Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Sleep Related Abstracts

14 Sustainability with Health: A Daylighting Approach

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri


Daylight in general and sunlight in particular are vital to life on earth, and it is not difficult to believe that their absence fosters conditions that promote disease. Through photosynthesis and other processes, sunlight provides photochemical ingredients necessary for our lives. There are fundamental biological, hormonal, and physiological functions coordinated by cycles that are crucial to life for cells, plants, animals, and humans. Many plants and animals, including humans, develop abnormal behaviors when sunlight is absent because their diurnal cycle is disturbed. Building​ codes disregard this aspect of daylighting when promulgating windows for buildings. This paper discusses the health aspects of daylighting design.

Keywords: Cancer, Health, Disorders, Sleep, Daylighting, sunlight, circadian rythm

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13 Restless Leg Syndrome as the Presenting Symptom of Neuroendocrine Tumor

Authors: Mustafa Cam, Nedim Ongun, Ufuk Kutluana


Introduction: Restless LegsSyndrome (RLS) is a common, under-recognized disorder disrupts sleep and diminishes quality of life (1). The most common conditions highly associated with RLS include renalfailure, iron and folic acid deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, pregnancy, celiacdisease, Crohn’sdiseaseandrarelymalignancy (2).Despite a clear relation between low peripheral iron and increased prevalence and severity of RLS, the prevalence and clinical significance of RLS in iron-deficientanemic populations is unknown (2). We report here a case of RLS due to iron deficiency in the setting of neuroendocrinetumor. Report of Case: A 35 year-old man was referred to our clinic with general weakness, weight loss (10 kg in 2 months)and 2-month history of uncomfortable sensations in his legs with urge to move, partially relieved by movement. The symptoms were presented very day, worsening in the evening; the discomfort forced the patient to getup and walk around at night. RLS was severe, with a score of 22 at the International RLS ratingscale. The patient had no past medical history. The patient underwent a complete set of blood analyses and the following ab normal values were found (normal limitswithinbrackets): hemoglobin 9.9 g/dl (14-18), MCV 70 fL (80-94), ferritin 3,5 ng/mL (13-150). Brain and spinemagnetic resonance imaging was normal. The patient consultated with gastroenterology clinic and gastointestinal systemendoscopy was performed for theetiology of the iron deficiency anemia. After the gastricbiopsy, results allowed us to reach the diagnosis of neuroen docrine tumor and the patient referred to oncology clinic. Discussion: The first important consideration from this case report is that the patient was referred to our clinic because of his severe RLS symptoms dramatically reducing his quality of life. However, our clinical study clearly demonstrated that RLS was not the primary disease. Considering the information available for this patient, we believe that the most likely possibility is that RLS was secondary to iron deficiency, a very well-known and established cause of RLS in theliterature (3,4). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare epithelial neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that most commonly originate in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (5). NETs vary widely in their clinical presentation; symptoms are often nonspecific and can be mistaken for those of other more common conditions (6). 50% of patients with reported disease stage have either regional or distant metastases at diagnosis (7). Accurate and earlier NET diagnosis is the first step in shortening the time to optimal care and improved outcomes for patients (8). The most important message from this case report is that RLS symptoms can sometimes be thesign of a life-threatening condition. Conclusion: Careful and complete collection of clinical and laboratory data should be carried out in RLS patients. Inparticular, if RLS onset coincides with weight loss and iron deficieny anemia, gastricendos copy should be performed. It is known about that malignancy is a rare etiology in RLS patients and to our knowledge; it is the first case with neuro endocrine tumor presenting with RLS.

Keywords: Neurology, Restless legs syndrome, Sleep, neuroendocrine tumor

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12 Benefits of Environmental Aids to Chronobiology Management and Its Impact on Depressive Mood in an Operational Setting

Authors: M. Trousselard, D. Steiler, C. Drogou, P. van-Beers, G. Lamour, S. N. Crosnier, O. Bouilland, P. Dubost, M. Chennaoui, D. Léger


