Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Signal Processing Related Abstracts

28 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov


In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.

Keywords: Signal Processing, cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope

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27 The Trajectory of the Ball in Football Game

Authors: Mojtaba Farzaneh, Mahdi Motahari, Ebrahim Sepidbar


Tracking of moving and flying targets is one of the most important issues in image processing topic. Estimating of trajectory of desired object in short-term and long-term scale is more important than tracking of moving and flying targets. In this paper, a new way of identifying and estimating of future trajectory of a moving ball in long-term scale is estimated by using synthesis and interaction of image processing algorithms including noise removal and image segmentation, Kalman filter algorithm in order to estimating of trajectory of ball in football game in short-term scale and intelligent adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm based on time series of traverse distance. The proposed system attain more than 96% identify accuracy by using aforesaid methods and relaying on aforesaid algorithms and data base video in format of synthesis and interaction. Although the present method has high precision, it is time consuming. By comparing this method with other methods we realize the accuracy and efficiency of that.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Tracking, Kalman Filter, moving targets and flying, artificial intelligent systems, estimating of trajectory

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26 Leaf Image Processing: Review

Authors: T. Vijayashree, A. Gopal


The aim of the work is to classify and authenticate medicinal plant materials and herbs widely used for Indian herbal medicinal preparation. The quality and authenticity of these raw materials are to be ensured for the preparation of herbal medicines. These raw materials are to be carefully screened, analyzed and documented due to mistaken of look-alike materials which do not have medicinal characteristics.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Principal Component Analysis, standardization, Authenticity, Imaging Processing

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25 An Assistive Robotic Arm for Defence and Rescue Application

Authors: J. Harrison Kurunathan, R. Jayaparvathy


"Assistive Robotics" is the field that deals with the study of robots that helps in human motion and also empowers human abilities by interfacing the robotic systems to be manipulated by human motion. The proposed model is a robotic arm that works as a haptic interface on the basis on accelerometers and DC motors that will function with respect to the movement of the human muscle. The proposed model would effectively work as a haptic interface that would reduce human effort in the field of defense and rescue. This can be used in very critical conditions like fire accidents to avoid causalities.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Accelerometers, haptic interface, servo motors

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24 Tool Wear Monitoring of High Speed Milling Based on Vibratory Signal Processing

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa


The objective of this study is to develop a process of treatment of the vibratory signals generated during a horizontal high speed milling process without applying any coolant in order to establish a monitoring system able to improve the machining performance. Thus, many tests were carried out on the horizontal high speed centre (PCI Météor 10), in given cutting conditions, by using a milling cutter with only one insert and measured its frontal wear from its new state that is considered as a reference state until a worn state that is considered as unsuitable for the tool to be used. The results obtained show that the first harmonic follow well the evolution of frontal wear, on another hand a wavelet transform is used for signal processing and is found to be useful for observing the evolution of the wavelet approximations through the cutting tool life. The power and the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the wavelet transformed signal gave the best results and can be used for tool wear estimation. All this features can constitute the suitable indicators for an effective detection of tool wear and then used for the input parameters of an online monitoring system. Although we noted the remarkable influence of the machining cycle on the quality of measurements by the introduction of a bias on the signal, this phenomenon appears in particular in horizontal milling and in the majority of studies is ignored.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Vibration, monitoring, Milling, flank wear

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23 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa


The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The online monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear online. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Neural Network, flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling

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22 Modalmetric Fiber Sensor and Its Applications

Authors: M. Życzkowski, M. Karol, P. Markowski


The team from IOE MUT is developing fiber optic sensors for the security systems for 15 years. The conclusions of the work indicate that these sensors are complicated. Moreover, these sensors are expensive to produce and require sophisticated signal processing methods.We present the results of the investigations of three different applications of the modalmetric sensor: • Protection of museum collections and heritage buildings, • Protection of fiber optic transmission lines, • Protection of objects of critical infrastructure. Each of the presented applications involves different requirements for the system. The results indicate that it is possible to developed a fiber optic sensor based on a single fiber. Modification of optoelectronic parts with a change of the length of the sensor and the method of reflections of propagating light at the end of the sensor allows to adjust the system to the specific application.

