galang

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The widespread adoption and increasing proliferation of smartphones that started during the first decade of the twenty-first century have enabled their users to communicate and access information in ways that were merely thought of as possibilities in the few years before the smartphone revolution. A product of the convergence of the cellular phone and portable computer, the smartphone provides an additional important function that used to be the exclusive domain of desktop-bound computers and portable computers: Web Browsing. For increasing numbers of users, the smartphone and allied devices such as tablet computers have become their first and often their only means of accessing the World Wide Web. This has led to the development of websites that cater to the needs of the new breed of smartphone-carrying web users. The smaller size of smartphones as compared with conventional computers has provided unique challenges to web interface designers. The smaller screen size and touchscreen interface have made it much more difficult to read and navigate through web pages that were in most part designed for traditional desktop and portable computers. Although increasing numbers of websites now provide an alternate website formatted for smartphones, problems with ease of use, reliability and usability still remain. This study focuses on the identification of the problems associated with smartphone web interfaces, the compliance with accepted standards of user-oriented web interface design, the strategies that could be utilized to ensure the design of user-centric web interfaces for smartphones, and the identification of the current trends and developments related to user-centric web interface design intended for the consumption of smartphone users.

Keywords: Mobile, Human-Computer Interaction, User-Centered Design, smartphone, web interface

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16 A System Functions Set-Up through Near Field Communication of a Smartphone

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee

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We present a method to set up system functions through a near filed communication (NFC) of a smartphone. The short communication distance of the NFC which is usually less than 4 cm could prevent any interferences from other devices and establish a secure communication channel between a system and the smartphone. The proposed set-up method for system function values is demonstrated for a blacbox system in a car. In demonstration, system functions of a blackbox which is manipulated through NFC of a smartphone are controls of image quality, sound level, shock sensing level to store images, etc. The proposed set-up method for system function values can be used for any devices with NFC.

Keywords: android, near field communication, smartphone, system set-up

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15 Beginning Physics Experiments Class Using Multi Media in National University of Laos

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, C. H. Lee, T. Nagata, S. Xaphakdy, P. Souvannavong, P. Chanthamaly, K. Sithavong, S. Phommathat, V. Srithilat, P. Sengdala, B. Phetarnousone, B. Siharath, X. Chemcheng, A. Suenaga, S. Kashima

Abstract:

National University of Laos (NUOL) requested Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) volunteers to begin a physics experiments class using multi media. However, there are issues. NUOL had no physics experiment class, no space for physics experiments, experiment materials were not used for many years and were scattered in various places, and there is no projector and laptop computer in the unit. This raised the question: How do authors begin the physics experiments class using multimedia? To solve this problem, the JICA took some steps, took stock of what was available and reviewed the syllabus. The JICA then revised the experiment materials to assess what was available and then developed textbooks for experiments using them; however, the question remained, what about the multimedia component of the course? Next, the JICA reviewed Physics teacher Pavy Souvannavong’s YouTube channel, where he and his students upload video reports of their physics classes at NUOL using their smartphones. While they use multi-media, almost all the videos recorded were of class presentations. To improve the multimedia style, authors edited the videos in the style of another YouTube channel, “Science for Lao,” which is a science education group made up of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) in Laos. They created the channel to enhance science education in Laos, and hold regular monthly meetings in the capital, Vientiane, and at teacher training colleges in the country. They edit the video clips in three parts, which are the materials and procedures part including pictures, practice footage of the experiment part, and then the result and conclusion part. Then students perform experiments and prepare for presentation by following the videos. The revised experiment presentation reports use PowerPoint presentations, material pictures and experiment video clips. As for providing textbooks and submitting reports, the students use the e-Learning system of “Moodle” of the Information Technology Center in Dongdok campus of NUOL. The Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) donated those facilities. The authors have passed the process of the revised materials, developed textbooks, the PowerPoint slides presented by students, downloaded textbooks and uploaded reports, to begin the physics experiments class using multimedia. This is the practice research report for beginning a physics experiments class using multimedia in the physics unit at the Department of Natural Science, Faculty of Education, at the NUOL.

