Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

silica fume Related Abstracts

20 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Nasir Shafiq, Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Ali Elheber Ahmed

Abstract:

Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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19 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

Abstract:

Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: fly ash, stress, silica fume, lightweight concrete, scoria, strain

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18 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Evaldas Serelis, Vitoldas Vaitkevičius

Abstract:

Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: silica fume, compressive strength, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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17 Experimental Investigation on High Performance Concrete with Silica Fume and Ceramic Waste

Authors: P. Vinayagam, A. Madhanagopal

Abstract:

This experimental investigation focuses on the study of the strength of concrete with ceramic waste as coarse aggregate. It is not a new concept of using alternate materials for aggregates. Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. The ceramic waste from ceramic and construction industries is a major contribution to construction demolition waste (CDW), representing a serious environmental, technical, and economical problem of today’s society. The major sources of ceramic waste are ceramic industry, building construction and building demolition. In ceramic industries, a significant part of the losses in the manufacturing of ceramic elements is not returned to the production process. In building construction, ceramic waste is produced during transportation to the building site, on the execution of several construction elements and on subsequent works. This waste is regionally deposited in dumping grounds, without any separation or reuse. In this study an attempt has been made to find the suitability of the ceramic industrial wastes as a possible replacement for conventional crushed stone coarse aggregate in high performance concrete. In this study, glazed stoneware pipe waste was used as coarse aggregates. In this investigation, physical properties of ceramic waste coarse aggregates were studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the strength of high performance concrete with silica fume and ceramic stoneware pipe waste coarse aggregate of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% different replacement ratios in comparison with those of corresponding conventional concrete mixes.

Keywords: Ceramic Waste, silica fume, coarse aggregate replacement, glazed stoneware pipe waste

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16 Durability of Wood Shavel Composites with Environmental Friendly Based Binder

Authors: Jul Endawati

Abstract:

The composite element of 20 mm in thickness were manufactured using high volume fly ash, silica fume as alternative hydraulic binders and Portland cement Type II. Pine wood shavel as by product of local small wood working industries were used as the composite filler. The elements were given in situ wet and dry treatment for 9 months. Visually there is no fiber degradation as a result of the interaction of the environment. The assessment were done to the elements bending strength and dimensional properties. Increase in MoR after 180 days of exposure shown that mechanically this degradation is not seen yet. The increment of MoR (213%) compare to that of 28 days might be affected by the formation of calcium hydroxide (CH) or ettringite in the transition zone. The use of pozzolan showed also a delay or minimize degradation of composites while improving the pore structure, and minimize the mineralization of the fiber bond with the cement matrix. The water absorption is 4,22% at 180 days, 7,94% at 120 days and 12,38% at 28 days, in line with the 68% decrease in Thickness Swelling (TS). This unoccured degradation could also be affected by the presence of silica fume in the binder matrix. After 270 days of exposure under tropical condition, the flexural strength started to decrease.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, silica fume, natural fibre

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15 Study on the Strength and Durability Properties of Ternary Blended Concrete

Authors: Athira Babu, M. Nazeer

Abstract:

Concrete is the most common and versatile construction material used in any type of civil engineering structure. The durability and strength characteristics of concrete make it more desirable among any other construction materials. The manufacture and use of concrete produces wide range of environmental and social consequences. The major component in concrete, cement accounts for roughly 5 % of global CO2 emissions. In order to improve the environmental friendliness of concrete, suitable substitutes are added to concrete. The present study deals with GGBS and silica fume as supplementary cementitious materials. The strength and durability studies were conducted in this ternary blended concrete. Several mixes were adopted with varying percentages of Silica Fume i.e., 5%, 10% and 15%. Binary mix with 50% GGBS was also prepared. GGBS content has been kept constant for the rest of mixes. There is an improvement in compressive strength with addition of Silica Fume.Maximum workability, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and impact resistance are obtained for GGBS binary blend. For durability studies, maximum sulphate resistance,carbonation resistance andresistance to chloride ion penetration are obtained for ternary blended concrete. Partial replacement of GGBS and Silica Fume reduces the environmental effects, produces economical and eco-friendly concrete. The study showed that for strength characteristics, binary blended concrete showed better performance while for durability study ternary blend performed better.

