Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

slums Related Abstracts

5 Empowerment Means Decision-Making: How Does It Empower Women: Case of Slum Areas of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Nurunnaher Nurunnaher

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of women’s participation in microcredit on women’s decision making in the slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. There is confusion in the literature about whether women’s empowerment is or is not a trickle down impact of poverty alleviation or household well-being, and the studies use more or less similar indicators to measure the status of household and the status of women. Studies very rarely conceptualize and operationalize the term ‘empowerment’ as the word is often used without proper care by policy makers and development practitioners instead of household wellbeing. Currently, decision making in many studies has been used as an indicator of women’s empowerment when assessing the impact of microcredit programs on women. Based on a qualitative and feminist study this paper operationalizes women’s empowerment through the development of a conceptual framework, the identification of assessment criteria and the development of proper indicators that guided the whole study. The testimonies of participants, both men and women, were the basis of exploration of women’s lived experiences, which is the most appropriate method to explore the impact of such programs on women’s empowerment. The study considers empowerment as a process that affects various levels of life and gender relationships. The study found that there is a positive change in women’s position in decision making when women have developed an independent economic base with credit money. However, predominantly, women’s decision making is shared with men with the final decision still in the men’s hands. It can be said that women’s microcredit participation has not significantly challenged the social norms, therefore it is not surprising that women who hand over credit to their husband rarely have any power in intra-household bargaining process. Nevertheless, overall it is evident that women are continuously struggling toward the freedom to have the authority over household, economic and personal matters. It is concluded that while making strategic choices or gaining empowerment requires several steps, women’s participation in decision-making has several implications on their lives and potentially challenges patriarchy.

Keywords: Decision Making, Women, Microcredit, Empowerment, Bangladesh, gender inequality/equality, slums, Dhaka

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4 Urban Transformation as a Process for Inner-City Slums in Turkey the Experience of Gaziantep City, Turkey

Authors: Samer Katerji, Mustafa Ozakça, Esra Demircioğlu

Abstract:

The inner-city slums become a global phenomenon problem. It is widely distributed in separate zones through the urban textures, threatens cities in physical, economic and social aspects. It often has illegal settlements with unsafe and unhealthy conditions. By the time, it grown up rapidly followed by growing in its problems. According to United Nations, in some cities, up to 80 percent of the population lives in slums. Fifty-five million new slum dwellers have been added to the global population since 2000. Both developed and developing countries started to figure out mechanics to find solutions, which is suitable to solve the inner-city slums problems. In turn, the planning agenda of Turkey has been focused on urban transformation as a solution for inner-city slums problems since the 2000s. The current laws after 2004 changed all of the statements on the urban transformation of the country. This paper come to explain the urban transformation approach as qualified presses in dealing with inner-city slums problems of turkey. After that, it highlights one of the earliest ongoing transformation projects in Gaziantep city, which is adopted by the local municipalities. The study includes assessment of the pros and cons of pursuing the project and identifying the potential consequences. This is more likely to keep up with the efforts of Gaziantep Municipality in developing and transforming slum areas.

Keywords: Urban, Transformation, slums, Gaziantep

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3 Grassroots Innovation for Greening Bangladesh's Urban Slums: The Role of Local Agencies

Authors: Razia Sultana

Abstract:

The chapter investigates the roles of local Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) in climate change adaptation through grassroots innovation in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The section highlights green infrastructure as an innovative process to mitigate the challenges emanating from climate change at the bottom of the pyramid. The research draws on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 11 NGOs and 2 CBOs working in various slums in Dhaka. The study explores the activities of local agencies relating to urban green infrastructure (UGI) and its possible mitigation of a range of climate change impacts: thermal discomfort, heat stress, flooding and the urban heat island. The main argument of the chapter is unlike the Global North stakeholders’ activities relating to UGI in cities of the Global South have not been expanded on a large scale. Moreover, UGI as a risk management strategy is underutilised in the developing countries. The study finds that, in the context of Bangladesh, climate change adaptation through green infrastructure in cities is still nascent for local NGOs and CBOs. Mostly their activities are limited to addressing the basic needs of slum communities such as water and sanitation. Hence urban slum dwellers have been one of the most vulnerable groups in that they are deprived of the city’s basic ecological services. NGOs are utilizing UGI in an innovative way despite various problems in slums. For instance, land scarcity and land insecurity in slums are two key areas where UGI faces resistance. There are limited instances of NGOs using local and indigenous techniques to encourage slum dwellers to adopt UGI for creating sustainable environments. It is in this context that the paper is an attempt to showcase some of the grassroots innovation that NGOs are currently adopting in slums. Also, some challenges and opportunities are discussed to address UGI as a strategy for climate change adaptation in slums.

