Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Six Sigma Related Abstracts

18 Analysis of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled

Abstract:

From the past couple of years, focus has been done on the quality management theories and has been pertained to various firms. The core quality management theories are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma where a number of documents have already been presented regarding these theories. The purpose of this paper is to study in detail about these theories and how the theories are applied in the aerospace industry. A methodical literature review, comparison of TQM and Six Sigma as well as a case study of each has been carried out in this paper thus providing a clear understanding of the theories.

Keywords: Aerospace, Innovation, Six Sigma, Research, Total Quality Management

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17 Analysis of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled

Abstract:

This paper subsidizes to the discussion of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry. The main aim of this report is to study the literature review of Six Sigma emphasizing on the aerospace industry. The implementation of Six Sigma stages are studied and how the improvement cycle ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control cycle’ (DMAIC) and the design process is ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify Cycle’ (DMADV) is used. The focus is also done by studying how the implementation of Six Sigma on an aerospace company has brought a positive effect to the company.

Keywords: Aerospace, Six Sigma, DMAIC, DMADV

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16 Six Sigma Assessment in the Latvian Commercial Banking Sector

Authors: I. Erins, J. Erina

Abstract:

The goals of the present research are to estimate Six Sigma implementation in Latvian commercial banks and to identify the perceived benefits of its implementation. To achieve the goals, the authors used a sequential explanatory method. To obtain empirical data, the authors have developed the questionnaire and adapted it for the employees of Latvian commercial banks. The questions are related to Six Sigma implementation and its perceived benefits. The questionnaire mainly consists of closed questions, the evaluation of which is based on 5 point Likert scale. The obtained empirical data has shown that of the two hypotheses put forward in the present research Hypothesis 1 has to be rejected, while Hypothesis 2 has been partially confirmed. The authors have also faced some research limitations related to the fact that the participants in the questionnaire belong to different rank of the organization hierarchy.

Keywords: Six Sigma, Quality, commercial banking sector, latvian

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15 Application of Lean Six Sigma Tools to Minimize Time and Cost in Furniture Packaging

Authors: Suleiman Obeidat, Nabeel Mandahawi

Abstract:

In this work, the packaging process for a move is improved. The customers of this move need their household stuff to be moved from their current house to the new one with minimum damage, in an organized manner, on time and with the minimum cost. Our goal was to improve the process between 10% and 20% time efficiency, 90% reduction in damaged parts and an acceptable improvement in the cost of the total move process. The expected ROI was 833%. Many improvement techniques have been used in terms of the way the boxes are prepared, their preparation cost, packing the goods, labeling them and moving them to a place for moving out. DMAIC technique is used in this work: SIPOC diagram, value stream map of “As Is” process, Root Cause Analysis, Maps of “Future State” and “Ideal State” and an Improvement Plan. A value of ROI=624% is obtained which is lower than the expected value of 833%. The work explains the techniques of improvement and the deficiencies in the old process.

Keywords: packaging, Six Sigma, lean tools, DMAIC methodology, SIPOC

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14 A Collaborative Application of Six Sigma and Value Engineering in Supply Chain and Logistics

Authors: Arun Raja, Kevin Thomas, Sreyas Tribhu, S. P. Anbuudayasankar

Abstract:

This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology in supply chain (SC) and logistics. A detailed cram about how the SC can be improved and its impact on the organization are dealt with and also how the quality plays a vital role in improving SC and logistics are identified. A simulation has been performed using the ARENA software to determine the process efficiency of a bottle manufacturing unit. Further, a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) analysis has been executed on the manufacturing process flow model and the manner by which Value Engineering (VE) holds a significant importance for quality assertion on the products is also studied.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Six Sigma, Quality, Value Engineering

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13 Various Models of Quality Management Systems

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh

Abstract:

People, process and IT are the most important assets of any organization. Optimal utilization of these resources has been the question of research in business for many decades. The business world have responded by inventing various methodologies that can be used for addressing problems of quality improvement, efficiency of processes, continuous improvement, reduction of waste, automation, strategy alignments etc. Some of these methodologies can be commonly called as Business Process Quality Management methodologies (BPQM). In essence, the first references to the process management can be traced back to Frederick Taylor and scientific management. Time and motion study was addressed to improvement of manufacturing process efficiency. The ideas of scientific management were in use for quite a long period until more advanced quality management techniques were developed in Japan and USA. One of the first prominent methods had been Total Quality Management (TQM) which evolved during 1980’s. About the same time, Six Sigma (SS) originated at Motorola as a separate method. SS spread and evolved; and later joined with ideas of Lean manufacturing to form Lean Six Sigma. In 1990’s due to emerging IT technologies, beginning of globalization, and strengthening of competition, companies recognized the need for better process and quality management. Business Process Management (BPM) emerged as a novel methodology that has taken all this into account and helped to align IT technologies with business processes and quality management. In this article we will study various aspects of above mentioned methods and identified their relations.

