Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Silymarin Related Abstracts

11 Hepatoprotective Activity of Sharbat Deenar, against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Ashik Mosaddik, Nazmul Huda, Abdul Awal, Shafiqur Rahman, Rukhsana Shaheen, Mustofa Nabi

Abstract:

Polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar is a very popular unani medicine in Bangladesh. It is usually used for different kinds of liver disorders. In absence of reliable and inadequate hepatoprotective agents in conventional medicine, the herbal preparations are preferred for liver diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Sharbat Deenar on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in male Long-Evans albino rats. Group I served as normal control and received neither formulation nor carbon tetrachloride. Group II received only CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally for consecutive 14 days. Group III received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Silymarin, in dose 50mg/kg body weight of rat orally. Group IV received CCl4 1mL/kg body weight of rat intraperitoneally and Sharbat Deenar 1mL/kg body weight of rat for the same 14 consecutive days. At the end of the study, hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by the levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathological study of rat liver was also carried out. The results showed that polyherbal formulation Sharbat Deenar exhibited a significant hepatoprotective effect. Such an outcome seems to be the synergistic effect of all ingredients of tested herbal formulation. Although this study suggests that Sharbat Deenar may be used to cure or minimize various liver diseases, it needs further study to attain the clarity of mechanism and safety.

Keywords: Silymarin, hepatoprotective, carbon tetrachloride, polyherbal formulation, sharbat deenar

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10 The Immunosuppressive Effects of Silymarin with Rapamaycin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of T Cell

Authors: Nahid Eskandari, Marjan Ghagozolo, Ehsan Almasi

Abstract:

Introduction: Silymarin, as a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is known to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiviral effects. The goal of this study was to determine immunosuppressive effect of Silymarin on proliferation and apoptosis of human T cells in comparison with Rapamycin and FK506. Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals were activated with Con A (5µg/ml) and then treated with Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 in various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10,100 and 200M) for 5 days. PBMCs were examined for proliferation using CFSE assay and the concentration that inhibited 50% of the cell proliferation (IC50) was determined for each treatment. For apoptosis assay using flow cytometry, PBMCs were activated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 for 5 days, then cell apoptosis was analysed by FITC-annexin V/PI staining and flow cytometry. The effects of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 on the activation of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) pathway in PBMCs stimulated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of drugs for 5 days evaluated using the PathScan cleaved PARP sandwich ELISA kit. Results: This study showed that Silymarin had the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, our results indicated that 100 μM (P < 0.001) and 200 μM (P < 0.001) of Silymarin has more inhibitory effect on T cells proliferation than FK506 and Rapamycin. Our data showed that the effective doses (IC50) of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin were 3×10-5 µM, 10-8 µM and 10-6 µM respectively. Data showed that the inhibitory effect of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin on T cell proliferation was not due to cytotoxicity and none of these drugs at IC50 concentration had not affected the level of cleaved PARP. Conclusion: Silymarin could be a good candidate for immunosuppressive therapy for certain medical conditions with superior efficacy and lesser toxicity in comparison with other immunosuppressive drugs.

Keywords: Immunology, Silymarin, immunosuppressive effect, rapamycin

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9 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub, Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: Silymarin, antioxidant, phytochemical screening, hepatoprotection, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L, fruity

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8 Preventive Effects of Silymarin in Retinal Intoxication with Methanol in Rat: Transmission Electron Microscope Study

Authors: A. Zarenezhad, A. Esfandiari, E. Zarenezhad, M. Mardkhoshnood

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effect of silymarin against the methanol toxicity. Fifteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Control group, Experimental group I (received 4g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days), Experimental group II (received 4 g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days and received 250 mg/kg silymarin orally for three months). At the end of the experiment, the eyes were removed; retina was separated near the optic disc and studied by transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the retina in the experimental group I exhibited loss of outer segments and disorganization in inner segment. Increased extra cellular space, disappearance of outer limiting membrane and pyknotic nuclei were seen in this group. But normal outer segment, organized inner segment and normal outer limiting membrane were obvious after treatment with silymarin in experimental group II. These findings show that methanol causes damage in the photoreceptor layer of the rat retina and silymarin can protect the damage to retina against the methanol intoxication.