According to published data, undersea navigation for long periods (nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, SSBN) constitutes an extreme environment in which crews are subjected to multiple stresses, including the absence of natural light, illuminance below 1,000 lux, and watch schedules that do not respect natural chronobiological rhythms, for a period of 60-80 days. These stresses seem clearly detrimental to the submariners’ sleep, with consequences for their affective (seasonal affective disorder-like) and cognitive functioning. In the long term, there are abundant publications regarding the consequences of sleep disruption for the occurrence of organic cardiovascular, metabolic, immunological or malignant diseases. It seems essential to propose countermeasures for the duration of the patrol in order to reduce the negative physiological effects on the sleep and mood of submariners. Light therapy, the preferred treatment for dysfunctions of the internal biological clock and the resulting seasonal depression, cannot be used without data to assist knowledge of submariners’ chronobiology (melatonin secretion curve) during patrols, given the unusual characteristics of their working environment. These data are not available in the literature. The aim of this project was to assess, in the course of two studies, the benefits of two environmental techniques for managing chronobiological stress: techniques for optimizing potential (TOP; study 1)3, an existing programme to help in the psychophysiological regulation of stress and sleep in the armed forces, and dawn and dusk simulators (DDS, study 2). For each experiment, psychological, physiological (sleep) or biological (melatonin secretion) data were collected on D20 and D50 of patrol. In the first experiment, we studied sleep and depressive distress in 19 submariners in an operational setting on board an SSBM during a first patrol, and assessed the impact of TOP on the quality of sleep and depressive distress in these same submariners over the course of a second patrol. The submariners were trained in TOP between the two patrols for a 2-month period, at a rate of 1 h of training per week, and assigned daily informal exercises. Results show moderate disruptions in sleep pattern and duration associated with the intensity of depressive distress. The use of TOP during the following patrol improved sleep and depressive mood only in submariners who regularly practiced the techniques. In light of these limited benefits, we assessed, in a second experiment, the benefits of DDS on chronobiology (daily secretion of melatonin) and depressive distress. Ninety submariners were randomly allocated to two groups, group 1 using DDS daily, and group 2 constituting the control group. Although the placebo effect was not controlled, results showed a beneficial effect on chronobiology and depressive mood for submariners with a morning chronotype. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the difficulty of practicing the tools of psychophysiological management in real life. They raise the question of the subjects’ autonomy with respect to using aids that involve regular practice. It seems important to study autonomy in future studies, as a cognitive resource resulting from the interaction between internal positive resources and “coping” resources, to gain a better understanding of compliance problems.

Keywords: Stress Management, stress, Chronobiology, Sleep, submarine, light therapy, seasonal affective disorder

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11 Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Athletic Performance in Nigeria Colleges of Education Games

Authors: Rasheed Owolabi Oloyede, Joseph Olusegun Adelusi, Seun Oluwadare


Sleep has been found to have many recuperative and restorative beneficial effects on athletic recovery. When a person is deprived of sleep this can have many effects on their immune and endocrine systems. Both of these systems are extremely important for the recovery process of any athlete and when we deprive ourselves of sleep, we are depriving ourselves of recovery. This study examined how sleep deprivation can hinder sport performance among selected athletes representing Adeyemi College of Education at Nigeria Colleges of Education Games (NICEGA) competitions at Minna. A total of 32 athletes were sampled for the study. They were exposed to two different activities. Each activity was performed before and after sleep deprivation, the activities were 100m dash, shuttle relay. The athletes were randomly assigned to two groups that are experimental and control groups. Pretest were conducted on both groups before apply treatment to the other group. A day before the activities to be performed the control group was denied of sleep between 10p.m to 5a.m for a period of 6 weeks. The analysis of the data showed that athletes performance in the two selected activities performed on equal basis before the sleep deprivation. After sleep deprivation the performance of experimental group was a little better than the control group that were denied of sleep. It was concluded that sleep allows the body to spend less energy resources on body processes needed while awake, it was concluded that sleep deprivation enables the body system work effectively. The body can expend needed energy, balance and adequate reaction time if it is allowed to have enough rest. Lack of adequate sleep results to dullness of the brain, nervousness and anxiety which all have negative effect on performance of activities by athletes. Based on the findings, it was recommended that extend nightly sleep for several week to reduce your sleep debt before competition. Maintain a low sleep debt by obtaining a sufficient amount of nightly sleep (seven to eight hours for adults, nine or more hours for teens and young adults). Keep a regular sleep-wake schedule, going to bed and waking up at the same times every day.

Keywords: Performance, Sleep, activities, deprivation

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10 Effect of a GABA/5-HTP Mixture on Behavioral Changes and Biomodulation in an Invertebrate Model

Authors: Kyungae Jo, Eun Young Kim, Byungsoo Shin, Kwang Soon Shin, Hyung Joo Suh


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are amino acids of digested nutrients or food ingredients and these can possibly be utilized as non-pharmacologic treatment for sleep disorder. We previously investigated the GABA/5-HTP mixture is the principal concept of sleep-promoting and activity-repressing management in nervous system of D. melanogaster. Two experiments in this study were designed to evaluate sleep-promoting effect of GABA/5-HTP mixture, to clarify the possible ratio of sleep-promoting action in the Drosophila invertebrate model system. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate distance traveled, velocity, movement, mobility, turn angle, angular velocity and meander of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. In addition, differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses from next generation sequencing (NGS) were applied to investigate the signaling pathway and functional interaction network of GABA/5-HTP mixture administration. GABA/5-HTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to behavior (p < 0.01) and significantly induced locomotor activity in the awake model (p < 0.05). As a result of the sequencing, the molecular function of various genes has relationship with motor activity and biological regulation. These results showed that GABA/5-HTP mixture administration significantly involved the inhibition of motor behavior. In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates locomotor activity to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via the neuronal system, neurotransmitter release cycle and transmission across chemical synapses.