Keywords: Signal Processing, modalmetric fiber optic sensor, security sensor, optoelectronic parts

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21 Smooth Second Order Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a 6 DOF Quadrotor UAV

Authors: R. Ghasemi, V. Tabrizi, A. Vali, V. Behnamgol


In this article, a nonlinear model of an under actuated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) quadrotor UAV is derived on the basis of the Newton-Euler formula. The derivation comprises determining equations of the motion of the quadrotor in three dimensions and approximating the actuation forces through the modeling of aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics. The robust nonlinear control strategy includes a smooth second order non-singular terminal sliding mode control which is applied to stabilizing this model. The control method is on the basis of super twisting algorithm for removing the chattering and producing smooth control signal. Also, nonsingular terminal sliding mode idea is used for introducing a nonlinear sliding variable that guarantees the finite time convergence in sliding phase. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against uncertainty or disturbance and guarantees a fast and precise control signal.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Electronics, Control, quadrotor UAV, nonsingular terminal sliding mode, second order sliding mode t

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20 Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals: A Case of Radio Frequency vs. Quadrature Baseband

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi


Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software-defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: Signal Processing, quadrature baseband, qadio frequency, qultipath compensation, frequency qodulation

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19 Wavelet Based Signal Processing for Fault Location in Airplane Cable

Authors: Reza Rezaeipour Honarmandzad


Wavelet analysis is an exciting method for solving difficult problems in mathematics, physics, and engineering, with modern applications as diverse as wave propagation, data compression, signal processing, image processing, pattern recognition, etc. Wavelets allow complex information such as signals, images and patterns to be decomposed into elementary forms at different positions and scales and subsequently reconstructed with high precision. In this paper a wavelet-based signal processing algorithm for airplane cable fault location is proposed. An orthogonal discrete wavelet decomposition and reconstruction algorithm is used to eliminate the noise in the aircraft cable fault signal. The experiment result has shown that the character of emission pulse and reflect pulse used to test the aircraft cable fault point are reserved and the high-frequency noise are eliminated by means of the proposed algorithm in this paper.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Noise, Wavelet Analysis, orthogonal discrete wavelet, aircraft cable fault signal

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18 Signal Processing of Barkhausen Noise Signal for Assessment of Increasing Down Feed in Surface Ground Components with Poor Micro-Magnetic Response

Authors: Tanmaya Kumar Dash, Tarun Karamshetty, Soumitra Paul


The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilized to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal with Fast Fourier transforms while Wavelet transforms has been used to remove noise from the BN signal, with judicious choice of the ‘threshold’ value, when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, the effect of down feed induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with an ultrasonically cleaned, wet polished and a sample ground with spark out technique for benchmarking. Moreover, the FFT analysis has been established, at different sets of applied voltages and applied frequency and the pattern of the BN signal in the frequency domain is analyzed. The study also depicts the wavelet transforms technique with different levels of decomposition and different mother wavelets, which has been used to reduce the noise value in BN signal of materials with poor micro-magnetic response, in order to standardize the procedure for all BN signals depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Magnetic Properties, Grinding, barkhausen noise analysis, micro-magnetic response

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17 Contribution to the Study of Automatic Epileptiform Pattern Recognition in Long Term EEG Signals