Keywords: Moodle, smartphone, NUOL, JICA, KOICA, physics experiment materials, IT center, Science for Lao

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14 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: Anemia, SVM, smartphone, palpebral conjunctiva

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13 The Use of Mobile Phone as Enhancement to Mark Multiple Choice Objectives English Grammar and Literature Examination: An Exploratory Case Study of Preliminary National Diploma Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: T. Abdulkadir

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Most often, marking and assessment of multiple choice kinds of examinations have been opined by many as a cumbersome and herculean task to accomplished manually in Nigeria. Usually this may be in obvious nexus to the fact that mass numbers of candidates were known to take the same examination simultaneously. Eventually, marking such a mammoth number of booklets dared and dread even the fastest paid examiners who often undertake the job with the resulting consequences of stress and boredom. This paper explores the evolution, as well as the set aim to envision and transcend marking the Multiple Choice Objectives- type examination into a thing of creative recreation, or perhaps a more relaxing activity via the use of the mobile phone. A more “pragmatic” dimension method was employed to achieve this work, rather than the formal “in-depth research” based approach due to the “novelty” of the mobile-smartphone e-Marking Scheme discovery. Moreover, being an evolutionary scheme, no recent academic work shares a direct same topic concept with the ‘use of cell phone as an e-marking technique’ was found online; thus, the dearth of even miscellaneous citations in this work. Additional future advancements are what steered the anticipatory motive of this paper which laid the fundamental proposition. However, the paper introduces for the first time the concept of mobile-smart phone e-marking, the steps to achieve it, as well as the merits and demerits of the technique all spelt out in the subsequent pages.

Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, cell phone, e-marking scheme (eMS), mobile-smart phone, multiple choice objectives (MCO)

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12 Reducing Flood Risk in a Megacity: Using Mobile Application and Value Capture for Flood Risk Prevention and Risk Reduction Financing

Authors: Takahiro Saito, Ikuo Sugiyama, Dedjo Yao Simon, Norikazu Inuzuka

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The megacity of Abidjan is a coastal urban area where the number of floods reported and the associated impacts are on a rapid increase due to climate change, an uncontrolled urbanization, a rapid population increase, a lack of flood disaster mitigation and citizens’ awareness. The objective of this research is to reduce in the short and long term period, the human and socio-economic impact of the flood. Hydrological simulation is applied on free of charge global spatial data (digital elevation model, satellite-based rainfall estimate, landuse) to identify the flood-prone area and to map the risk of flood. A direct interview to a sample residents is used to validate the simulation results. Then a mobile application (Flood Locator) is prototyped to disseminate the risk information to the citizen. In addition, a value capture strategy is proposed to mobilize financial resource for disaster risk reduction (DRRf) to reduce the impact of the flood. The town of Cocody in Abidjan is selected as a case study area to implement this research. The mapping of the flood risk reveals that population living in the study area is highly vulnerable. For a 5-year flood, more than 60% of the floodplain is affected by a water depth of at least 0.5 meters; and more than 1000 ha with at least 5000 buildings are directly exposed. The risk becomes higher for a 50 and 100-year floods. Also, the interview reveals that the majority of the citizen are not aware of the risk and severity of flooding in their community. This shortage of information is overcome by the Flood Locator and by an urban flood database we prototype for accumulate flood data. Flood Locator App allows the users to view floodplain and depth on a digital map; the user can activate the GPS sensor of the mobile to visualize his location on the map. Some more important additional features allow the citizen user to capture flood events and damage information that they can send remotely to the database. Also, the disclosure of the risk information could result to a decrement (-14%) of the value of properties locate inside floodplain and an increment (+19%) of the value of property in the suburb area. The tax increment due to the higher tax increment in the safer area should be captured to constitute the DRRf. The fund should be allocated to the reduction of flood risk for the benefit of people living in flood-prone areas. The flood prevention system discusses in this research will minimize in the short and long term the direct damages in the risky area due to effective awareness of citizen and the availability of DRRf. It will also contribute to the growth of the urban area in the safer zone and reduce human settlement in the risky area in the long term. Data accumulated in the urban flood database through the warning app will contribute to regenerate Abidjan towards the more resilient city by means of risk avoidable landuse in the master plan.