Keywords: Concrete, silica fume, GGBS, ternary blend

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14 Enhancement of Dune Sand from the Western Erg (Algeria) in the Formulation of New Concrete

Authors: Ahmed Tafraoui, Gilles Escadeillas, Thierry Vidal

Abstract:

The southern Algeria is known for its huge sand dunes that cover part of its territory (Sahara). This sand has features that allow a glimpse of a recovery in the construction field in the form of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC). This type of concrete using a large amount of silica fume, ultra fine addition that gives very high performance but is also relatively rare and expensive. Replacing it with another addition to equivalent properties, such as metakaolin, can also be considered. The objective of this study is to both enhance the sand dunes of Erg south west western Algeria but also reduce manufacturing costs of Ultra High Performance Concrete to incorporating metakaolin to instead of silica fume. Performances to determine mechanical performance are instantaneous, compression and bending. Initially, we characterized the Algerian sand dune. Then, we have to find a formulation of UHPC, adequate in terms of implementation and to replace silica fume by metakaolin. Finally, we studied the actual value of the sand dune. Concrete obtained have very high mechanical performance, up to a compressive strength of 250 MPa, a tensile strength of 45 MPa by bending with the method of heat treatment. This study shows that the enhancement of dune sand studied is quite possible in UHPC, and in particular UHPC bundles and the replacement of silica fume by metakaolin do not alter the properties of these concretes.

Keywords: Formulations, Strength, silica fume, metakaolin, sand dune, Ultra High Performance Concrete

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13 Effect of Pozzolanic Additives on the Strength Development of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Diana Bajare, Laura Dembovska, Ina Pundiene, Daira Erdmane

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The aim of this research is to estimate effect of pozzolanic substitutes and their combination on the hydration heat and final strength of high performance concrete. Ternary cementitious systems with different ratios of ordinary Portland cement, silica fume and calcined clay were investigated. Local illite clay was calcined at temperature 700oC in rotary furnace for 20 min. It has been well recognized that the use of pozzolanic materials such as silica fume or calcined clay are recommended for high performance concrete for reduction of porosity, increasing density and as a consequence raising the chemical durability of the concrete. It has been found, that silica fume has a superior influence on the strength development of concrete, but calcined clay increase density and decrease size of dominating pores. Additionally it was found that the rates of pozzolanic reaction and calcium hydroxide consumption in the silica fume-blended cement pastes are higher than in the illite clay-blended cement pastes, it strongly depends from the amount of pozzolanic substitutes which are used. If the pozzolanic reaction is dominating then amount of Ca(OH)2 is decreasing. The identity and the amount of the phases present were determined from the thermal analysis (DTA) data. The hydration temperature of blended cement pastes was measured during the first 24 hours. Fresh and hardened concrete properties were tested. Compressive strength was determined and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was conducted of specimens at the age of 3, 14, 28 and 56 days.

Keywords: High Performance Concrete, silica fume, pozzolanic additives, ternary systems

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12 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan

Abstract:

This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: Permeability, silica fume, compressive strength, GGBS

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11 Investigation of Zeolite and Silica Fume Addition on Durability of Cement Composites

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Martina Kovalcikova

Abstract:

Today, concrete belongs to the most frequently used materials in the civil engineering industry for many years. Consuming energy in cement industry is very high and CO₂ emissions generated during the production of Portland cement has serious environmental threatens. Therefore, utilization of pozzolanic material as a supplementary cementitious material has a direct relationship with the sustainable development. The paper presents the results of the comparative study of the resistance of the Slovak origin zeolite based cement composites with addition of silica fume exposed to the sulfate environment. The various aggressive media were used for the experiment: sulfuric acid with pH 4, distilled water and magnesium sulfate solution with a concentration of 3 g/L of SO₄²−. The laboratory experiment proceeded during 180 days under model conditions. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in liquid leachates were observed.

Keywords: Concrete, Leaching, Zeolite, silica fume, sulfuric acid

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10 The Behavior of Self-Compacting Light Weight Concrete Produced by Magnetic Water

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Hojjat Hatami

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to access the optimal mix design of self-compacting light weight concrete. The effects of magnetic water, superplasticizer based on polycarboxylic-ether, and silica fume on characteristics of this type of concrete are studied. The workability of fresh concrete and the compressive strength of hardened concrete are considered here. For this purpose, nine mix designs were studied. The percentages of superplasticizer were 0.5, 1, and 2% of the weight of cement, and the percentages of silica fume were 0, 6, and 10% of the weight of cement. The water to cementitious ratios were 0.28, 0.32, and 0.36. The workability of concrete samples was analyzed by the devices such as slump flow, V-funnel, L box, U box, and Urimet with J ring. Then, the compressive strengths of the mixes at the ages of 3, 7, 28, and 90 days were obtained. The results show that by using magnetic water, the compressive strengths are improved at all the ages. In the concrete samples with ordinary water, more superplasticizer dosages were needed. Moreover, the combination of superplasticizer and magnetic water had positive effects on the mixes containing silica fume and they could flow easily.