Keywords: Silymarin, rat, ultra-structure, photoreceptor layer, methanol intoxication

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7 Effect of Exercise Training and Dietary Silymarin on Levels of Leptin, Adiponectin, Paraoxonase and Body Composition

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari

Abstract:

The etiology of obesity is heterogeneous with several factors, and the pathophysiology of obesity has recently related to leptin, oxidative damage, and inflammation. Silybum marianum have a health-promoting perspective and has shown that bioactive molecules of silymarin have the antioxidant and antitumor properties and can affect secretion of hormones and enzyme activity in animal. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects and changes in hormonal levels and body composition after silymarin consumption. Forty-five healthy untrained colleges male take part in the 4-week investigation. The subjects were assigned to 5 groups: endurance training, Silymarin with endurance training, strength training with placebo, Silymarin with strength training or placebo. Body fat percentage and Blood sample analysis were measured before and after the intervention to assay leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase in the sample of subject's serum. There was a considerable decrease in body fat percent and a significant increase in VO2 max in 'Strength training' and 'Strength training with Silymarin' groups. But, no significant changes in levels of leptin, adiponectinin, and paraoxanase (PON) that were observed between exercise and exercise with Silymarin in these groups. We observed reduction in body fat% and increase in adiponectin induced by exercise for 4 weeks in untrained healthy men. Silybin, could not effectively improve all parameters and don’t prevent the progression of cell damage by antioxidant activity of PON.

Keywords: Body Composition, Silymarin, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase (PON)

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6 Silymarin Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation, Optimization, Pharmacodynamic and Oral Multi-Dose Safety Assessment

Authors: Maha M. A. Nasra, Ossama Y. Abdallah, Sarah Nasr

Abstract:

The present work aimed to prepare Silymarin loaded MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and to assess the system’s solubility enhancement ability on the pharmacodynamic performance of Silymarin as a hepatoprotective agent. MSNs prepared by soft-templating technique, were loaded with Silymarin, characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface properties, DSC and XRPD. DSC and specific surface area data confirmed deposition of Silymarin in an amorphous state in MSNs’ pores. In-vitro drug dissolution testing displayed enhanced dissolution rate of Silymarin upon loading on MSNs. High dose Acetaminophen was then used to inflict hepatic injury upon albino male Wistar rats simultaneously receiving either free Silymarin, Silymarin loaded MSNs or blank MSNs. Plasma AST, ALT, albumin and total protein and liver homogenate content of TBARs or LDH as measures of antioxidant drug action were assessed for all animal groups. Results showed a significant superiority of Silymarin loaded MSNs to free drug in almost all parameters. Meanwhile prolonged administration of blank MSNs had no evident toxicity on rats.

Keywords: Safety, Silymarin, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, solubility enhancement

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5 Meld of Lactobacillus and Rangiferinus for Emendation of Endotoxemia in Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats

Authors: Ch. V. Rao, Shukla Ila, Azmi Lubna, S. S. Gupta

Abstract:

Oxidative stress has been increasingly associated with the induction and progression of liver damage. The current study was conducted to record the effect of combination of Lactobacillus and Lichen rangiferinus extract (LRE + Lac) on the severity of injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease and how it affects plasma levels of prostaglandin E2, endotoxin, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. Male Wistar rats were grouped into five comprising six animals in each group. Group 1 served as negative control. Groups 2-5 were administered 10% ethanol for six weeks. Group 3 was administered with extract (200 mg/kg), group 4 received the diet containing 10% ethanol plus a bolus of lactobacilli GG (1010 CFU), and group 5 animals were given silymarin along with alcohol and it served as positive control. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein content, γ-glutamyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress markers, glutathione, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were determined using standard diagnostic kits. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also made. A positive relation was found between plasma endotoxin levels and degree of liver injury. The pathology records were also related positively with leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2. But a negative correlation was obtained with PgE2 levels. This study led us to hypothesize that the increased endotoxin levels modulate liver metabolism of eicosanoid, which gradually leads to liver injury. Endotoxemia increases leukotriene and thromboxane levels in plasma.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, Silymarin, endotoxemia, Lichen rangiferinus

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4 Protective Effect of Aframomun chrysanthum Seed Aqueous Extract in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats

Authors: N. Nwachoko, E. B. Essien, E. O. Ayalogu

Abstract:

Owing to the outbreak of different diseases and microbial resistance to some available drugs, proper identification, and evaluation of plants have been encouraged. There have been claims worldwide by the traditional system that some plants possessed medicinal properties. Plants and their components have been said to be source of large amount of drugs which comprise of distinct groups such as antispasmodics, anticancer and antimicrobials. Researchers have reported that chemicals in plants are responsible for the medicinal uses of plants. Thus this study evaluated the protective effect of Aframomun chrysanthum seed aqueous extract in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in rats. A suspension of 750 mg/kg acetaminophen was administered once every 72 hours to induce toxicity in the rats. Oral administration of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 100 mg/kg of silymarin (reference drug) were administered for 10 days. Biochemical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)as well as the concentrations of albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (T.B.) levels in rats administered with acetaminophen only. The levels of these parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the groups pretreated with the extract.