Keywords: Flood, Database, risk communication, geospatial techniques, smartphone, value capture, abidjan

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11 Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Application to Enhance the Use of Smartphone, by Visually Impaired Users in Indonesia

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Kamila Okta Saarah

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Smartphone nowadays is widely used by many people all over the world. However, people with vision impairment may experience difficulties that interfere with the proper usage of the smartphone. In Indonesia, the population of visually impaired is about 13 million people (estimated 285 million people worldwide). There are a number of mobile applications developed to enhance the use of smartphone by visually impaired. This paper discusses the usability evaluation of a mobile application, namely Ray Vision, designed to help visually impaired in using smartphone. A series of usability testing with a number of Indonesian visually impaired revealed 28 usability problems in the mobile application that led to 14 design recommendations. The redesigned application was then re-evaluated through another usability testing series. The results showed that all five usability criteria assessed were increased (usefulness by 13%, effectiveness by 27%, efficiency by 27%, satisfaction by 23%, and learnability by 12%). The System Usability Score (SUS) was also increased by 14.92%.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Usability Evaluation, smartphone, vision impaired

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10 Smartphone Photography in Urban China

Authors: Wen Zhang

Abstract:

The smartphone plays a significant role in media convergence, and smartphone photography is reconstructing the way we communicate and think. This article aims to explore the smartphone photography practices of urban Chinese smartphone users and images produced by smartphones from a techno-cultural perspective. The analysis consists of two types of data: One is a semi-structured interview of 21 participants, and the other consists of the images created by the participants. The findings are organised in two parts. The first part summarises the current tendencies of capturing, editing, sharing and archiving digital images via smartphones. The second part shows that food and selfie/anti-selfie are the preferred subjects of smartphone photographic images from a technical and multi-purpose perspective and demonstrates that screenshots and image texts are new genres of non-photographic images that are frequently made by smartphones, which contributes to improving operational efficiency, disseminating information and sharing knowledge. The analyses illustrate the positive impacts between smartphones and photography enthusiasm and practices based on the diffusion of innovation theory, which also makes us rethink the value of photographs and the practice of ‘photographic seeing’ from the screen itself.

Keywords: Technological innovation, Media Convergence, Digital Photography, smartphone, image-text, photographic- seeing, selfie/anti-selfie

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9 Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone

Authors: K. Shimazaki, M. Mishina, A. Fujii

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In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.

Keywords: Hazard Perception, smartphone, tablet devices, driver education

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8 Factors Affecting Internet Behavior and Life Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners with Use of Smartphone

Authors: Horng-Ji Lai

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The intuitive design features and friendly interface of smartphone attract older adults. In Taiwan, many senior education institutes offer smartphone training courses for older adult learners who are interested in learning this innovative technology. It is expected that the training courses can help them to enjoy the benefits of using smartphone and increase their life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that influence older adults’ behavior of using smartphone. The purpose of the research was to develop and test a research model that investigates the factors (self-efficacy, social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information) affecting older adult learners’ Internet behaviour and their life satisfaction with use of smartphone. Also, this research sought to identify the relationship between the proposed variables. Survey method was used to collect research data. A Structural Equation Modeling was performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression for data exploration and model estimation. The participants were 394 older adult learners from smartphone training courses in active aging learning centers located in central Taiwan. The research results revealed that self-efficacy significantly affected older adult learner’ social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information. The construct of social connection yielded a positive influence in respondents’ life satisfaction. The implications of these results for practice and future research are also discussed.

Keywords: Older Adults, Life Satisfaction, smartphone, internet behaviour

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7 Profile of Internet and Smartphone Overuse Based on Internet Usage Needs

Authors: Yeoju Chung

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Adolescents internet and smartphone addiction are increasing in Korea. But differences between internet addiction and smartphone addiction have been researched in these days. The main objective of this article is to explore the presence of clusters within a sample of adolescents based on dimensions associated with addiction and internet usage needs. The sample consists of 617 adolescents in the 14-19 year age group who were recruited in Korea A cluster analysis identified four groups of participants: internet overuse(IO), smartphone overuse(SO), both overuse(B) and normal(N) use group. MANOVA analysis based on internet usage showed that there are differences among four groups in internet usage needs. IO has higher cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs than SO. SO has higher real relationship and life needs with cyberworld than IO, B, and N. B has the highest cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs, however, game fun seeking needs is the highest in IO. These results support that IO seeks game fun needs, SO seeks real relationship and life needs, and B seeks cyber self and expression in cyberworld.