Keywords: Information Technology, Management, Six Sigma, Quality, BPM, Lean, TQM, e-process, CPI

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12 Analysis of Particle Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite Crankshaft

Authors: R. S. Vikaash, S. Vinodh, T. S. Sai Prashanth

Abstract:

Six sigma is a defect reduction strategy enabling modern organizations to achieve business prosperity. The practitioners are in need to select best six sigma project among the available alternatives to achieve customer satisfaction. In this circumstance, this article presents a study in which six sigma project selection is formulated as Multi-Criteria Decision-Making(MCDM) problem and the best project has been found using AHP. Five main governing criteria and 14 sub criteria are being formulated. The decision maker’s inputs were gathered and computations were performed. The project with the high values from the set of projects is selected as the best project. Based on calculations, Project “P1”is found to be the best and further deployment actions have been undertaken in the organization.

Keywords: Six Sigma, analytic hierarchy process, project selection, MCDM, business prosperity

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11 Identifying the Barriers behind the Lack of Six Sigma Use in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Osama Elgadi, Martin Birkett, Wai Ming Cheung

Abstract:

This paper investigates the barriers behind the underutilisation of six sigma in Libyan manufacturing companies (LMCs). A mixed-method methodology is proposed, starting by conducting interviews to collect qualitative data followed by the development of a questionnaire to obtain quantitative data. The focus of this paper is on discussing the findings of the interview stage and how these can be used to further develop the questionnaire stage. The interview results showed that only four key barriers were highlighted as being encountered by LMCs. With a difference in terms of their significance, these factors were identified, and placed in descending order according to their importance, namely: “Lack of top management commitment”, “Lack of training”, “Lack of knowledge about six sigma”, and “Culture effect”. The findings also showed that some barriers which, were found in previous studies of six sigma implementation were not considered as barriers to LMCs but can, in fact, be considered as success factors or enablers for six sigma adoption. These factors were identified as: “sufficiency of time and financial resources”; “customers unsatisfied”; “good communication between all departments in the company”; “we are certain about its results and benefits to our company and unhappy with the current quality system”. These results suggest that LMCs face fewer barriers to adopting six sigma than many well-established global companies operating in other countries and could take advantage of these successful factors by developing and implementing a six sigma framework to improve their product quality and competitiveness.

Keywords: Six Sigma, barriers, interview, Libyan manufacturing companies

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10 An Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Six Sigma Implementation in Pakistani SMEs

Authors: Zanjbeel Tabassum

Abstract:

The main purpose of any economic investment is to get profit at the end. As the investment in large organizations bears complexities, investors are influenced to invest in small or medium enterprises. With the increase of global competition in terms of quality and productivity, these small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are trying to convert to modern production practices using Six Sigma. But this concept is still lacking in Pakistani SMEs. There are some critical success factors which influence the successful implementation of Six Sigma. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to identify various CSF for successful implementation of Six Sigma in Pakistani SMEs with the help of a structured survey. On the basis of responses to the questionnaire, factor analysis is performed on the selected critical success factors (from literature) to prioritize the critical factors and those are rated by calculating descriptive statistics. This paper will provide a base for Pakistani SMEs and future researchers working in six sigma implementation and help them to prepare a road map to eradicate the hurdles in six sigma implementation.

Keywords: Six Sigma, SMEs, critical success factors, CSF

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9 Challenges in Developing a World Class Sustainable Food Organization

Authors: Baskar Kotte

Abstract:

Many organizations are constantly striving to implement numerous techniques for long-term sustainability, for food related organizations it is imperative to conceptualize the critical concepts which constitute food safety sustainability. This presentation provides three critical pillars to develop a sustainable organization. Financial sustainability, regulatory sustainability and excellence standards sustainability are the three components which practiced and implemented effectively with process performance metrics defined objectives and targets lead to sustainable and safe food organizations. The participants take away a well-developed concept diagram with all elements impacting sustainability. Proven disciplined path which worked to achieve desired results is presented for effective implementation. Effective implementation of this proven disciplined path positions organizations to achieve world class status with bottomline improvement. Additionally, this presentation highlights critical terms, principles and implementation difficulties related to using the proven disciplined path. This presentation is beneficial for business leaders, food safety compliance managers, food safety practitioners, financial managers, Lean & Six sigma continual improvement managers, BRC/SQF/ IFS / FSSC 22000 practitioners and food manufacturing personnel.

Keywords: Food Safety, Regulatory, Sustainability, Six Sigma, Lean, bottom-line improvement disciplined path

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8 Framework Study on Single Assembly Line to Improve Productivity with Six Sigma and Line Balancing Approach

Authors: Inaki Maulida Hakim, T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Astari Wulandari

Abstract:

Six sigma is a framework that is used to identify inefficiency so that the cause of inefficiency will be known and right improvement to overcome cause of inefficiency can be conducted. This paper presents result of implementing six sigma to improve piston assembly line in Manufacturing Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia. Six sigma framework will be used to analyze the significant factor of inefficiency that needs to be improved which causes bottleneck in assembly line. After analysis based on six sigma framework conducted, line balancing method was chosen for improvement to overcome causative factor of inefficiency which is differences time between workstation that causes bottleneck in assembly line. Then after line balancing conducted in piston assembly line, the result is increase in efficiency. Efficiency is shown in the decreasing of Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) from 900,000 to 700,000, the increasing of level of labor productivity from 0.0041 to 0.00742, the decreasing of idle time from 121.3 seconds to 12.1 seconds, and the increasing of output, which is from 1 piston in 5 minutes become 3 pistons in 5 minutes.

Keywords: Productivity, Six Sigma, line balancing, assembly line

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7 Reducing Waiting Time in Outpatient Services: Six Sigma and Technological Approach

Authors: Omkar More, Isha Saini, Gracy Mathai

Abstract:

To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of the tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂ 10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected by dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P < 0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film instability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing a risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight-threatening complications.

Keywords: Six Sigma, Nursing Assessment, Quality improvement, footfall

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6 Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Six Sigma in Pakistani Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Cahit Ali Bayraktar, Zanjbeel Tabassum, Asfa Muhammad Din, Murat Durucu

Abstract:

Six Sigma is a widely adapted quality improvement methodology applied throughout the world. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to identify Critical Success Factors (CSF) for successful implementation of Six Sigma in Pakistani Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). A survey methodology was used to collect the data from SMEs in Pakistan. The results of this exploratory empirical research reflect the importance of different CSFs of Six Sigma implementation in SMEs in Pakistan. On the basis of extracted factors, a framework has been proposed for successful Six Sigma implementation in Pakistani SMEs. This study will provide a base for Pakistani SMEs and future researchers working in Six Sigma implementation and help them to prepare a road map to eradicate the hurdles in Six Sigma implementation.

Keywords: Six Sigma, Pakistan, critical success factors, small medium enterprises (SMEs)

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5 Taguchi-Based Six Sigma Approach to Optimize Surface Roughness for Milling Processes

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Sky Chou

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using Six Sigma methodologies to improve the surface roughness of a manufactured part produced by the CNC milling machine. It presents a case study where the surface roughness of milled aluminum is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for a CNC milling process. The six sigma methodology, DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) approach, was applied in this study to improve the process, reduce defects, and ultimately reduce costs. The Taguchi-based six sigma approach was applied to identify the optimized processing parameters that led to the targeted surface roughness specified by our customer. A L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of feed rate, depth of cut, spindle speed, and surface roughness. The noise factor is the difference between the old cutting tool and the new cutting tool. The confirmation run with the optimal parameters confirmed that the new parameter settings are correct. The new settings also improved the process capability index. The purpose of this study is that the Taguchi–based six sigma approach can be efficiently used to phase out defects and improve the process capability index of the CNC milling process.

Keywords: Six Sigma, surface roughness, CNC machining, Taguchi methodology

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4 Life Time Improvement of Clamp Structural by Using Fatigue Analysis

Authors: Pisut Boonkaew, Jatuporn Thongsri

Abstract:

In hard disk drive manufacturing industry, the process of reducing an unnecessary part and qualifying the quality of part before assembling is important. Thus, clamp was designed and fabricated as a fixture for holding in testing process. Basically, testing by trial and error consumes a long time to improve. Consequently, the simulation was brought to improve the part and reduce the time taken. The problem is the present clamp has a low life expectancy because of the critical stress that occurred. Hence, the simulation was brought to study the behavior of stress and compressive force to improve the clamp expectancy with all probability of designs which are present up to 27 designs, which excluding the repeated designs. The probability was calculated followed by the full fractional rules of six sigma methodology which was provided correctly. The six sigma methodology is a well-structured method for improving quality level by detecting and reducing the variability of the process. Therefore, the defective will be decreased while the process capability increasing. This research focuses on the methodology of stress and fatigue reduction while compressive force still remains in the acceptable range that has been set by the company. In the simulation, ANSYS simulates the 3D CAD with the same condition during the experiment. Then the force at each distance started from 0.01 to 0.1 mm will be recorded. The setting in ANSYS was verified by mesh convergence methodology and compared the percentage error with the experimental result; the error must not exceed the acceptable range. Therefore, the improved process focuses on degree, radius, and length that will reduce stress and still remain in the acceptable force number. Therefore, the fatigue analysis will be brought as the next process in order to guarantee that the lifetime will be extended by simulating through ANSYS simulation program. Not only to simulate it, but also to confirm the setting by comparing with the actual clamp in order to observe the different of fatigue between both designs. This brings the life time improvement up to 57% compared with the actual clamp in the manufacturing. This study provides a precise and trustable setting enough to be set as a reference methodology for the future design. Because of the combination and adaptation from the six sigma method, finite element, fatigue and linear regressive analysis that lead to accurate calculation, this project will able to save up to 60 million dollars annually.

Keywords: Probability, Finite Element Analysis, Six Sigma, Structural, Fatigue Analysis, clamp, linear regressive analysis

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3 Using Lean-Six Sigma Philosophy to Enhance Revenues and Improve Customer Satisfaction: Case Studies from Leading Telecommunications Service Providers in India

Authors: Senthil Kumar Anantharaman

Abstract:

Providing telecommunications based network services in developing countries like India which has a population of 1.5 billion people, so that these services reach every individual, is one of the greatest challenges the country has been facing in its journey towards economic growth and development. With growing number of telecommunications service providers in the country, a constant challenge that has been faced by these providers is in providing not only quality but also delightful customer experience while simultaneously generating enhanced revenues and profits. Thus, the role played by process improvement methodologies like Six Sigma cannot be undermined and specifically in telecom service provider based operations, it has provided substantial benefits. Therefore, it advantages are quite comparable to its applications and advantages in other sectors like manufacturing, financial services, information technology-based services and Healthcare services. One of the key reasons that this methodology has been able to reap great benefits in telecommunications sector is that this methodology has been combined with many of its competing process improvement techniques like Theory of Constraints, Lean and Kaizen to give the maximum benefit to the service providers thereby creating a winning combination of organized process improvement methods for operational excellence thereby leading to business excellence. This paper discusses about some of the key projects and areas in the end to end ‘Quote to Cash’ process at big three Indian telecommunication companies that have been highly assisted by applying Six Sigma along with other process improvement techniques. While the telecommunication companies which we have considered, is primarily in India and run by both private operators and government based setups, the methodology can be applied equally well in any other part of developing countries around the world having similar context. This study also compares the enhanced revenues that can arise out of appropriate opportunities in emerging market scenarios, that Six Sigma as a philosophy and methodology can provide if applied with vigour and robustness. Finally, the paper also comes out with a winning framework in combining Six Sigma methodology with Kaizen, Lean and Theory of Constraints that will enhance both the top-line as well as the bottom-line while providing the customers a delightful experience.

Keywords: Telecommunications, Six Sigma, Emerging Markets, Process Improvement, Lean, theory of constraints

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2 Quality versus Excellence: The Importance of Employees Knowing the Difference

Authors: Chris Nelson

Abstract:

Quality and excellence are qualitative topics that are usually addressed based on knowledge and past experience from leadership and those in charge of the organization. The significance of this study is to highlight the differences and similarities between these two mindsets and how an operational staff can most appropriately use them in the workplace. Quality and excellence are two words that are talked about a lot in the manufacturing world. Buzzwords such as operational excellence, quality controls, and efficiencies are discussed in the boardroom as well on the shop floor. These terms are used quite frequently and with good reasons. When a person visits their favorite local restaurant, They go because 1) they like the food and 2) the people are some of the greatest individuals to be around. With that in mind, they know they always put out quality food. They do not always go because the quality of the food is far superior than other restaurants. But the quality of ingredients always meets their expectations. When they compare them to the term excellence, they are disappointed. The food never looks like the pictures on the menu. But when have you ever been to a restaurant where the food looks the same as on the menu? For them, when evaluating which buzzword to use as a guiding star, its simple: excellence. The corporation can accomplish these goals by operating at a standard that far exceeds customer’s wants and needs.

Keywords: Industrial Engineering, Innovation, Six Sigma, Management and Technology, logistics and scheduling

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1 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Sky Chou

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: Six Sigma, shrinkage, Taguchi parameter design, injection molding

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