Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Silicon Carbide Related Abstracts

23 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin


Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, Mechanical Properties, morphological properties, high-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, waste silicon carbide

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22 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault


In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: Graphene, Silicon Carbide, Deposition, Quantum Hall Effect, chemical vapor

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21 Numerical Design and Characterization of SiC Single Crystals Obtained with PVT Method

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in Physical Vapor Transport reactor during silicon carbide single crystal growth are addressed. Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap material with unique properties making it highly applicable for high power electronics applications. Because of high manufacturing costs improvements of SiC production process are required. In this study, numerical simulations were used as a tool of process optimization. Computer modeling allows for cost and time effective analysis of processes occurring during SiC single crystal growth and provides essential information needed for improvement of the process. Quantitative relationship between process conditions, such as temperature or pressure, and crystal growth rate and shape of crystallization front have been studied and verified using experimental data. Basing on modeling results, several process improvements were proposed and implemented.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Silicon Carbide, finite volume method, Physica Vapor Transport

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20 Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Silicon Carbide, finite volume method, Physical Vapor Transport

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19 Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

Authors: Alan Vaško, Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová


The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and micro fractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by a different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with the higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.

Keywords: Microstructure, Silicon Carbide, Mechanical Properties, nodular cast iron

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18 Low-Temperature Fabrication of Reaction Bonded Composites, Based on Sic and (Sic+B4C) Mixture, Infiltrated with Si-Al Alloy

Authors: Helen Dilman, Eyal Oz, Shmuel Hayun, Nahum Frage


The conventional approach for manufacturing silicon carbide and boron carbide reaction bonded composites is based on infiltrating a ceramic porous preform with molten silicon. The relatively high melting temperature of the silicon infiltrating medium is a drawback of the process. The present contribution is concerned with an approach that allows obtaining reaction bonded composites by pressure-less infiltration at a significantly lower (850-1000oC) temperature range. This approach was applied for the fabrication of fully dense SiC/(Si-Al) and (SiC+B4C)/(Si-Al) composites. The key feature of the approach is based on using Si alloys with low melting temperature and the Mg-vapor atmosphere, under which an adequate wetting between ceramics and liquid alloys for the infiltration process is achieved. In the first set of the experiments ceramic performs compacted from multimodal SiC powders (with the green density of about 27 vol. %) without free carbon addition were infiltrated by Si-20%Al alloy at 950oC. In the second set, 19 vol. % of a fine boron carbide powder was added to SiC powders as a source of carbon. The green density of the SiC-B4C preforms was about 23-25 vol. %. In both cases, successful infiltration was achieved and the composites were fully dense. The density of the composites was about 3g/cm3. For the SiC based composites the hardness value was 750±150HV, Young modulus-280GPa and bending strength-240±30MPa. These values for (SiC-B4C)/(Si-Al) composites (1460±200HV, 317GPa and 360±20MPa) were significantly higher due to the formation of novel ceramics phases. Microstructural characteristics of the composites and their phase composition will be discussed.

Keywords: Composites, Silicon Carbide, Low Temperatures, infiltration, boron carbide

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17 Microstructure Characterization on Silicon Carbide Formation from Natural Wood

Authors: Noor Leha Abdul Rahman, Koay Mei Hyie, Anizah Kalam, Husna Elias, Teng Wang Dung


Dark Red Meranti and Kapur, kinds of important type of wood in Malaysia were used as a precursor to fabricate porous silicon carbide. A carbon template is produced by pyrolysis at 850°C in an oxygen free atmosphere. The carbon template then further subjected to infiltration with silicon by silicon melt infiltration method. The infiltration process was carried out in tube furnace in argon flow at 1500°C, at two different holding time; 2 hours and 3 hours. Thermo gravimetric analysis was done to investigate the decomposition behavior of two species of plants. The resulting silicon carbide was characterized by XRD which was found the formation of silicon carbide and also excess silicon. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the density was determined by the Archimedes method. An increase in holding time during infiltration will increased the density as well as formation of silicon carbide. Dark Red Meranti precursor is likely suitable for production of silicon carbide compared to Kapur.