Keywords: silica fume, superplasticizer, magnetic water, self-compacting light weight concrete

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9 Influence of Silica Fume Addition on Concrete

Authors: Rahul Roy, Gaurav Datta, Sourav Ghosh

Abstract:

The incorporation of silica fume into the normal concrete is a routine one in the present days to produce the tailor made high strength and high performance concrete. The design parameters are increasing with the incorporation of silica fume in conventional concrete and the mix proportioning is becoming complex. The main objective of this paper has been made to investigate the different mechanical properties like compressive strength, permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, slump of concrete incorporating silica fume. In this present paper 5 (five) mix of concrete incorporating silica fume is cast to perform experiments. These experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at a single constant water-cementitious materials ratio keeping other mix design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% for water-cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio for 0.40. For all mixes compressive strengths were determined at 24 hours, 7 and 28 days for 100 mm and 150 mm cubes. Other properties like permeability, porosity, density, modulus of elasticity, compacting factor, and slump were also determined for five mixes of concrete.

Keywords: Strength, High Performance Concrete, silica fume, high strength concrete

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8 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Robert Černý, Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová

Abstract:

Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: Hydration, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, silica fume, thermogravimetry

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7 Synthesis of Belite Cements at Low Temperature from Silica Fume and Natural Commercial Zeolite

Authors: Tatiana L. Avalos-Rendon, Elias A. Pasten Chelala, Carlos J. Mendoza EScobedo, Ignacio A. Figueroa, Victor H. Lara, Luis M. Palacios-Romero

Abstract:

The cement industry is facing cost increments in energy supply, requirements for reduction of CO₂, and insufficient supply of raw materials of good quality. According to all these environmental issues, cement industry must change its consumption patterns and reduce CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere. This can be achieved by generating environmental consciousness, which encourages the use of industrial by-products and/or recycling for the production of cement, as well as alternate, environment-friendly methods of synthesis which reduce CO₂. Calcination is the conventional method for the obtainment of Portland cement clinker. This method consists of grinding and mixing of raw materials (limestone, clay, etc.) in an adequate dosage. Resulting mix has a clinkerization temperature of 1450 °C so that the formation of the main component occur: alite (Ca₃SiO₅, C₃S). Considering that the energy required to produce C₃S is 1810 kJ kg -1, calcination method for the obtainment of clinker represents two major disadvantages: long thermal treatment and elevated temperatures of synthesis, both of which cause high emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) to the atmosphere. Belite Portland clinker is characterized by having a low content of calcium oxide (CaO), causing the presence of alite to diminish and favoring the formation of belite (β-Ca₂SiO₄, C₂S), so production of clinker requires a reduced energy consumption (1350 kJ kg-1), releasing less CO₂ to the atmosphere. Conventionally, β-Ca₂SiO₄ is synthetized by the calcination of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) through the reaction in solid state at temperatures greater than 1300 °C. Resulting belite shows low hydraulic reactivity. Therefore, this study concerns a new simple modified combustion method for the synthesis of two belite cements at low temperatures (1000 °C). Silica fume, as subproduct of metallurgic industry and commercial natural zeolite were utilized as raw materials. These are considered low-cost materials and were utilized with no additional purification process. Belite cements properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS and BET techniques. Hydration capacity of belite cements was calculated while the mechanical strength was determined in ordinary Portland cement specimens (PC) with a 10% partial replacement of the belite cements obtained. Results showed belite cements presented relatively high surface áreas, at early ages mechanical strengths similar to those of alite cement and comparable to strengths of belite cements obtained by different synthesis methods. Cements obtained in this work present good hydraulic reactivity properties.

Keywords: Zeolite, silica fume, belite, hydraulic reactivity

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6 Experimental Work to Estimate the Strength of Ferrocement Slabs Incorporating Silica Fume and Steel Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Mashrei

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Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete made of cement-sand matrix with closely spaced relatively small diameter wire meshes, with or without steel bars of small diameter called skeletal steel. This work concerns on the behavior of square ferrocement slabs of dimensions (500) mm x (500) mm and 30 mm subjected to a central load. This study includes testing thirteen ferrocement slabs. The main variables considered in the experimental work are the number of wire mesh layers, percentage of silica fume and the presence of steel fiber. The effects of these variables on the behavior and load carrying capacity of tested slabs under central load were investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that by increasing the percentage of silica fume from (0 to 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6) of weight of cement the ultimate loads are affected. Also From this study, it is observed that the load carrying capacity increases with the presence of steel fiber reinforcement, the ductility is high in the case of steel fibers. The increasing wire mesh layer from six to ten layers increased the load capacity by 76%. Also, a reduction in width of crack with increasing in number of cracks in the samples that content on steel fibers comparing with samples without steel fibers was observed from the results.

Keywords: Strength, silica fume, slab, fibre, ferrocement

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5 Effect of Clay Brick Filler on Properties of Self-Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Sandra Juradin, Lidia Karla Vranjes

Abstract:

The environmental impact of the components of concrete is considerable. The paper presents the influence of ground clay brick filler on the properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete (SCLC). In the manufacture and transport of clay bricks, product damage may occur. The filler was obtained by milling the damaged clay brick and sieved under the 0.04 mm size. The composition of each of SCLC mixture was determined according to the CBI method and compared with EFNARC (European Association) criteria. Self-compacting lightweight concrete has been tested in a fresh (slump flow method, visual assessment of stability, T50 time, V-funnel method, L-box method and J-ring) and hardened state (compressive strengths and dynamic modulus of elasticity). Mixtures with this filler had good results of compressive strength, but in fresh state the mixtures were sticky. All results were analyzed and compared with previous studies.

