Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

single nucleotide polymorphisms Related Abstracts

4 Ultrasensitive Detection and Discrimination of Cancer-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Using Poly-Enzyme Polymer Bead Amplification

Authors: Lorico D. S. Lapitan Jr., Yihan Xu, Yuan Guo, Dejian Zhou

Abstract:

The ability of ultrasensitive detection of specific genes and discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms is important for clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Herein, we report the development of a new ultrasensitive approach for label-free DNA detection using magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) assisted rapid target capture/separation in combination with signal amplification using poly-enzyme tagged polymer nanobead. The sensor uses an MNP linked capture DNA and a biotin modified signal DNA to sandwich bind the target followed by ligation to provide high single-nucleotide polymorphism discrimination. Only the presence of a perfect match target DNA yields a covalent linkage between the capture and signal DNAs for subsequent conjugation of a neutravidin-modified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme through the strong biotin-nuetravidin interaction. This converts each captured DNA target into an HRP which can convert millions of copies of a non-fluorescent substrate (amplex red) to a highly fluorescent product (resorufin), for great signal amplification. The use of polymer nanobead each tagged with thousands of copies of HRPs as the signal amplifier greatly improves the signal amplification power, leading to greatly improved sensitivity. We show our biosensing approach can specifically detect an unlabeled DNA target down to 10 aM with a wide dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 0.001 fM to 100.0 fM). Furthermore, our approach has a high discrimination between a perfectly matched gene and its cancer-related single-base mismatch targets (SNPs): It can positively detect the perfect match DNA target even in the presence of 100 fold excess of co-existing SNPs. This sensing approach also works robustly in clinical relevant media (e.g. 10% human serum) and gives almost the same SNP discrimination ratio as that in clean buffers. Therefore, this ultrasensitive SNP biosensor appears to be well-suited for potential diagnostic applications of genetic diseases.

Keywords: DNA detection, polymer beads, signal amplification, single nucleotide polymorphisms

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3 Genome-Wide Analysis Identifies Locus Associated with Parathyroid Hormone Levels

Authors: Antonela Matana, Dubravka Brdar, Vesela Torlak, Marijana Popovic, Ivana Gunjaca, Ozren Polasek, Vesna Boraska Perica, Maja Barbalic, Ante Punda, Caroline Hayward, Tatijana Zemunik

Abstract:

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a critical role in the regulation of bone mineral metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Higher PTH levels are associated with heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiovascular mortality and poorer bone health. A twin study estimated that 60% of the variation in PTH concentrations is genetically determined. Only one GWAS of PTH concentration has been reported to date. Identified loci explained 4.5% of the variance in circulating PTH, suggesting that additional genetic variants remain undiscovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genetic variants associated with PTH levels in a general population. We have performed a GWAS meta-analysis on 2596 individuals originating from three Croatian cohorts: City of Split and the Islands of Korčula and Vis, within a large-scale project of “10,001 Dalmatians”. A total of 7 411 206 variants, imputed using the 1000 Genomes reference panel, with minor allele frequency ≥ 1% and Rsq ≥ 0.5 were analyzed for the association. GWAS within each data set was performed under an additive model, controlling for age, gender and relatedness. Meta-analysis was conducted using the inverse-variance fixed-effects method. Furthermore, to identify sex-specific effects, we have conducted GWAS meta-analyses analyzing males and females separately. In addition, we have performed biological pathway analysis. Four SNPs, representing one locus, reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNP was rs11099476 on chromosome 4 (P=1.15x10-8), which explained 1.14 % of the variance in PTH. The SNP is located near the protein-coding gene RASGEF1B. Additionally, we detected suggestive association with SNPs, rs77178854 located on chromosome 2 in the DPP10 gene (P=2.46x10-7) and rs481121 located on chromosome 1 (P=3.58x10-7) near the GRIK1 gene. One of the top hits detected in the main meta-analysis, intron variant rs77178854 located within DPP10 gene, reached genome-wide significance in females (P=2.21x10-9). No single locus was identified in the meta-analysis in males. Fifteen biological pathways were functionally enriched at a P<0.01, including muscle contraction, ion homeostasis and cardiac conduction as the most significant pathways. RASGEF1B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, known to be associated with height, bone density, and hip. DPP10 encodes a membrane protein that is a member of the serine proteases family, which binds specific voltage-gated potassium channels and alters their expression and biophysical properties. In conclusion, we identified 2 novel loci associated with PTH levels in a general population, providing us with further insights into the genetics of this complex trait.

Keywords: parathyroid hormone, general population, single nucleotide polymorphisms, genome-wide association analysis

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2 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphisms, introgression, hybridisation, elasmobranchs, misidentification

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1 A Study of Interleukin-1β Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Carcinoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

Authors: Noha Farag, Mariam Khaled, Ghada Mohamed Abdel Salam, Khaled Abu-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi

Abstract:

Gastric and colorectal cancers are among the most frequent causes of cancer-associated mortalities in Africa. They have been considered as a global public health concern, as nearly one million new cases are reported per year. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine-produced by activated macrophages and monocytes- and a member of the IL-1 family. The inactive IL-1β precursor is cleaved and activated by caspase-1 enzyme, which itself is activated by the assembly of intracellular structures defined as NLRP3 (Nod Like receptor P3) inflammasomes. Activated IL-1β stimulates the Interleukin-1 receptor type-1 (IL-1R1), which is responsible for the initiation of a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation. It has been proven that the IL-1β gene is a highly polymorphic gene in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its expression. It has been previously reported that SNPs including base transitions between C and T at positions, -511 (C-T; dbSNP: rs16944) and -31 (C-T; dbSNP: rs1143627), from the transcriptional start site, contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric and colorectal cancers by affecting IL-1β levels. Altered production of IL-1β due to such polymorphisms is suspected to stimulate an amplified inflammatory response and promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition leading to malignancy. Allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β-31 and -511 SNPs, in different populations, and their correlation to the incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers, has been intriguing to researchers worldwide. The current study aims to investigate allele distributions of the IL-1β SNPs among gastric and colorectal cancers Egyptian patients. In order to achieve to that, 89 Biopsy and surgical specimens from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis subjects and gastric and colorectal carcinoma patients was collected for DNA extraction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The amplified PCR products of IL-1β-31C > T and IL-1β-511T > C were digested by incubation with the restriction endonuclease enzymes ALu1 and Ava1. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the allele frequency distribution in the three studied groups. Also, the effect of the IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs on nuclear factor binding was analyzed using Fluorescence Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), preceded by nuclear factor extraction from gastric and colorectal tissue samples and LPS stimulated monocytes. The results of this study showed that a significantly higher percentage of Egyptian gastric cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 position and a heterozygous TC genotype at the IL-1β-511 position. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of the colorectal cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 and -511 positions as compared to the control group. In addition, the EMSA results showed that IL-1β-31C/T and IL-1β-511T/C SNPs do not affect nuclear factor binding. Results of this study suggest that the IL-1β-31 C/T and IL-1β-511 T/C may be correlated to the incidence of gastric cancer in Egyptian patients; however, similar findings couldn’t be proven in the colorectal cancer patients group for the IL-1β-511 T/C SNP. This is the first study to investigate IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs in the Egyptian population.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, interleukin-1β, single nucleotide polymorphisms, Egyptian patients

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