Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Silicon Related Abstracts

17 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed


During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growths, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favourable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: Silicon, Selenium, leaf area, date palms, Zaghloul

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16 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: Graphene, Molecular Dynamics, Interface, Silicon, Schottky barriers

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15 Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry

Authors: K. Kefif, Y. Bouizem, A. Belfedal, D. J. Sib, K. Zellama, l. Chahed


Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.

Keywords: Thin Films, Raman spectroscopy, Silicon, structural properties, Ellipsometry

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14 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng


Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: Oxidation, Silicon, Wettability, SiC

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13 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan


Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: Silicon, shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric

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12 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang


The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: Amorphous, Silicon, Nanoindentation, annealing, phase transformation

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11 Effect of Silicon in Mitigating Cadmium Toxicity in Maize

Authors: Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hasan Abbasi, M. Anwar-Ul-Haq


Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while Silicon (Si) is one of the most ubiquitous macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the role of exogenous application of silicon under cadmium stress in six different maize hybrids with five treatments comprising of control, 7.5 µM Cd + 5 mM Si, 7.5 µM Cd + 10 mM Si, 15 µM Cd + 5 mM Si and 15 µM Cd + 10 mM Si. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10mM Si application under both 7.5µM Cd and 15 µM Cd stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area and relative water contents) and antioxidant enzymes (POD and CAT) relative to 5 mM Si application in all maize hybrids. Results regarding Cd concentrations showed that Cd was more retained in roots followed by shoots and then leaves and maximum reduction in Cd uptake was observed at 10mM Si application. Maize hybrid 6525 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cd whereas maize hybrid 1543 showed the minimum growth and maximum Cd concentration among all maize hybrids.

Keywords: Silicon, cadmium, antioxidant, maize

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10 The Manufacturing of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Diatomaceous Silica by an Induction Furnace

Authors: Shahrazed Medeghri, Saad Hamzaoui, Mokhtar Zerdali


The metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is obtained from the reduction of silica (SiO2) in an induction furnace or an electric arc furnace. Impurities inherent in reduction process also depend on the quality of the raw material used. Among the applications of the silicon, it is used as a substrate for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy and this conversion is wider as the purity of the substrate is important. Research is being done where the purpose is looking for new methods of manufacturing and purification of silicon, as well as new materials that can be used as substrates for the photovoltaic conversion of light energy. In this research, the technique of production of silicon in an induction furnace, using a high vacuum for fusion. Diatomaceous Silica (SiO2) used is 99 mass% initial purities, the carbon used is 6N of purity and the particle size of 63μm as starting materials. The final achieved purity of the material was above 50% by mass. These results demonstrate that this method is a technically reliable, and allows obtaining a better return on the amount 50% of silicon.

Keywords: Silicon, induction furnaces, amorphous silica, carbon microstructure

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9 Non Destructive Ultrasound Testing for the Determination of Elastic Characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg Foundry Alloy

Authors: A. Hakem, Y. Bouafia


Characterization of materials used for various mechanical components is of great importance in their design. Several studies were conducted by various authors in order to improve their physical and/or chemical properties in general and mechanical or metallurgical properties in particular. The foundry alloy AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg is one of the main components constituting the various mechanisms for the implementation of applications and various industrial projects. Obtaining a reliable product is not an easy task; several results proposed by different authors show sometimes results that can contradictory. Due to their high mechanical characteristics, these alloys are widely used in engineering. Silicon improves casting properties and magnesium allows heat treatment. It is thus possible to obtain various degrees of hardening and therefore interesting compromise between tensile strength and yield strength, on one hand, and elongation, on the other hand. These mechanical characteristics can be further enhanced by a series of mechanical treatments or heat treatments. Their light weight coupled with high mechanical characteristics, aluminum alloys are very much used in cars and aircraft industry. The present study is focused on the influence of heat treatments which cause significant micro structural changes, usually hardening by variation of annealing temperatures by increments of 10°C and 20°C on the evolution of the main elastic characteristics, the resistance, the ductility and the structural characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg foundry alloy cast in sand by gravity. These elastic properties are determined in three directions for each specimen of dimensions 200x150x20 mm³ by the ultrasonic method based on acoustic or elastic waves. The hardness, the micro hardness and the structural characteristics are evaluated by a non-destructive method. The aim of this work is to study the hardening ability of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg alloy by considering ten states. To improve the mechanical properties obtained with the raw casting, one should use heat treatment for structural hardening; the addition of magnesium is necessary to increase the sensitivity to this specific heat treatment: Treatment followed by homogenization which generates a diffusion of atoms in a substitution solid solution inside a hardening furnace at 500°C during 8h, followed immediately by quenching in water at room temperature 20 to 25°C, then an ageing process for 17h at room temperature and at different annealing temperature (150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 240, 200, 220 and 240°C) for 20h in an annealing oven. The specimens were allowed to cool inside the oven.