Keywords: Internet, Addiction, Needs, smartphone

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6 Reliving Historical Events Using Augmented Reality Techniques

Authors: Josep Domenech Mingot, Francisco Javier Esclapes Jover

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The arrival of the age of information and new technologies allowed humanity to see what the future has in store, but occasionally it also brings the opportunity to look through a window to the past, an opportunity to relive history. This paper introduces a prototype of a digital system that lets us peek into our past making use of augmented reality technologies. A 3D scene will be modeled and animated based on an old image, depicting an event of historical significance. From this scene, a video will be rendered, recreating the events that were taking place at the time. Also, a smartphone app will be created. This app will detect the original image with the smartphone’s camera, overlay the rendered video so that it fully covers it and track the detected image, so that the overlaying video can keep covering the image. The recreation of Alicante’s Central Market bombing during the Spanish Civil War is presented as a case study.

Keywords: Multimedia, History, Augmented Reality, Digital Heritage, smartphone

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5 Exploring the Impact of Dual Brand Image on Continuous Smartphone Usage Intention

Authors: Chiao-Chen Chang, Yang-Chieh Chin

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The mobile phone has no longer confined to communication, from the aspect of smartphones, consumers are only willing to pay for the product which the added value has corresponded with their appetites, such as multiple application, upgrade of the camera, and the appearance of the phone and so on. Moreover, as the maturity stage of smartphone industry today, the strategy which manufactures used to gain competitive advantages through hardware as well as software differentiation, is no longer valid. Thus, this research aims to initiate from brand image, to examine exactly whether consumers’ buying intention focus on smartphone brand or operating system, at the same time, perceived value and customer satisfaction will be added between brand image and continuous usage intention to investigate the impact of these two facets toward continuous usage intention. This study verifies the correlation, fitness, and relationship between the variables that lies within the conceptual framework. The result of using structural equation modeling shows that brand image has a positive impact on continuous usage intention. Firms can affect consumer perceived value and customer satisfaction through the creation of the brand image. It also shows that the brand image of smartphone and brand image of the operating system have a positive impact on customer perceived value and customer satisfaction. Furthermore, perceived value also has a positive impact on satisfaction, and so is the relation within satisfaction and perceived value to the continuous usage intention. Last but not least, the brand image of the smartphone has a more remarkable impact on customers than the brand image of the operating system. In addition, this study extends the results to management practice and suggests manufactures to provide fine product design and hardware.

Keywords: Brand Image, smartphone, perceived value, continuous usage intention

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4 A Study of Smartphone Engagement Patterns of Millennial in India

Authors: Divyani Redhu, Manisha Rathaur

Abstract:

India has emerged as a very lucrative market for the smartphones in a very short span of time. The number of smartphone users here is growing massively with each passing day. Also, the expansion of internet services to far corners of the nation has also given a push to the smartphone revolution in India. Millennial, also known as Generation Y or the Net Generation is the generation born between the early 1980s and mid-1990s (some definitions extending further to early 2000s). Spanning roughly over 15 years, different social classes, cultures, and continents; it is irrational to imagine that millennial have a unified identity. But still, it cannot be denied that the growing millennial population is not only young but is highly tech-savvy too. It is not just the appearance of the device that today; we call it ‘smart’. Rather, it is the numerous tasks and functions that it can perform which has led its name to evolve as that of a ‘smartphone’. From usual tasks that were earlier performed by a simple mobile phone like making calls, sending messages, clicking photographs, recording videos etc.; today, the time has come where most of our day – to – day tasks are being taken care of by our all-time companion, i.e. smartphones. From being our alarm clock to being our note-maker, from our watch to our radio, our book-reader to our reminder, smartphones are present everywhere. Smartphone has now become an essential device for particularly the millennial to communicate not only with their friends but also with their family, colleagues, and teachers. The study by the researchers would be quantitative in nature. For the same, a survey would be conducted in particularly the capital of India, i.e. Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR), which is the metropolitan area covering the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi and urban areas covering states of Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The tool of the survey would be a questionnaire and the number of respondents would be 200. The results derived from the study would primarily focus on the increasing reach of smartphones in India, smartphones as technological innovation and convergent tools, smartphone usage pattern of millennial in India, most used applications by the millennial, the average time spent by them, the impact of smartphones on the personal interactions of millennial etc. Thus, talking about the smartphone technology and the millennial in India, it would not be wrong to say that the growth, as well as the potential of the smartphones in India, is still immense. Also, very few technologies have made it possible to give a global exposure to the users and smartphone, if not the only one is certainly an immensely effective one that comes to the mind in this case.

