Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

sizing Related Abstracts

5 Prime Mover Sizing for Base-Loaded Combined Heating and Power Systems

Authors: Djalal Boualili


This article considers the problem of sizing prime movers for combined heating and power (CHP) systems operating at full load to satisfy a fraction of a facility's electric load, i.e. a base load. Prime mover sizing is examined using three criteria: operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions (CDE), and primary energy consumption (PEC). The sizing process leads to consider ratios of conversion factors applied to imported electricity to conversion factors applied to fuel consumed. These ratios are labelled RCost, R CDE, R PEC depending on whether the conversion factors are associated with operational cost, CDE, or PEC, respectively. Analytical results show that in order to achieve savings in operational cost, CDE, or PEC, the ratios must be larger than a unique constant R Min that only depends on the CHP components efficiencies. Savings in operational cost, CDE, or PEC due to CHP operation are explicitly formulated using simple equations. This facilitates the process of comparing the tradeoffs of optimizing the savings of one criterion over the other two – a task that has traditionally been accomplished through computer simulations. A hospital building, located in Chlef, Algeria, was used as an example to apply the methodology presented in this article.

Keywords: sizing, Energy Consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, heating and power, ratios

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4 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: David B. Tsuanyo, Didier Aussel, Yao Azoumah, Pierre Neveu


An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy”is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energies sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel gensets and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel gensets. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand. This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: Optimization, sizing, Rural Electrification, investments criteria, PV hybrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3 Valorisation of Mango Seed: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization of Starch Extraction from Mango Seeds

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole


Box-Behnken Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield and whiteness index from mango seed. The steeping time ranges from 2 to 12 hours and slurring of the steeped seed in sodium metabisulphite solution (0.1 to 0.5 w/v) was carried out. Experiments were designed according to Box-Behnken Design with these three factors and a total of 15 runs experimental variables of were analyzed. At linear level, the concentration of sodium metabisulphite had significant positive influence on percentage yield and whiteness index at p<0.05. At quadratic level, sodium metabisulphite concentration and sodium metabisulphite concentration2 had a significant negative influence on starch yield; sodium metabisulphite concentration and steeping time*temperature had significant (p<0.05) positive influence on whiteness index. The adjusted R2 above 0.8 for starch yield (0.906465) and whiteness index (0.909268) showed a good fit of the model with the experimental data. The optimum sodium metabisulphite concentration, steeping hours, and temperature for starch isolation with maximum starch yield (66.428%) and whiteness index (85%) as set goals for optimization with the desirability of 0.91939 was 0.255w/v concentration, 2hrs and 50 °C respectively. The determined experimental value of each response based on optimal condition was statistically in accordance with predicted levels at p<0.05. The Mango seeds are the by-products obtained during mango processing and possess disposal problem if not handled properly. The substitution of food based sizing agents with mango seed starch can contribute as pertinent resource deployment for value-added product manufacturing and waste utilization which might play significance role of food security in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Textile, sizing, Extraction, Starch, mango, synthetic sizing agent

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2 Sizing of Drying Processes to Optimize Conservation of the Nuclear Power Plants on Stationary

Authors: Assabo Mohamed, Bile Mohamed, Ali Farah, Isman Souleiman, Olga Alos Ramos, Marie Cadet


The life of a nuclear power plant is regularly punctuated by short or long period outages to carry out maintenance operations and/or nuclear fuel reloading. During these stops periods, it is essential to conserve all the secondary circuit equipment to avoid corrosion priming. This kind of circuit is one of the main components of a nuclear reactor. Indeed, the conservation materials on shutdown of a nuclear unit improve circuit performance and reduce the maintenance cost considerably. This study is a part of the optimization of the dry preservation of equipment from the water station of the nuclear reactor. The main objective is to provide tools to guide Electricity Production Nuclear Centre (EPNC) in order to achieve the criteria required by the chemical specifications of conservation materials. A theoretical model of drying exchangers of water station is developed by the software Engineering Equation Solver (EES). It used to size requirements and air quality needed for dry conservation of equipment. This model is based on heat transfer and mass transfer governing the drying operation. A parametric study is conducted to know the influence of aerothermal factor taking part in the drying operation. The results show that the success of dry conservation of equipment of the secondary circuit of nuclear reactor depends strongly on the draining, the quality of drying air and the flow of air injecting in the secondary circuit. Finally, theoretical case study performed on EES highlights the importance of mastering the entire system to balance the air system to provide each exchanger optimum flow depending on its characteristics. From these results, recommendations to nuclear power plants can be formulated to optimize drying practices and achieve good performance in the conservation of material from the water at the stop position.

Keywords: Optimization, sizing, dry conservation, water station

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1 Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Conditions to Improve Interfacial Adhesion

Authors: Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke Henderson


Although carbon fibre composites are becoming ever more prominent in the engineering industry, interfacial failure still remains one of the most common limitations to material performance. Carbon fiber surface treatments have played a major role in advancing composite properties however research into the influence of manufacturing variables on a fiber manufacturing line is lacking. This project investigates the impact of altering carbon fiber manufacturing conditions on a production line (specifically electrochemical oxidization and sizing variables) to assess fiber-matrix adhesion. Pristine virgin fibers were manufactured and interfacial adhesion systematically assessed from a microscale (single fiber) to a mesoscale (12k tow), and ultimately a macroscale (laminate). Correlations between interfacial shear strength (IFSS) at each level is explored as a function of known interfacial bonding mechanisms; namely mechanical interlocking, chemical adhesion and fiber wetting. Impact of these bonding mechanisms is assessed through extensive mechanical, topological and chemical characterisation. They are correlated to performance as a function of IFSS. Ultimately this study provides a bottoms up approach to improving composite laminates. By understanding the scaling effects from a singular fiber to a composite laminate and linking this knowledge to specific bonding mechanisms, material scientists can make an informed decision on the manufacturing conditions most beneficial for interfacial adhesion.

Keywords: sizing, Surface treatment, Carbon Fibers, interfacial adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 132