Keywords: Green Infrastructure, Climate Change Adaptation, slums, Dhaka, NGOs

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2 Migration, Labour Market, Capital Formation, and Social Security: A Study of Livelihoods of the Urban Poor in Two Different Cities of West Bengal in India

Authors: Arup Pramanik

Abstract:

Most of the cities in the developing countries like Siliguri Municipal Corporation Area (SMCA) and Raiganj Municipality (RM) in West Bengal, India are changing typically in terms of demographic, economic and social relationship due to rapid pace of urbanization. The mushrooming growth of slums in SMCA and RM is the direct consequence of urbanization and migration due to regional imbalance, unbalanced growth process which is posing a serious threat to sustainable development of the country. Almost all the slums happen to be a breeding ground for poverty, negligence, and disease. Unpredictable growth of slums and poverty alleviation has now become a serious challenge to the global and national policy makers for the development of the slum dwellers. The ethical dimension of the poor in the cities like SMCA and RM stands on equal opportunities, inclusive and harmonious living without discrimination of any kind. But, the migrant slum dwellers in SMCA and RM do not possess high skill or education to enable them to find well paid employment in the formal sector and the surplus urban labour force is compelled to generate its own means of employment and survival in the informal sector. The survey data of the households has been analysedin terms of percentage, descriptive statistics which includes mean, Standard Deviation (SD), ANOVA (Mean Difference) etc., to analyse the socio economic variables of the households. The study shows that the migrant labour forces living in the slums are derived from the social security measures in both the municipal areas of SMCA and RM. The urban poor in the cities of SMCA and RM rely heavily on social capital amongst all the capital assets to help them ‘get by’ and ‘get ahead’. Despite, the slum dwellers in the study areas are vulnerable with respect to other determinants of capital assets. It is noteworthy that Indian plans of anti-poverty programmes was in a proper place even after the neo-liberal regime, where the basic idea behind the massive shift of various welfare and service oriented strategy to poverty reduction strategy for the benefit of the urban poor with the trickle down effects. But, the overall impact of the trickledown effect was unsatisfactory. The objective of the Paper is to assess the magnitude of migration and absorption in the urban labour market. Issues relating to capital formation, social security measures and the support of the Welfare State in order to meet 'Sustainable Development Goals'. This study also highlights the quality of life of urban poor migrants in terms of capital formation and livelihoods.

Keywords: Migration, Social Security, capital formation, labour market, slums

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1 Geospatial Techniques and VHR Imagery Use for Identification and Classification of Slums in Gujrat City, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

The 21st century has been revealed that many individuals around the world are living in urban settlements than in rural zones. The evolution of numerous cities in emerging and newly developed countries is accompanied by the rise of slums. The precise definition of a slum varies countries to countries, but the universal harmony is that slums are dilapidated settlements facing severe poverty and have lacked access to sanitation, water, electricity, good living styles, and land tenure. The slum settlements always vary in unique patterns within and among the countries and cities. The core objective of this study is the spatial identification and classification of slums in Gujrat city Pakistan from very high-resolution GeoEye-1 (0.41m) satellite imagery. Slums were first identified using GPS for sample site identification and ground-truthing; through this process, 425 slums were identified. Then Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) was applied to classify slums on digital image. Spatial analysis softwares, e.g., ArcGIS 10.3, Erdas Imagine 9.3, and Envi 5.1, were used for processing data and performing the analysis. Results show that OOA provides up to 90% accuracy for the identification of slums. Jalal Cheema and Allah Ho colonies are severely affected by slum settlements. The ratio of criminal activities is also higher here than in other areas. Slums are increasing with the passage of time in urban areas, and they will be like a hazardous problem in coming future. So now, the executive bodies need to make effective policies and move towards the amelioration process of the city.

Keywords: GPS, Satellite Imagery, slums, object oriented analysis, zonal change detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 1