Authors: Christine F. Boos, Fernando M. Azevedo


Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a record of the electrical activity of the brain that has many applications, such as monitoring alertness, coma and brain death; locating damaged areas of the brain after head injury, stroke and tumor; monitoring anesthesia depth; researching physiology and sleep disorders; researching epilepsy and localizing the seizure focus. Epilepsy is a chronic condition, or a group of diseases of high prevalence, still poorly explained by science and whose diagnosis is still predominantly clinical. The EEG recording is considered an important test for epilepsy investigation and its visual analysis is very often applied for clinical confirmation of epilepsy diagnosis. Moreover, this EEG analysis can also be used to help define the types of epileptic syndrome, determine epileptiform zone, assist in the planning of drug treatment and provide additional information about the feasibility of surgical intervention. In the context of diagnosis confirmation the analysis is made using long term EEG recordings with at least 24 hours long and acquired by a minimum of 24 electrodes in which the neurophysiologists perform a thorough visual evaluation of EEG screens in search of specific electrographic patterns called epileptiform discharges. Considering that the EEG screens usually display 10 seconds of the recording, the neurophysiologist has to evaluate 360 screens per hour of EEG or a minimum of 8,640 screens per long term EEG recording. Analyzing thousands of EEG screens in search patterns that have a maximum duration of 200 ms is a very time consuming, complex and exhaustive task. Because of this, over the years several studies have proposed automated methodologies that could facilitate the neurophysiologists’ task of identifying epileptiform discharges and a large number of methodologies used neural networks for the pattern classification. One of the differences between all of these methodologies is the type of input stimuli presented to the networks, i.e., how the EEG signal is introduced in the network. Five types of input stimuli have been commonly found in literature: raw EEG signal, morphological descriptors (i.e. parameters related to the signal’s morphology), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectrum, Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) spectrograms and Wavelet Transform features. This study evaluates the application of these five types of input stimuli and compares the classification results of neural networks that were implemented using each of these inputs. The performance of using raw signal varied between 43 and 84% efficiency. The results of FFT spectrum and STFT spectrograms were quite similar with average efficiency being 73 and 77%, respectively. The efficiency of Wavelet Transform features varied between 57 and 81% while the descriptors presented efficiency values between 62 and 93%. After simulations we could observe that the best results were achieved when either morphological descriptors or Wavelet features were used as input stimuli.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network, electroencephalogram signal

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16 Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features

Authors: Vesna Kirandziska, Nevena Ackovska, Ana Madevska Bogdanova


The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Machine Learning, Emotion recognition, Facial Recognition

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15 System Identification of Timber Masonry Walls Using Shaking Table Test

Authors: Ashutosh Bagchi, Timir Baran Roy, Luis Guerreiro


Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as bridges, dams, high-rise buildings etc. There had been a substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as natural frequency, modal damping, and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototypes of such walls have been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated, and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Modal Parameters, frequency domain decomposition (fdd), stochastic subspace identification (ssi), time domain decomposition

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14 [Keynote Speech]: Bridge Damage Detection Using Frequency Response Function

Authors: Ahmed Noor Al-Qayyim


During the past decades, the bridge structures are considered very important portions of transportation networks, due to the fast urban sprawling. With the failure of bridges that under operating conditions lead to focus on updating the default bridge inspection methodology. The structures health monitoring (SHM) using the vibration response appeared as a promising method to evaluate the condition of structures. The rapid development in the sensors technology and the condition assessment techniques based on the vibration-based damage detection made the SHM an efficient and economical ways to assess the bridges. SHM is set to assess state and expects probable failures of designated bridges. In this paper, a presentation for Frequency Response function method that uses the captured vibration test information of structures to evaluate the structure condition. Furthermore, the main steps of the assessment of bridge using the vibration information are presented. The Frequency Response function method is applied to the experimental data of a full-scale bridge.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Health monitoring, damage detection, Bridge Assessment, frequency response function (FRF), structure identification

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13 High-Frequency Acoustic Microscopy Imaging of Pellet/Cladding Interface in Nuclear Fuel Rods

Authors: H. Saikouk, D. Laux, Emmanuel Le Clézio, B. Lacroix, K. Audic, R. Largenton, E. Federici, G. Despaux


Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel rods are made of ceramic pellets (e.g. UO2 or (U,Pu) O2) assembled in a zirconium cladding tube. By design, an initial gap exists between these two elements. During irradiation, they both undergo transformations leading progressively to the closure of this gap. A local and non destructive examination of the pellet/cladding interface could constitute a useful help to identify the zones where the two materials are in contact, particularly at high burnups when a strong chemical bonding occurs under nominal operating conditions in PWR fuel rods. The evolution of the pellet/cladding bonding during irradiation is also an area of interest. In this context, the Institute of Electronic and Systems (IES- UMR CNRS 5214), in collaboration with the Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), is developing a high frequency acoustic microscope adapted to the control and imaging of the pellet/cladding interface with high resolution. Because the geometrical, chemical and mechanical nature of the contact interface is neither axially nor radially homogeneous, 2D images of this interface need to be acquired via this ultrasonic system with a highly performing processing signal and by means of controlled displacement of the sample rod along both its axis and its circumference. Modeling the multi-layer system (water, cladding, fuel etc.) is necessary in this present study and aims to take into account all the parameters that have an influence on the resolution of the acquired images. The first prototype of this microscope and the first results of the visualization of the inner face of the cladding will be presented in a poster in order to highlight the potentials of the system, whose final objective is to be introduced in the existing bench MEGAFOX dedicated to the non-destructive examination of irradiated fuel rods at LECA-STAR facility in CEA-Cadarache.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Non-Destructive Testing, high-frequency acoustic microscopy, multi-layer model, nuclear fuel rod, pellet/cladding interface

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12 EEG Signal Processing Methods to Differentiate Mental States

Authors: Gilwon Yoon, Sun H. Hwang, Young E. Lee, Yunhan Ga


EEG is a very complex signal with noises and other bio-potential interferences. EOG is the most distinct interfering signal when EEG signals are measured and analyzed. It is very important how to process raw EEG signals in order to obtain useful information. In this study, the EEG signal processing techniques such as EOG filtering and outlier removal were examined to minimize unwanted EOG signals and other noises. The two different mental states of resting and focusing were examined through EEG analysis. A focused state was induced by letting subjects to watch a red dot on the white screen. EEG data for 32 healthy subjects were measured. EEG data after 60-Hz notch filtering were processed by a commercially available EOG filtering and our presented algorithm based on the removal of outliers. The ratio of beta wave to theta wave was used as a parameter for determining the degree of focusing. The results show that our algorithm was more appropriate than the existing EOG filtering.

Keywords: Signal Processing, eeg, Focus, outlier, mental state

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11 The Effectiveness of Energy Index Technique in Bearing Condition Monitoring

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed, Taihiret Alhashan


The application of acoustic emission techniques is gaining popularity, as it can monitor the condition of gears and bearings and detect early symptoms of a defect in the form of pitting, wear, and flaking of surfaces. Early detection of these defects is essential as it helps to avoid major failures and the associated catastrophic consequences. Signal processing techniques are required for early defect detection – in this article, a time domain technique called the Energy Index (EI) is used. This article presents an investigation into the Energy Index’s effectiveness to detect early-stage defect initiation and deterioration, and compares it with the common r.m.s. index, Kurtosis, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. It is concluded that EI is a more effective technique for monitoring defect initiation and development than other statistical parameters.

Keywords: Signal Processing, kurtosis, acoustic emission, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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10 Quantitative Comparisons of Different Approaches for Rotor Identification

Authors: Elizabeth M. Annoni, Elena G. Tolkacheva


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia that is a known prognostic marker for stroke, heart failure and death. Reentrant mechanisms of rotor formation, which are stable electrical sources of cardiac excitation, are believed to cause AF. No existing commercial mapping systems have been demonstrated to consistently and accurately predict rotor locations outside of the pulmonary veins in patients with persistent AF. There is a clear need for robust spatio-temporal techniques that can consistently identify rotors using unique characteristics of the electrical recordings at the pivot point that can be applied to clinical intracardiac mapping. Recently, we have developed four new signal analysis approaches – Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), multi-scale frequency (MSF), and multi-scale entropy (MSE) – to identify the pivot points of rotors. These proposed techniques utilize different cardiac signal characteristics (other than local activation) to uncover the intrinsic complexity of the electrical activity in the rotors, which are not taken into account in current mapping methods. We validated these techniques using high-resolution optical mapping experiments in which direct visualization and identification of rotors in ex-vivo Langendorff-perfused hearts were possible. