Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

size Related Abstracts

9 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk

Abstract:

Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: Stability, Ultrasound, injection, surfactant, release, emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, light scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
8 Macroeconomic Determinants of Cyclical Variations in Value, Size, and Momentum Premium in the UK

Authors: N. Todorovic, G. Sarwar, C. Mateus

Abstract:

The paper examines the asymmetries in size, value and momentum premium over the economic cycles in the UK and their macroeconomic determinants. Using Markov switching approach we find clear evidence of cyclical variations of the three premiums, most noticeably variations in size premium. We associate Markov switching regime 1 with economic upturn and regime 2 with economic downturn as per OECD’s Composite Leading Indicator. The macroeconomic indicators prompting such cyclicality the most are interest rates, term structure and credit spread. The role of GDP growth, money supply and inflation is less pronounced in our sample.

Keywords: Value, size, macroeconomic determinants, Markorv Switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
7 Practical Aspects Pertaining to the Selection of Size and Location of Source Substations in an Oil Field

Authors: Yadavalli Venkata Sridhar

Abstract:

Finalization of Substation sizing and location is an important task to be carried out by electrical designers in an oil field. Practical issues influence the selection of size and location of the source substations that feed multiple production facilities are listed. Importance of selection of appropriately rated short circuit level for 11KV switchboards and constraints pertaining to availability of manufacturers are highlighted. Without being lost in the research of absolute optimum solution, under time constraints, the importance of practical approach is brought out. Focus on identifying near optimum solutions by process of elimination of unfeasible substation locations with the support of cost figures, is emphasized through a case study.

Keywords: location, Substation, size, oil field

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
6 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: Research, Scale up, size, batch

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang

Abstract:

For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: Graphene, Quantum Dot, Photoluminescence, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
4 Listening to Circles, Playing Lights: A Study of Cross-Modal Perception in Music

Authors: Roni Granot, Erica Polini

Abstract:

Music is often described in terms of non-auditory adjectives such as a rising melody, a bright sound, or a zigzagged contour. Such cross modal associations have been studied with simple isolated musical parameters, but only rarely in rich musical contexts. The current study probes cross sensory associations with polarity based dimensions by means of pairings of 10 adjectives: blunt-sharp, relaxed-tense, heavy-light, low (in space)-high, low (pitch)-high, big-small, hard-soft, active-passive, bright-dark, sad-happy. 30 participants (randomly assigned to one of two groups) were asked to rate one of 27 short saxophone improvisations on a 1 to 6 scale where 1 and six correspond to the opposite pole of each dimension. The 27 improvisations included three exemplars for each of three dimensions (size, brightness, sharpness), played by three different players. Here we focus on the question of whether ratings of scales corresponding with the musical dimension were consistently rated as such (e.g. music improvised to represent a white circle rated as bright in contrast with music improvised to represent a dark circle rated as dark). Overall the average scores by dimension showed an upward trend in the equivalent verbal scale, with a low rating for small, bright and sharp musical improvisations and higher scores for large, dark and blunt improvisations. Friedman tests indicate a statistically significant difference for brightness (χ2 (2) = 19.704, p = .000) and sharpness dimensions (χ2 (2) = 15.750, p = .000), but not for size (χ2 (2) = 1.444, p = .486). Post hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests within the brightness dimension, show significant differences among all possible parings resulted in significant differences: the rankings of 'bright' and 'dark' (Z = -3.310, p = .001), of 'bright' and 'medium' (Z = -2.438, p = .015) and of 'dark' and 'medium' music (Z = -2.714, p = .007); but only differences between the extreme contrasts within the sharpness dimension : 'sharp' and 'blunt' music (Z = -3.147, p = .002) and between 'sharp' and 'medium' music rated on the sharpness scale (Z = - 3.054, p = .002), but not between 'medium' and 'blunt' music (Z = -.982, p = .326). In summary our study suggests a privileged link between music and the perceptual and semantic domain of brightness. In contrast, size seems to be very difficult to convey in music, whereas sharpness seems to be mapped onto the two extremes (sharp vs. blunt) rather than continuously. This is nicely reflected in the musical literature in titles and texts which stress the association between music and concepts of light or darkness rather than sharpness or size.

Keywords: size, brightness, audiovisual, cross-modal perception, cross-sensory correspondences, visual angularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava

Abstract:

Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: moisture, size, cow pea, extrusion–cooking

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

Abstract:

Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: Language, Sequencing, size, linguistic relativism

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1 The Determinants of Financing to Deposit Ratio of Islamic Bank in Malaysia

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Achsania Hendratmi, Nisful Laila

Abstract:

The research aimed to know the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Return on Assets (ROA) and Size of the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) Islamic Banks in Malaysia by using eleven Islamic Banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic Banks in Malaysia in the period 2012 to 2016 as samples. The research used a quantitative approach method, and the analysis technique used multiple linear regression. Based on the result of t-test (partial), CAR, ROA and size significantly affect of FDR. While the results of f-test (simultaneous) showed that CAR, ROA and Size significant effect on FDR.

Keywords: return on assets, size, capital adequacy ratio, financing to deposit ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 157