Keywords: Sleep, Drosophila melanogaster, γ-aminobutyric acid

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9 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang


Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Sleep, Heart Rate, Sleep Quality

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8 The Impact of Insomnia on the Academic Performance of Mexican Medical Students: Gender Perspective

Authors: Paulina Ojeda, Damaris Estrella, Hector Rubio


Insomnia is a disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or both. It negatively affects the life quality of people, it hinders the concentration, attention, memory, motor skills, among other abilities that complicate work or learning. Some studies show that women are more susceptible to insomnia. Medicine curricula usually involve a great deal of theoretical and memory content, especially in the early years of the course. The way to accredit a university course is to demonstrate the level of competence or acquired knowledge. In Mexico the most widely used form of measurement is written exams, with numerical scales results. The prevalence of sleep disorders in university students is usually high, so it is important to know if insomnia has an effect on school performance in men and women. A cross-sectional study was designed that included a probabilistic sample of 118 regular students from the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mexico. All on legally age. The project was authorized by the School of Medicine and all the ethical implications of the case were monitored. Participants completed anonymously the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, AUDIT test, epidemiological and clinical data. Academic performance was assessed by the average number of official grades earned on written exams, as well as the number of approved or non-approved courses. These data were obtained officially through the corresponding school authorities. Students with at least one unapproved course or average less than 70 were considered to be poor performers. With all courses approved and average between 70-79 as regular performance and with an average of 80 or higher as a good performance. Statistical analysis: t-Student, difference of proportions and ANOVA. 65 men with a mean age of 19.15 ± 1.60 years and 53 women of 18.98 ± 1.23 years, were included. 96% of the women and 78.46% of the men sleep in the family home. 16.98% of women and 18.46% of men consume tobacco. Most students consume caffeinated beverages. 3.7% of the women and 10.76% of the men complete criteria of harmful consumption of alcohol. 98.11% of the women and 90.76% of the men are perceived with poor sleep quality. Insomnia was present in 73% of women and 66% of men. Women had higher levels of moderate insomnia (p=0.02) compared to men and only one woman had severe insomnia. 50.94% of the women and 44.61% of the men had poor academic performance. 18.86% of women and 27% of men performed well. Only in the group of women we found a significant association between poor performance with mild (p= 0.0035) and moderate (p=0.031) insomnia. The medical students reported poor sleep quality and insomnia. In women, levels of insomnia were associated with poor academic performance.

Keywords: Sex, Sleep, University, scholar-average

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7 Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on the Sleep Quality of the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes

Authors: Güler Duru Aşiret


Introduction: Poor sleep quality is a common problem among the older people living in nursing homes. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on the sleep quality of the elderly living in nursing homes. Methods: The study had 22 people in the intervention group and 24 people in the control group. The intervention group had reminiscence therapy once a week for 12 weeks in the form of individual sessions of 25-30 minutes. In our study, we first determined the dates suitable for the intervention group and researcher and planned the date and time of individual reminiscence therapies, which would take 12 weeks. While preparing this schedule, we considered subjects’ time schedules for their regular visits to health facilities and the arrival of their visitors. At this stage, the researcher informed the participants that their regular attendance in sessions would affect the intervention outcome. One topic was discussed every week. Weekly topics included: introduction in the first week; childhood and family life, school days, starting work and work life (a day at home for housewives), a fun day out of home, marriage (friendship for the singles), plants and animals they loved, babies and children, food and cooking, holidays and travelling, special days and celebrations, assessment and closure, in the following weeks respectively. The control group had no intervention. Study data was collected by using an introductory information form and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: In our study, participants’ average age was 76.02 ± 7.31. 58.7% of them were male and 84.8% were single. All of them had at least one chronic disease. 76.1% did not need help for performing their daily life activities. The length of stay in the institution was 6.32 ± 3.85 years. According to the participants’ descriptive characteristics, there was no difference between groups. While there was no statistically significant difference between the pretest PSQI median scores (p > 0.05) of both groups, PSQI median score had a statistically significant decrease after 12 weeks of reminiscence therapy (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant change in the median scores of the subcomponents of sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance and use of sleep medication before and after reminiscence therapy. After the 12-weeks reminiscence therapy, there was a statistically significant change in the median scores for the PSQI subcomponents of subjective sleep quality (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study found that reminiscence therapy increased the sleep quality of the elderly living in nursing homes. Acknowledgment: This study (project no 2017-037) was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Aksaray University. We thank the elderly subjects for their kind participation.