Keywords: India, smartphone, Delhi – NCR, millennial

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3 Smartphones as a Tool of Mobile Journalism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Deen

Abstract:

The introduction of the mobile devices which were equipped with internet access and a camera, as well as the messaging services, has become a major inspiration for the use of the mobile devices in the growth in the reporting of news. Mobile journalism (MOJO) was a creation of modern technology, especially the use of mobile technology for video journalism purposes. MOJO, thus, is the process by which information is collected and disseminated to society, through the use of mobile technology, and even the use of the tablets. This paper seeks to better understand the ethics of Saudi mobile journalists towards news coverage. Also, this study aims to explore the relationship between minimizing harms and truth-seeking efforts among Saudi mobile journalists. Three main ethics were targeted in this study, which are seek truth and report it, minimize harm, and being accountable. Diffusion of innovation theory applied to reach this study’s goals. The non- probability sampling approach, ‘Snowball Sampling’ was used to target 124 survey participants, an online survey via SurveyMonkey that was distributed through social media platforms as a web link. The code of ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists has applied as a scale in this study. This study found that the relationship between minimizing harm and truth-seeking efforts is significantly moderate among Saudi mobile journalists. Also, it is found that the level journalistic experiences and using smartphones to cover news are weakly and negatively related to the perceptions of mobile journalism among Saudi journalists, while Saudi journalists who use their smartphone to cover the news between 1-3 years, were the majority of participants (55 participants by 51.4%).

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mobile journalism, smartphone, Saudi journalism

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2 Overcoming Usability Challenges of Educational Math Apps: Designing and Testing a Mobile Graphing Calculator

Authors: M. Tomaschko

Abstract:

The integration of technology in educational settings has gained a lot of interest. Especially the use of mobile devices and accompanying mobile applications can offer great potentials to complement traditional education with new technologies and enrich students’ learning in various ways. Nevertheless, the usability of the deployed mathematics application is an indicative factor to exploit the full potential of technology enhanced learning because directing cognitive load toward using an application will likely inhibit effective learning. For this reason, the purpose of this research study is the identification of possible usability issues of the mobile GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application. Therefore, eye tracking in combination with task scenarios, think aloud method, and a SUS questionnaire were used. Based on the revealed usability issues, the mobile application was iteratively redesigned and assessed in order to verify the success of the usability improvements. In this paper, the identified usability issues are presented, and recommendations on how to overcome these concerns are provided. The main findings relate to the conception of a mathematics keyboard and the interaction design in relation to an equation editor, as well as the representation of geometrical construction tools. In total, 12 recommendations were formed to improve the usability of a mobile graphing calculator application. The benefit to be gained from this research study is not only the improvement of the usability of the existing GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application but also to provide helpful hints that could be considered from designers and developers of mobile math applications.

Keywords: Usability, Math Education, smartphone, geogebra, graphing calculator

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1 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Hygiene, and Perceived Stress

Authors: Kriti Singh, Saurabh Tripathi, Pankaj Chaudhary, Abid Ali Ansari, Seema Nigam

Abstract:

Introduction: The introduction of android and iOS has changed our lives dramatically over the past few years. The new generation is more dependent on their mobile phones for carrying out their daily pursuits. Smartphones have revolutionized our lives. The cutdown in rates of mobile network services has been affecting us drastically. A new type of dependence is seen among the people for Smartphones. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the state of addiction among the group of medical students, along with its association with sleep hygiene and anxiety. Material and Method: Study included 50 individuals in the age group of 18-35 years. Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Perceived Stress Scales were used conducting the study. Results: Mean age of 22 years (12%). The majority of subjects were 20-year olds (15 out of 50), the majority were males with few females. Mean Smartphone addiction score 39 (very severe), Mean Sleep Hygiene Index score 26.76 (moderate maladaptive hygiene and Mean Perceived Stress score of 19.92 (moderate stress). Conclusion: In majority students were found to have a very severe Smartphone Addiction with moderate sleep hygiene and a moderate level of perceived stress. The Smartphone was being used was for surfing social media applications.

Keywords: smartphone, addiction perceived stress, sleep hygiene index

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