Keywords: Density, Silicon Carbide, SEM, XRD

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16 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Silicon Carbide, ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors

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15 First Principle Calculation of The Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


The electronic and magnetic properties of 6H-SiC with Mn impurities have been calculated using ab-initio calculations. Various configurations of Mn sites and Si and C vacancies were considered. The magnetic coupling between the two Mn atoms at substitutional and interstitials sites with and without vacancies is studied as a function of Mn atoms interatomic distance. It was found that the magnetic interaction energy decreases with increasing distance between the magnetic atoms. The energy levels appearing in the band gap due to vacancies and due to Mn impurities are determined. The calculated DOS’s are used to analyze the nature of the exchange interaction between the impurities. The band coupling model based on the p-d and d-d level repulsions between Mn and SiC has been used to describe the magnetism observed in each configuration. Furthermore, the impacts of applying U to Mn-d orbital on the magnetic moment have also been investigated. The results are used to understand the experimental data obtained on Mn- 6H-SiC (as-implanted and as –annealed) for various Mn concentration (CMn = 0.7%, 1.6%, 7%).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Silicon Carbide, ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors

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14 Electroless Nickel Boron Deposition onto the SiC and B4C Ceramic Reinforced Materials

Authors: I. Kerti, G. Sezen, S. Daglilar


This present work is focused on studying to improve low wetting behaviour between liquid metal and ceramic particles. Ceramic particles like SiC and B4C have attracted great attention because of their usability as reinforcement for composite materials. However, poor wettability of particles is one of the major drawbacks of metal matrix composite production. Various methods have been studied to enhance the wetting properties between ceramic materials and metal substrates during ceramic reinforced metal matrix composites. Among these methods, autocatalytic nickel deposition is a unique process for the enhancement of the surface properties of ceramic particles. In fact, it is difficult to obtain continuous and uniform metallic coating on ceramic powders. In this study deposition of nickel boron layer on ceramic particles via autocatalytic plating in borohydride baths were investigated. Firstly, powders with different particle sizes were sensitized and activated respectively in order to ensure catalytic properties. Following the pre-treatment operations, particles were transferred into the coating bath containing nickel sulphate or nickel chloride as the Ni2+ source. The results show that a better bonding and uniform coating layer were obtained for Ni-B coatings with the Ni2+ source of NiCl2.6H2O as compared to NiSO4.6H2O. With the progress of the time, both particle surfaces are completely covered by a continuous and thin nickel boron layer. The surface morphology of the coatings that were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that SiC and B4C particles both distributed and different thickness of Ni-B nanolayers have been successfully coated onto the particles. The particles were mounted into a polimeric resin and polished in order to observe the thickness and the continuity of the coating layer. The composition of the coating layers were also evaluated by EDS analyses. The SEM morphologies and the EDS results of the coatings at different reaction times were adopted for detailed discussion of the Ni-B electroless plating mechanism.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, boron carbide, electroless coating, nickel boron deposition

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13 Si3N4-SiC Composites Produced by Using C Black and Sic Powder

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz, Zeynep Taslıcukur Ozturk, Cem Sahin


In this study, Si3N4-SiC composites were synthesized by using different raw materials. In the first method, Si3N4 and C black powder mixtures were used to fabricate Si3N4-SiC composites by in-situ carbothermal reduction process. The percentage of C black was only changed. The effects of carbon black percentage in the mixtures were analysed by characterization of SiC particles which were obtained in the Si3N4 matrix. In the second method, SiC particles were added to the matrix in different weight ratios. The composites were pressed by cold isostatic method under 150 MPa pressure and pressureless sintered at 1700-1850 °C during 1 hour in the argon atmosphere. AlN and Y2O3 were used as sintering additives. Sintering temperature, time and all the effects on in-situ reaction were studied. The densification and microstructure properties of the produced ceramics were analysed. Density was one of the main subjects in these reactions. It is very important during porous SiC sintering. Green density and relative density were measured higher for CIP samples. Samples which were added carbon black were more porous than SiC added samples. The increase in the carbon black, makes increase in porosity. The outcome of the experiments was SiC powders which were obtained at the grain boundries of β-Si3N4 particles.

Keywords: sintering, Silicon Carbide, Silicon Nitride, carbon black, cold isostatic press

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12 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane


Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: Recycling, Silicon Carbide, photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste

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11 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche


Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, Photovoltaic, Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon recovery, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

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10 Topochemical Synthesis of Epitaxial Silicon Carbide on Silicon