Keywords: Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, mechanical characteristics, foundry alloy

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8 Method and Experiment of Fabricating and Cutting the Burr for Y Shape Nanochannel

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Shih-Hung Ma


The present paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish a method for fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel on silicon (Si) substrate. For fabricating Y shape nanochannel, it first makes the experimental cutting path planning for fabricating Y shape nanochannel until the fifth cutting layer. Using the constant down force by AFM and SDFE theory and following the experimental cutting path planning, the cutting depth and width of each pass of Y shape nanochannel can be predicted by simulation. The paper plans the path for cutting the burr at the edge of Y shape nanochannel. Then, it carries out cutting the burr along the Y nanochannel edge by using a smaller down force. The height of standing burr at the edge is required to be below the set value of 0.54 nm. The results of simulation and experiment of fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel is further compared.

Keywords: Silicon, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), specific down force energy (SDFE), nanochannel, Y shape, burr

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7 Microstructures of Si Surfaces Fabricated by Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation with Agarose Stamps

Authors: LiMin Zhu, Hang Zhou


This paper investigates the fabrication of microstructures on Si surfaces by using electrochemical anodic oxidation with agarose stamps. The fabricating process is based on a selective anodic oxidation reaction that occurs in the contact area between a stamp and a Si substrate. The stamp which is soaked in electrolyte previously acts as a current flow channel. After forming the oxide patterns as an etching mask, a KOH aqueous is used for the wet etching of Si. A complicated microstructure array of 1 cm2 was fabricated by the method with high accuracy.

Keywords: Microstructures, Silicon, anodic oxidation, agarose stamps

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6 Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded MWCNT/Graphene Matrix Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Hatem Akbulut, Ubeyd Toçoğlu, Miraç Alaf


We present a work which was conducted in order to improve the cycle life of silicon based lithium ion battery anodes by utilizing novel composite structure. In this study, carbon coated nano sized (50-100 nm) silicon particles were embedded into Graphene/MWCNT silicon matrix to produce free standing silicon based electrodes. Also, conventional Si powder anodes were produced from Si powder slurry on copper current collectors in order to make comparison of composite and conventional anode structures. Free –standing composite anodes (binder-free) were produced via vacuum filtration from a well dispersion of Graphene, MWCNT and carbon coated silicon powders. Carbon coating process of silicon powders was carried out via microwave reaction system. The certain amount of silicon powder and glucose was mixed under ultrasonication and then coating was conducted at 200 °C for two hours in Teflon lined autoclave reaction chamber. Graphene which was used in this study was synthesized from well-known Hummers method and hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. X-Ray diffraction analysis and RAMAN spectroscopy techniques were used for phase characterization of anodes. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted for morphological characterization. The electrochemical performance tests were carried out by means of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: Graphene, Silicon, MWCNT, Li-Ion

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5 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: P. Pal, V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao


The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: MEMS, micromachining, Silicon, KOH, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching

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4 Reduction in Hot Metal Silicon through Statistical Analysis at G-Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh, Santanu Mallick, Abhiram Jha, M. K. Agarwal


The quality of hot metal at any blast furnace is judged by the silicon content in it. Lower hot metal silicon not only enhances process efficiency at steel melting shops but also reduces hot metal costs. The Hot metal produced at G-Blast furnace Tata Steel Jamshedpur has a significantly higher Si content than Benchmark Blast furnaces. The higher content of hot metal Si is mainly due to inferior raw material quality than those used in benchmark blast furnaces. With minimum control over raw material quality, the only option left to control hot metal Si is via optimizing the furnace parameters. Therefore, in order to identify the levers to reduce hot metal Si, Data mining was carried out, and multiple regression models were developed. The statistical analysis revealed that Slag B3{(CaO+MgO)/SiO2}, Slag Alumina and Hot metal temperature are key controllable parameters affecting hot metal silicon. Contour Plots were used to determine the optimum range of levels identified through statistical analysis. A trial plan was formulated to operate relevant parameters, at G blast furnace, in the identified range to reduce hot metal silicon. This paper details out the process followed and subsequent reduction in hot metal silicon by 15% at G blast furnace.

