Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

sliding Related Abstracts

5 Viability of Slab Sliding System for Single Story Structure

Authors: C. Iihoshi, G. A. MacRae, G. W. Rodgers, J. G. Chase

Abstract:

Slab Sliding System (SSS) with Coulomb friction interface between slab and supporting frame is a passive structural vibration control technology. The system can significantly reduce the slab acceleration and accompanied lateral force of the frame. At the same time it is expected to cause the slab displacement magnification by sliding movement. To obtain the general comprehensive seismic response of a single story structure, inelastic response spectra were computed for a large ensemble of ground motions and a practical range of structural periods and friction coefficient values. It was shown that long period structures have no trade-off relation between force reduction and displacement magnification with respect to elastic response, unlike short period structures. For structures with the majority of mass in the slab, the displacement magnification value can be predicted according to simple inelastic displacement relation for in elastically responding SDOF structures because the system behaves elastically to a SDOF structure.

Keywords: Earthquake, Isolation, slab, sliding

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4 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: sliding, concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact

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3 Application Reliability Method for the Analysis of the Stability Limit States of Large Concrete Dams

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Essadik Kerkar, Abdelhamid Hebbouche

Abstract:

According to the randomness of most of the factors affecting the stability of a gravity dam, probability theory is generally used to TESTING the risk of failure and there is a confusing logical transition from the state of stability failed state, so the stability failure process is considered as a probable event. The control of risk of product failures is of capital importance for the control from a cross analysis of the gravity of the consequences and effects of the probability of occurrence of identified major accidents and can incur a significant risk to the concrete dam structures. Probabilistic risk analysis models are used to provide a better understanding the reliability and structural failure of the works, including when calculating stability of large structures to a major risk in the event of an accident or breakdown. This work is interested in the study of the probability of failure of concrete dams through the application of the reliability analysis methods including the methods used in engineering. It is in our case of the use of level II methods via the study limit state. Hence, the probability of product failures is estimated by analytical methods of the type FORM (First Order Reliability Method), SORM (Second Order Reliability Method). By way of comparison, a second level III method was used which generates a full analysis of the problem and involving an integration of the probability density function of, random variables are extended to the field of security by using of the method of Mont-Carlo simulations. Taking into account the change in stress following load combinations: normal, exceptional and extreme the acting on the dam, calculation results obtained have provided acceptable failure probability values which largely corroborate the theory, in fact, the probability of failure tends to increase with increasing load intensities thus causing a significant decrease in strength, especially in the presence of combinations of unique and extreme loads. Shear forces then induce a shift threatens the reliability of the structure by intolerable values of the probability of product failures. Especially, in case THE increase of uplift in a hypothetical default of the drainage system.

Keywords: Probability, Reliability, Failure, sliding, dam, limit state, monte-carlo, Taylor

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2 Application Reliability Method for Concrete Dams

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Mohamed Essadik Kerkar

Abstract:

Probabilistic risk analysis models are used to provide a better understanding of the reliability and structural failure of works, including when calculating the stability of large structures to a major risk in the event of an accident or breakdown. This work is interested in the study of the probability of failure of concrete dams through the application of reliability analysis methods including the methods used in engineering. It is in our case, the use of level 2 methods via the study limit state. Hence, the probability of product failures is estimated by analytical methods of the type first order risk method (FORM) and the second order risk method (SORM). By way of comparison, a level three method was used which generates a full analysis of the problem and involves an integration of the probability density function of random variables extended to the field of security using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Taking into account the change in stress following load combinations: normal, exceptional and extreme acting on the dam, calculation of the results obtained have provided acceptable failure probability values which largely corroborate the theory, in fact, the probability of failure tends to increase with increasing load intensities, thus causing a significant decrease in strength, shear forces then induce a shift that threatens the reliability of the structure by intolerable values of the probability of product failures. Especially, in case the increase of uplift in a hypothetical default of the drainage system.

Keywords: Simulation, Probability, Reliability, Failure, sliding, dam, monte-carlo, Taylor, limit-state

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1 Multiaxial Fatigue in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts with Asperities and Slip

Authors: Carl-Magnus Everitt, Bo Alfredsson

Abstract:

Contact mechanics and tribology have been combined with fundamental fatigue and fracture mechanics to form the asperity mechanism which supplies an explanation for the surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue damage, called pitting or spalling. The cracks causing the pits initiates at one surface point and thereafter they slowly grow into the material before chipping of a material piece to form the pit. In the current study, the lubrication aspects on fatigue initiation are simulated by passing a single asperity through a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubricated, TEHL, contact. The physics of the lubricant was described with Reynolds equation and the lubricants pressure-viscosity relation was modeled by Roelands equation, formulated to include temperature dependence. A pressure dependent shear limit was incorporated. To capture the full phenomena of the sliding contact the temperature field was resolved through the incorporation of the energy flow. The heat was mainly generated due to shearing of the lubricant and from dry friction where metal contact occurred. The heat was then transported, and conducted, away by the solids and the lubricant. The fatigue damage caused by the asperities was evaluated through Findley’s fatigue criterion. The results show that asperities, in the size of surface roughness found in applications, may cause surface initiated fatigue damage and crack initiation. The simulations also show that the asperities broke through the lubricant in the inlet, causing metal to metal contact with high friction. When the asperities thereafter moved through the contact, the sliding provided the asperities with lubricant releasing the metal contact. The release of metal contact was possible due to the high viscosity the lubricant obtained from the high pressure. The metal contact in the inlet caused higher friction which increased the risk of fatigue damage. Since the metal contact occurred in the inlet it increased the fatigue risk more for asperities subjected to negative slip than positive slip. Therefore the fatigue evaluations showed that the asperities subjected to negative slip yielded higher fatigue stresses than the asperities subjected to positive slip of equal magnitude. This is one explanation for why pitting is more common in the dedendum than the addendum on pinion gear teeth. The simulations produced further validation for the asperity mechanism by showing that asperities cause surface initiated fatigue and crack initiation.

Keywords: Fatigue, Rolling, sliding, thermal elastohydrodynamic

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