Keywords: Toxicity, Silymarin, hepatoprotective, Aframomun chrysanthum

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3 Evaluating the Hepato-Protective Activities of Combination of Aqueous Extract of Roots of Tinospora cordifolia and Rhizomes of Curcuma longa against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

Authors: Amberkar Mohanbabu Vittalrao, Avin, Meena Kumari Kamalkishore, Padmanabha Udupa, Vinaykumar Bavimane, Honnegouda

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the hepato-protective activity of Tinospora cordiofolia (Tc) against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Methods: The plant stem (test drug) was procured locally, shade dried, powdered and extracted with water. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective drugs and 2% gum acacia as a control (vehicle) against paracetamol (PCT) induced hepatotoxicity. Results and Discussion: The hepato-protective activity of aqueous stem extract was assessed by paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity preventive model in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxides were tested in both paracetamol treated and untreated groups. Paracetamol (3g/kg) had enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the lipid peroxides in the serum. Treatment of silymarin and aqueous stem extract of Tc (200 and 400mg/kg) extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity by altering biochemical marker levels to the near normal. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. Aqueous Tc extract showed presence of phenolic compound and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that Tc extract possessed hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: Tc was found to possess significant hepatoprotective property when treated with PCT. This was evident by decreasing the liver enzymes significantly when treated with PCT as compared to PCT only treated group (P < 0.05). Hence Tinospora cardiofolia could be a good, promising, preventive agent against PCT induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Silymarin, paracetamol, hepatoprotection, Tinospora cardiofolia

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2 Hagios Spyridon Church in Selymbria and Its Particular Standing in Middle Byzantine Architecture

Authors: Görkem Günay, Bilge Ar

Abstract:

Selymbria is an ancient maritime city, approximately 60 km west to Constantinople. Although it was a particularly important settlement during the Byzantine period, our knowledge about its Byzantine layer is rather sketchy. On the other hand, one of the Byzantine churches of Selymbria, namely Hagios Spyridon which had been survived until the beginning of 20th century, deserves special attention. The church is mainly known via textual and visual data from the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century. These documents, together with some architectural pieces which most probably were belonging to the church, indicate that Hagios Spyridon Church was built in ‘simple domed octagon’ plan-scheme. Nothing from the building is preserved in-situ today. However, this small church helps to fill a very important gap in the history of Middle Byzantine architecture and occupies a notable place in the on-going discussion of the origins of ‘domed octagon’ churches of Helladic paradigm and their link with the capital. This study aims to reexamine the now lost church of Hagios Spyridon in the context of architectural developments of Middle Byzantine period. In the presentation, the exact location and the architecture of the church will be tried to be clarified using the existing documents and the publications of previous scholars. Some new architectural pieces which possibly belonged to the church, will be introduced and interpretations on existing restitution drawings will be made. The church will be architecturally compared with the oldest known example of the plan-scheme, Nea Moni on Chios and its later local copies. The study of Hagios Spyridon Church of Selymbria, hopefully, will contribute to the discussion of the possible influence of the capital on the plan-scheme and will help us to ask further questions about the close relations between Constantinopolitan and provincial architecture.

Keywords: Silymarin, Hagios Spyridon church, insular domed octagon, middle Byzantine architecture

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1 Silymarin Reverses Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficit in Object Recognition Test in Rats: A Behavioral, Biochemical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Omar A. Ahmed-Farid

Abstract:

Dementia is characterized by impairments in memory and other cognitive abilities. This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT). The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pretreated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days. Dementia was induced after the last drug administration by a single intraperitoneal dose of scopolamine (16 mg/kg). Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were then performed. Rats pretreated with silymarin counteracted scopolamine-induced non-spatial working memory impairment in the ORT and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), restored gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) contents in the cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates. Silymarin dose-dependently reversed scopolamine-induced histopathological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that silymarin dose-dependently mitigated protein expression of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the brain cortex and hippocampus. All these effects of silymarin were similar to that of the standard anti-amnestic drug, donepezil. This study reveals that the ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia in rats using the ORT maybe in part mediated by, enhancement of cholinergic activity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as mitigation in brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes.

Keywords: Dementia, rats, Silymarin, scopolamine, donepezil, object recognition test

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