Keywords: Optimization, Silicon, blast furnace, statistical tools

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3 Effect of Silicon on Tritrophic Interaction of Cotton, Whitefly and Chrysoperla carnea

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi


The present experiment was carried out to examine the effects of silicon dioxide on tritrophic interaction of cotton, whitefly, and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Population of whitefly was maintained on silicon treated and non-treated cotton for two generations in greenhouse net cages exposed to outside temperature and luminosity. The cotton was treated with silicon dioxide twice after 15 days intervals with 200 ppm concentration. A stock rearing of the natural predator was developed in the laboratory conditions. In the bioassay eggs of the predator all at the same age were individualized in glass petri plates that will be pierced with a pin to allow aeration and maintained in an incubator at 28 ± 2°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12h photo phase. Population of whitefly stayed on silicon treated, and non-treated cotton were offered to newly hatched chrysopid larvae until the end of the larval stage, assuring a permanent supply. Feeding preference of C. carnea along with longevity, survival of each instar larvae, pupation, adult emergence, and fecundity was checked. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the feeding preference of C. carnea among both treatments. Durations of 1st and 2nd larval instar were also at par in both treatments. However overall longevity and adult emergence were a bit lower in silicon treated whitefly treatment. This may be due to the fact that silicon reduces the nutritional quality of host because of reduced whitefly feeding on silicon treated cotton. No significant difference in 1st and 2nd larval instars and then increased larval duration in later instars suggested that the effect of silicon treated host should be checked on more than 1 generation of C. carnea to get better findings.

Keywords: Silicon, Chrysoperla carnea, tritrophic, whitefly

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2 Utilization of Silicon for Sustainable Rice Yield Improvement in Acid Sulfate Soil

Authors: Bunjirtluk Jintaridth


Utilization of silicon for sustainable rice cultivation in acid sulfate soils was studied for 2 years. The study was conducted on Rungsit soils in Amphoe Tanyaburi, Pathumtani Province. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of high quality organic fertilizer in combination with silicon and chemical fertilizer on rice yield, chemical soil properties after using soil amendments, and also to assess the economic return. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 treatments and 3 replications were employed. The treatments were as follows: 1) control 2) chemical fertilizer (recommended by Land Development Department, LDD 3) silicon 312 kg/ha 4) high quality organic fertilizer at 1875 kg/ha (the recommendation rate by LDD) 5) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 6) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 7) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 8) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 9) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate, and 10) silicon 312 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate. The results of 2 years indicated the treatment tended to increase soil pH (from 5.1 to 4.7-5.5), percentage of organic matter (from 2.43 to 2.54 - 2.94%); avail. P (from 7.5 to 7-21 mg kg-1 P; ext. K (from 616 to 451-572 mg kg-1 K), ext Ca (from 1962 to 2042.3-4339.7 mg kg-1 Ca); ext Mg (from 1586 to 808.7-900 mg kg-1 Mg); but decrease the ext. Al (from 2.56 to 0.89-2.54 cmol kg-1 Al. Two years average of rice yield, the highest yield was obtained from silicon 156 kg/ha application in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai (3770 kg/ha), or using silicon at the 312 kg/ha combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai. (3,750 kg/ha). It was noted that chemical fertilizer application with 156 and 312 kg/ha silicon gave only 3,260 และ 3,133 kg/ha, respectively. On the other hand, half rate of chemical fertilizer with 156 and 312 kg/ha with silicon gave the yield of 2,934 และ 3,218 kg/ha, respectively. While high quality organic fertilizer only can produce 3,318 kg/ha as compare to rice yield of 2,812 kg/ha from control. It was noted that the highest economic return was obtained from chemical fertilizer treated plots (886 dollars/ha). Silicon application at the rate of 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha gave the economic return of 846 dollars/ha, while 312 kg/ha of silicon with chemical fertilizer gave the lowest economic return (697 dollars/ha).

Keywords: Rice, Silicon, acid sulfate soil, high quality organic fertilizer

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1 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji


Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: model, Tensile Strength, Aluminium, Silicon, HEAs, phases model

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