Authors: Andrey V. Osipov, Sergey A. Kukushkin, Andrey V. Luk’yanov


A method is developed for the solid-phase synthesis of epitaxial layers when the substrate itself is involved into a topochemical reaction and the reaction product grows in the interior of substrate layer. It opens up new possibilities for the relaxation of the elastic energy due to the attraction of point defects formed during the topochemical reaction in anisotropic media. The presented method of silicon carbide (SiC) formation employs a topochemical reaction between the single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate and gaseous carbon monoxide (CO). The corresponding theory of interaction of point dilatation centers in anisotropic crystals is developed. It is eliminated that the most advantageous location of the point defects is the direction (111) in crystals with cubic symmetry. The single-crystal SiC films with the thickness up to 200 nm have been grown on Si (111) substrates owing to the topochemical reaction with CO. Grown high-quality single-crystal SiC films do not contain misfit dislocations despite the huge lattice mismatch value of ~20%. Also the possibility of growing of thick wide-gap semiconductor films on these templates SiC/Si(111) and, accordingly, its integration into Si electronics, is demonstrated. Finally, the ab initio theory of SiC formation due to the topochemical reaction has been developed.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, Epitaxy, topochemical reaction, wide-bandgap semiconductors

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9 Characterization of Double Shockley Stacking Fault in 4H-SiC Epilayer

Authors: Zhe Li, Tao Ju, Liguo Zhang, Zehong Zhang, Baoshun Zhang


In-grow stacking-faults (IGSFs) in 4H-SiC epilayers can cause increased leakage current and reduce the blocking voltage of 4H-SiC power devices. Double Shockley stacking fault (2SSF) is a common type of IGSF with double slips on the basal planes. In this study, a 2SSF in the 4H-SiC epilayer grown by chemical vaper deposition (CVD) is characterized. The nucleation site of the 2SSF is discussed, and a model for the 2SSF nucleation is proposed. Homo-epitaxial 4H-SiC is grown on a commercial 4 degrees off-cut substrate by a home-built hot-wall CVD. Defect-selected-etching (DSE) is conducted with melted KOH at 500 degrees Celsius for 1-2 min. Room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) is conducted at a 20 kV acceleration voltage. Low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) is conducted at 3.6 K with the 325 nm He-Cd laser line. In the CL image, a triangular area with bright contrast is observed. Two partial dislocations (PDs) with a 20-degree angle in between show linear dark contrast on the edges of the IGSF. CL and LTPL spectrums are conducted to verify the IGSF’s type. The CL spectrum shows the maximum photoemission at 2.431 eV and negligible bandgap emission. In the LTPL spectrum, four phonon replicas are found at 2.468 eV, 2.438 eV, 2.420 eV and 2.410 eV, respectively. The Egx is estimated to be 2.512 eV. A shoulder with a red-shift to the main peak in CL, and a slight protrude at the same wavelength in LTPL are verified as the so called Egx- lines. Based on the CL and LTPL results, the IGSF is identified as a 2SSF. Back etching by neutral loop discharge and DSE are conducted to track the origin of the 2SSF, and the nucleation site is found to be a threading screw dislocation (TSD) in this sample. A nucleation mechanism model is proposed for the formation of the 2SSF. Steps introduced by the off-cut and the TSD on the surface are both suggested to be two C-Si bilayers height. The intersections of such two types of steps are along [11-20] direction from the TSD, while a four-bilayer step at each intersection. The nucleation of the 2SSF in the growth is proposed as follows. Firstly, the upper two bilayers of the four-bilayer step grow down and block the lower two at one intersection, and an IGSF is generated. Secondly, the step-flow grows over the IGSF successively, and forms an AC/ABCABC/BA/BC stacking sequence. Then a 2SSF is formed and extends by the step-flow growth. In conclusion, a triangular IGSF is characterized by CL approach. Base on the CL and LTPL spectrums, the estimated Egx is 2.512 eV and the IGSF is identified to be a 2SSF. By back etching, the 2SSF nucleation site is found to be a TSD. A model for the 2SSF nucleation from an intersection of off-cut- and TSD- introduced steps is proposed.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, cathodoluminescence, defect-selected-etching, double Shockley stacking fault, low-temperature photoluminescence, nucleation model

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8 High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering of Al/SiC/GNS Nanocomposites and Their Tribological Properties

Authors: Mohammad Islam, Iftikhar Ahmad, Hany S. Abdo, Yasir Khalid


High-frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS) is a fast, efficient powder consolidation technique. In this work, aluminum (Al) powder was mixed with silicon carbide (SiC) and/or graphene nanosheets (GNS) in different proportions and compacted using HFIHS process to produce dense nanocomposites. The nanostructures dispersion was assessed via electron microscopy using both SEM and TEM. Tribological behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated at different loads to determine wear rate and coefficient of friction. The scratch profiles were examined under the microscope to correlate wear properties with the microstructure. While the addition of SiC nanoparticles enhances microhardness values, GNS incorporation promotes dry lubricity with strikingly different wear scratch morphologies. Such Al/SiC/GNS material compositions can be explored for use in automotive brake pad and thermal management applications.

Keywords: Tribology, Silicon Carbide, aluminum nanocomposites, graphene nanosheets

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7 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, foaming, waste glass, foam glass

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6 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev


In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, carbonization, diffusion, porous silicon, electrochemical etching

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5 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, foaming, waste glass, foam glass

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4 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra


Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, porous silicon, RF sputtering, hydrogen gas sensor

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3 Characterization of Aluminium Alloy 6063 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite by Using Stir Casting Method

Authors: Balwinder Singh


The present research is a paper on the characterization of aluminum alloy-6063 hybrid metal matrix composites using three different reinforcement materials (SiC, red mud, and fly ash) through stir casting method. The red mud was used in solid form, and particle size range varies between 103-150 µm. During this investigation, fly ash is received from Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant (GNDTP), Bathinda. The study has been done by using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array by taking fraction wt.% (SiC 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and Red Mud and Fly Ash 2%, 4%, and 6%) as input parameters with their respective levels. The study of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, impact strength, and microhardness) has been done by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with the help of MINITAB 17 software. It is revealed that silicon carbide is the most significant parameter followed by red mud and fly ash affecting the mechanical properties, respectively. The fractured surface morphology of the composites using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) shows that there is a good mixing of reinforcement particles in the matrix. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was performed to know the presence of the phases of the reinforced material.

Keywords: fly ash, Silicon Carbide, reinforcement, red mud

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2 Synthesis of Low-Cost Porous Silicon Carbide Foams from Renewable Sources

Authors: M. A. Bayona, E. M. Cordoba, V. R. Guiza


Highly porous carbon-based foams are used in a wide range of industrial applications, which include absorption, catalyst supports, thermal insulation, and biomaterials, among others. Particularly, silicon carbide (SiC) based foams have shown exceptional potential for catalyst support applications, due to their chemical inertness, large frontal area, low resistance to flow, low-pressure drop, as well as high resistance to temperature and corrosion. These properties allow the use of SiC foams in harsh environments with high durability. Commonly, SiC foams are fabricated from polysiloxane, SiC powders and phenolic resins, which can be costly or highly toxic to the environment. In this work, we propose a low-cost method for the fabrication of highly porous, three-dimensional SiC foams via template replica, using recycled polymeric sponges as sacrificial templates. A sucrose-based resin combined with a Si-containing pre-ceramic polymer was used as the precursor. Polymeric templates were impregnated with the precursor solution, followed by thermal treatment at 1500 °C under an inert atmosphere. Several synthesis parameters, such as viscosity and composition of the precursor solution (Si: Sucrose molar ratio), and the porosity of the template, were evaluated in terms of their effect on the morphology, composition and mechanical resistance of the resulting SiC foams. The synthesized composite foams exhibited a highly porous (50-90%) and interconnected structure, containing 30-90% SiC with a mechanical compressive strength between 0.01-0.1 MPa. The methodology employed here allowed the fabrication of foams with a varied concentration of SiC and with morphological and mechanical properties that contribute to the development of materials of high relevance in the industry, while using low-cost, renewable sources such as table sugar, and providing a recycling alternative for polymeric sponges.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, catalyst support, polymer replica technique, reticulated porous ceramics

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1 Preceramic Polymers Formulations for Potential Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Saja M. Nabat Al-Ajrash, Charles Browning, Rose Eckerle, Li Cao


Three preceramic polymer formulations for potential use in 3D printing technologies were investigated. The polymeric precursors include an allyl hydrido polycarbosilane (SMP-10), SMP-10/1,6-dexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) mixture, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The rheological property of the polymeric precursors, including the viscosity within a wide shear rate range was compared to determine the applicability in additive manufacturing technology. The structural properties of the polymeric solutions and their photocureability were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to study polymeric to ceramic conversion for versatile precursors. The prepared precursor resin proved to have outstanding photo-curing properties and the ability to transform to the silicon carbide phase at temperatures as low as 850 °C. The obtained ceramic was fully dense with nearly linear shrinkage and a shiny, smooth surface after pyrolysis. Furthermore, after pyrolysis to 1350 °C and TGA analysis, PDMS polymer showed the highest onset decomposition temperature and the lowest retained weight (52 wt%), while SMP.10/HDDA showed the lowest onset temperature and ceramic yield (71.7 wt%). In terms of crystallography, the ceramic matrix composite appeared to have three coexisting phases, including silicon carbide, and silicon oxycarbide. The results are very promising to fabricate ceramic materials working at high temperatures with complex geometries.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, preceramic polymer, photocuring, allyl hydrido polycarbosilane, SMP-10

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