Keywords: silica fume, CBI methods, ground clay brick, self-compacting lightweight concrete

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4 Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane

Authors: Andrea Cretu, Calin Cadar, Maria Miclaus, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Siegfried Stapf, Ioan Ardelean

Abstract:

Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.

Keywords: NMR, Concrete Admixtures, Cement Hydration, silica fume, porosity, organosilane

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3 Effect of Silica Fume at Cellular Sprayed Concrete

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Kyeo-Re Lee, Seung-Yeon Han

Abstract:

Silica fume which is a super-fine byproduct of ferrosilicon or silicon metal has a filling effect on micro-air voids or a transition zone in a hardened cement paste by appropriate mixing, placement, and curing. It, also, has a Pozzolan reaction which enhances the interior density of the hydrated cement paste through a formation of calcium silicate hydroxide. When substituting cement with silica fume, it improves water tightness and durability by filling effect and Pozzolan reaction. However, it needs high range water reducer or super-plasticizer to distribute silica fume into a concrete because of its finesses and high specific surface area. In order to distribute into concrete evenly, cement manufacturers make a pre-blended cement of silica fume and provide to a market. However, a special mixing procedures and another transportation charge another cost and this result in a high price of pre-blended cement of silica fume. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the dispersion of silica fume by air slurry and its effect on the mechanical properties of at ready-mixed concrete. The results are as follows: A dispersion effect of silica fume was measured from an analysis of standard deviation for compressive strength test results. It showed that the standard deviation decreased as the air bubble content increased, which means that the dispersion became better as the air bubble content increased. The test result of rapid chloride permeability test showed that permeability resistance increased as the percentages of silica fume increased, but the permeability resistance decreased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased. The image analysis showed that a spacing factor decreased and a specific surface area increased as the quantity of mixing air bubble increased.

Keywords: Permeability, silica fume, deviation, cellular sprayed concrete

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2 Mechanical Properties of Cement Slurry by Partially Substitution of Industry Waste Natural Pozzolans

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. P. Emadoleslami Oskoei, S. D. Beladi Mousavi, A. Taleb Beydokhti

Abstract:

There have been many reports of the destructive effects of cement on the environment in recent years. In the present research, it has been attempted to reduce the destructive effects of cement by replacing silica fume as adhesive materials instead of cement. The present study has attempted to improve the mechanical properties of cement slurry by using waste material from a glass production factory, located in Qazvin city of Iran, in which accumulation volume has become an environmental threat. The chemical analysis of the waste material indicates that this material contains about 94% of SiO2 and AL2O3 and has a close structure to silica fume. Also, the particle grain size test was performed on the mentioned waste. Then, the unconfined compressive strength test of the slurry was performed by preparing a mixture of water and adhesives with different percentages of cement and silica fume. The water to an adhesive ratio of this mixture is 1:3, and the curing process last 28 days. It was found that the sample had an unconfined compressive strength of about 300 kg/cm2 in a mixture with equal proportions of cement and silica fume. Besides, the sample had a brittle fracture in the slurry sample made of pure cement, however, the fracture in cement-silica fume slurry mixture is flexible and the structure of the specimen remains coherent after fracture. Therefore, considering the flexibility that is achieved by replacing this waste, it can be used to stabilize soils with cracking potential.

Keywords: silica fume, cement replacement, cement slurry, environmental threat, natural pozzolan, waste material

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1 Properties of Preplaced Aggregate Concrete with Modified Binder

Authors: Kunal Krishna Das, Eddie S. S. Lam

Abstract:

Preplaced Aggregate Concrete (PAC) is produced by first placing the coarse aggregate into the formwork, followed by injection of grout to fill in the voids in between the coarse aggregates. In this study, tests were carried out to determine the effects of supplementary cementitious materials on the properties of PAC. Cement was partially replaced by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) at different proportions. Grout properties were determined by the flow cone test and compressive strength test. Grout proportion was optimized statistically. It was applied to form PAC. Hardened properties of PAC, comprising compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, chloride-ion penetration and drying shrinkage, were evaluated. GGBS enhanced the flowability of the grout, whereas SF enhanced the strength of PAC. Both GGBS and SF improved the resistance to chloride-ion penetration with the drawback of increased drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, drying shrinkage was within the range to be classified as low shrinkage concrete.

Keywords: silica fume, factorial design, ground granulated blast furnace slag, preplaced aggregate concrete

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