Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Smart Home Related Abstracts

12 Overview of Smart Grid Applications in Turkey

Authors: Onur Elma, Giray E. Kıral, Ugur S. Selamoğuları, Mehmet Uzunoğlu, Bulent Vural

Abstract:

Electrical energy has become indispensable for people's lives and with rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards the need for the electrical energy has been on the rise. Therefore, both energy generation and efficient use of energy are very important topics. Smart grid concept has been introduced to provide monitoring, energy efficiency, reliability and energy quality. Under smart grid concept, smart homes, which can be considered as key component in smart grid operation, have appeared as another research area. In this study, first, smart grid research in the world will be reviewed. Then, overview of smart grid applications in Turkey will be given.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Applications, Smart Grids, Smart Home

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11 An Extensible Software Infrastructure for Computer Aided Custom Monitoring of Patients in Smart Homes

Authors: Ritwik Dutta, Marylin Wolf

Abstract:

This paper describes the trade-offs and the design from scratch of a self-contained, easy-to-use health dashboard software system that provides customizable data tracking for patients in smart homes. The system is made up of different software modules and comprises a front-end and a back-end component. Built with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, the front-end allows adding users, logging into the system, selecting metrics, and specifying health goals. The back-end consists of a NoSQL Mongo database, a Python script, and a SimpleHTTPServer written in Python. The database stores user profiles and health data in JSON format. The Python script makes use of the PyMongo driver library to query the database and displays formatted data as a daily snapshot of user health metrics against target goals. Any number of standard and custom metrics can be added to the system, and corresponding health data can be fed automatically, via sensor APIs or manually, as text or picture data files. A real-time METAR request API permits correlating weather data with patient health, and an advanced query system is implemented to allow trend analysis of selected health metrics over custom time intervals. Available on the GitHub repository system, the project is free to use for academic purposes of learning and experimenting, or practical purposes by building on it.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Health monitoring, Smart Home, Long-Term Care, Java, flask, JavaScript, Mongo, Python, webserver

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10 On Adaptive and Auto-Configurable Apps

Authors: Herwig Unger, Mario Kubek, Prisa Damrongsiri, Kittinan Pongpianskul

Abstract:

Apps are today the most important possibility to adapt mobile phones and computers to fulfill the special needs of their users. Location- and context-sensitive programs are hereby the key to support the interaction of the user with his/her environment and also to avoid an overload with a plenty of dispensable information. The contribution shows, how a trusted, secure and really bi-directional communication and interaction among users and their environment can be established and used, e.g. in the field of home automation.

Keywords: Mobile Computing, Smart Home, Self-Configuration, apps, context-sensitive, location-sensitive

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9 Learning a Bayesian Network for Situation-Aware Smart Home Service: A Case Study with a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

Authors: Kwang Ryel Ryu, Seyoung Kim, Eu Tteum Ha, Jeongmin Kim

Abstract:

The smart home environment backed up by IoT (internet of things) technologies enables intelligent services based on the awareness of the situation a user is currently in. One of the convenient sensors for recognizing the situations within a home is the smart meter that can monitor the status of each electrical appliance in real time. This paper aims at learning a Bayesian network that models the causal relationship between the user situations and the status of the electrical appliances. Using such a network, we can infer the current situation based on the observed status of the appliances. However, learning the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the network requires many training examples that cannot be obtained unless the user situations are closely monitored by any means. This paper proposes a method for learning the CPT entries of the network relying only on the user feedbacks generated occasionally. In our case study with a robot vacuum cleaner, the feedback comes in whenever the user gives an order to the robot adversely from its preprogrammed setting. Given a network with randomly initialized CPT entries, our proposed method uses this feedback information to adjust relevant CPT entries in the direction of increasing the probability of recognizing the desired situations. Simulation experiments show that our method can rapidly improve the recognition performance of the Bayesian network using a relatively small number of feedbacks.

Keywords: Learning, IoT, Smart Home, Bayesian network, situation -awareness

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8 A New Smart Plug for Home Energy Management

Authors: M. Uzunoglu, G. E. Kiral, O. Elma, A. T. Ince, B. Vural, U. S. Selamogullari

Abstract:

Energy is an indispensable resource to meet the needs of people. Depending on the needs of people, the correct and efficient use of electrical energy has became important nowadays. Besides the need for the electrical energy is also increasing with the rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards. Due to the depletion of energy sources and increased demand for electricity, efficient energy use is an important research topic. Recently, ideas like smart cities, smart buildings and smart homes have been widely used under smart grid concept. With smart grid infrastructure, it will be possible to monitor electrical demand of a residential customer and control each electricity generation center for more efficient energy flow. The smallest component of the smart grid can be considered as smart homes. Better utilization of the electrical grid can be achieved through the communication of the smart home with both other customers in the grid and appliances in the house itself since generation can effectively be scheduled by having more precise demand data. Smart Plugs are used for the communication with the household appliances in the house. Smart Plug is an intermediate control element, which can be mounted on the existing outlet, and thus can be used to monitor the energy consumption of the plugged device and also can provide on/off control energy remotely. This study proposes a Smart Plug for energy monitoring and energy management. Proposed design is composed of five subsystems: micro controller embedded system with communication system, metering circuitry, power supply and switching circuitry. The developed smart plug offers efficient use of electrical energy.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Smart Home, Home Energy Management, smart plug

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7 Performance Comparison of Situation-Aware Models for Activating Robot Vacuum Cleaner in a Smart Home

Authors: Kwang Ryel Ryu, Seongcheol Kwon, Jeongmin Kim

Abstract:

We assume an IoT-based smart-home environment where the on-off status of each of the electrical appliances including the room lights can be recognized in a real time by monitoring and analyzing the smart meter data. At any moment in such an environment, we can recognize what the household or the user is doing by referring to the status data of the appliances. In this paper, we focus on a smart-home service that is to activate a robot vacuum cleaner at right time by recognizing the user situation, which requires a situation-aware model that can distinguish the situations that allow vacuum cleaning (Yes) from those that do not (No). We learn as our candidate models a few classifiers such as naïve Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression that can map the appliance-status data into Yes and No situations. Our training and test data are obtained from simulations of user behaviors, in which a sequence of user situations such as cooking, eating, dish washing, and so on is generated with the status of the relevant appliances changed in accordance with the situation changes. During the simulation, both the situation transition and the resulting appliance status are determined stochastically. To compare the performances of the aforementioned classifiers we obtain their learning curves for different types of users through simulations. The result of our empirical study reveals that naïve Bayes achieves a slightly better classification accuracy than the other compared classifiers.

Keywords: Machine Learning, IoT, Smart Home, classifier, situation-awareness

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6 Design and Implement a Remote Control Robot Controlled by Zigbee Wireless Network

Authors: Sinan Alsaadi, Mustafa Merdan

Abstract:

Communication and access systems can be made with many methods in today’s world. These systems are such standards as Wifi, Wimax, Bluetooth, GPS and GPRS. Devices which use these standards also use system resources excessively in direct proportion to their transmission speed. However, large-scale data communication is not always needed. In such cases, a technology which will use system resources as little as possible and support smart network topologies has been needed in order to enable the transmissions of such small packet data and provide the control for this kind of devices. IEEE issued 802.15.4 standard upon this necessity and enabled the production of Zigbee protocol which takes these standards as its basis and devices which support this protocol. In our project, this communication protocol was preferred. The aim of this study is to provide the immediate data transmission of our robot from the field within the scope of the project. In addition, making the communication with the robot through Zigbee Protocol has also been aimed. While sitting on the computer, obtaining the desired data from the region where the robot is located has been taken as the basis. Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller which provides the control mechanism, 1298 shield as the motor driver.

Keywords: Wireless Network, Remote Monitoring, Smart Home, Agricultural Industry, ZigBee

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5 Central Energy Management for Optimizing Utility Grid Power Exchange with a Network of Smart Homes

Authors: Sima Aznavi, Poria Fajri, Hanif Livani

Abstract:

Smart homes are small energy systems which may be equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and loads. Energy management strategy plays a main role in the efficient operation of smart homes. Effective energy scheduling of the renewable energy sources and storage devices guarantees efficient energy management in households while reducing the energy imports from the grid. Nevertheless, despite such strategies, independently day ahead energy schedules for multiple households can cause undesired effects such as high power exchange with the grid at certain times of the day. Therefore, the interactions between multiple smart home day ahead energy projections is a challenging issue in a smart grid system and if not managed appropriately, the imported energy from the power network can impose additional burden on the distribution grid. In this paper, a central energy management strategy for a network consisting of multiple households each equipped with renewable energy sources, storage devices, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) is proposed. The decision-making strategy alongside the smart home energy management system, minimizes the energy purchase cost of the end users, while at the same time reducing the stress on the utility grid. In this approach, the smart home energy management system determines different operating scenarios based on the forecasted household daily load and the components connected to the household with the objective of minimizing the end user overall cost. Then, selected projections for each household that are within the same cost range are sent to the central decision-making system. The central controller then organizes the schedules to reduce the overall peak to average ratio of the total imported energy from the grid. To validate this approach simulations are carried out for a network of five smart homes with different load requirements and the results confirm that by applying the proposed central energy management strategy, the overall power demand from the grid can be significantly flattened. This is an effective approach to alleviate the stress on the network by distributing its energy to a network of multiple households over a 24- hour period.