Keywords: Nursing, Sleep, Older People, reminiscence therapy

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6 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh


Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: stress, Sleep, automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation

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5 Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi


This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.

Keywords: hospital, Sleep, apnea patient, operating model

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4 Case Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Methods of Treatment for a Professional Driver

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi


This study evaluates obstructive sleep apnea treatment through a case study involving a 67-year-old male driver who had a successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment at home but experienced difficulties with traveling and dental care. There are many cheap sleep apnea and snoring devices available, but there is little professional advice on what kind of devices can help. Professional drivers receive yearly specialized medical care follow-up.

Keywords: Sleep, apnea patient, CPAP, professional driver

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3 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Kristen Bub, Jaewook Lee, Kate Kurry


In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Children, Light, Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Elementary school, daylight, actigraphy

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2 Assessment of Sleeping Patterns of Saudis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods Using a Wearable Device and a Questionnaire

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris


Background: Quantity and quality of sleep have been reported to be significant risk factors for obesity and development of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationship between diabetes and sleep quantity was reported to be U-shaped, which means increased or decreased sleeping hours can increase the risk of diabetes. The plasma glucagon levels were found to continuously decrease during night-time sleep in healthy individuals, independently of blood glucose and insulin levels. The disturbance of the circadian rhythm is also important and has been linked with an increased the chance of diabetes incidence. There is a lack of research on sleep patterns on Saudis with T2DM and how this is affected by Ramadan fasting. Aim: To assess the sleeping patterns of Saudis with T2DM (before, during, and after Ramadan), using two different techniques and relate this to their HbA1c levels. Method: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Their sleeping patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire (before, during, and after Ramadan). The assessment included the daily total sleeping hours (DTSH), and total night-time sleeping hours (TNTSH) of the participants. In addition, sleeping patterns of 36 patients, randomly selected from the 82 participants, were further tracked during and after Ramadan by using Fitbit Flex 2™ accelerometer. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Questionnaire analysis revealed that the sleeping patterns significantly changed between the periods, with shorter hours during Ramadan (P < 0.001 for DTSH, and P < 0.001 for TNTSH). These findings were confirmed by the Fitbit data, which also indicated significant shorter sleeping hours for the DTSH, and the TNTSH during Ramadan (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Although there were no significant correlations between the questionnaire and Fitbit data, the TNTSH were shorter among the participants in all periods by both techniques. The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods, with lowest level during Ramadan. Although the statistical tests did not show significant variances in the mean HbA1c between the groups of participants regarding their hours of sleeping, the lowest mean HbA1c was observed in the group of participants who slept for 6-8 hours and had longer night-time sleeping hours. Conclusion: A short sleep duration, and absence of night-time sleep were significantly observed among the majority of the study population during Ramadan, which could suppress the full benefits of Ramadan fasting for diabetic patients. This study showed that there is a good agreement between the findings of the questionnaire and the Fitbit device for evaluating sleeping patterns in a Saudi population. A larger study is needed in the future to investigate the impact of Ramadan fasting on sleep quality and quantity and its relationship with health and disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Sleep, Fasting, HbA1C, Fitbit, IPAQ, Ramadan

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1 Improving Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessments

Authors: Nancy Wilson


In utero, fetal drug exposure is prevalent amongst birthing facilities. Assessment tools for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are often cumbersome and ill-fitting, harboring immense subjectivity. This paradox often leads the clinical assessor to be hypervigilant when assessing the newborn for subtle symptoms of NAS, often mistaken for normal newborn behaviors. As a quality improvement initiative, this project led to a more adaptable NAS tool termed eat, sleep, console (ESC). This function-based NAS assessment scores the infant based on the ability to accomplish three basic newborn necessities- to sleep, to eat, and to be consoled. Literature supports that ESC methodology improves patient and family outcomes while providing more cost-effective care.

Keywords: pregnancy, Sleep, eat, neonatal abstinence syndrome, neonatal opioid withdrawal, maternal substance abuse, and addiction, Finnegan neonatal abstinence syndrome tool, console

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