Keywords: Energy Management, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy Sources, Smart Home

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4 Introduction of an Approach of Complex Virtual Devices to Achieve Device Interoperability in Smart Building Systems

Authors: Thomas Meier

Abstract:

One of the major challenges for sustainable smart building systems is to support device interoperability, i.e. connecting sensor or actuator devices from different vendors, and present their functionality to the external applications. Furthermore, smart building systems are supposed to connect with devices that are not available yet, i.e. devices that become available on the market sometime later. It is of vital importance that a sustainable smart building platform provides an appropriate external interface that can be leveraged by external applications and smart services. An external platform interface must be stable and independent of specific devices and should support flexible and scalable usage scenarios. A typical approach applied in smart home systems is based on a generic device interface used within the smart building platform. Device functions, even of rather complex devices, are mapped to that generic base type interface by means of specific device drivers. Our new approach, presented in this work, extends that approach by using the smart building system’s rule engine to create complex virtual devices that can represent the most diverse properties of real devices. We examined and evaluated both approaches by means of a practical case study using a smart building system that we have developed. We show that the solution we present allows the highest degree of flexibility without affecting external application interface stability and scalability. In contrast to other systems our approach supports complex virtual device configuration on application layer (e.g. by administration users) instead of device configuration at platform layer (e.g. platform operators). Based on our work, we can show that our approach supports almost arbitrarily flexible use case scenarios without affecting the external application interface stability. However, the cost of this approach is additional appropriate configuration overhead and additional resource consumption at the IoT platform level that must be considered by platform operators. We conclude that the concept of complex virtual devices presented in this work can be applied to improve the usability and device interoperability of sustainable intelligent building systems significantly.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Smart building, Smart Home, device interoperability, device integration

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3 Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Activity Classification in Smart Home Environments

Authors: Talal Alshammari, Nasser Alshammari, Mohamed Sedky, Chris Howard

Abstract:

With the widespread adoption of the Internet-connected devices, and with the prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, there is an increased interest in machine learning techniques that can provide useful and interesting services in the smart home domain. The areas that machine learning techniques can help advance are varied and ever-evolving. Classifying smart home inhabitants’ Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), is one prominent example. The ability of machine learning technique to find meaningful spatio-temporal relations of high-dimensional data is an important requirement as well. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to classify ADLs in the smart home domain. Forty-two synthetic datasets and two real-world datasets with multiple inhabitants are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the identified machine learning techniques. Our results show significant performance differences between the evaluated techniques. Such as AdaBoost, Cortical Learning Algorithm (CLA), Decision Trees, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Structured Perceptron and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Overall, neural network based techniques have shown superiority over the other tested techniques.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Machine Learning, classification, prediction, Smart Home, activities of daily living

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2 Determination of the Thermally Comfortable Air Temperature with Consideration of Individual Clothing and Activity as Preparation for a New Smart Home Heating System

Authors: Alexander Peikos, Carole Binsfeld

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine a thermally comfortable air temperature in an automated living room. This calculated temperature should serve as input for a user-specific and dynamic heating control in such a living space. In addition to the usual physical factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity, and radiation temperature), individual clothing and activity should be taken into account. The calculation of such a temperature is based on different methods and indices which are usually used for the evaluation of the thermal comfort. The thermal insulation of the worn clothing is determined with a Radio Frequency Identification system. The activity performed is only taken into account indirectly through the generated heart rate. All these methods are ultimately very well suited for use in temperature regulation in an automated home, but still require further research and extensive evaluation.

Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification, Thermal comfort, Smart Home, predicted mean vote

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1 Modelling Home Appliances for Energy Management System: Comparison of Simulation Results with Measurements

Authors: Aulon Shabani, Denis Panxhi, Orion Zavalani

Abstract:

This paper presents the modelling and development of a simulator for residential electrical appliances. The simulator is developed on MATLAB providing the possibility to analyze and simulate energy consumption of frequently used home appliances in Albania. Modelling of devices considers the impact of different factors, mentioning occupant behavior and climacteric conditions. Most devices are modeled as an electric circuit, and the electric energy consumption is estimated by the solutions of the guiding differential equations. The provided models refer to devices like a dishwasher, oven, water heater, air conditioners, light bulbs, television, refrigerator water, and pump. The proposed model allows us to simulate beforehand the energetic behavior of the largest consumption home devices to estimate peak consumption and improving its reduction. Simulated home prototype results are compared to real measurement of a considered typical home. Obtained results from simulator framework compared to monitored typical household using EmonTxV3 show the effectiveness of the proposed simulation. This conclusion will help for future simulation of a large group of typical household for a better understanding of peak consumption.

Keywords: Simulation, Modelling, Energy Management, Smart Home, electrical appliances, peak estimation

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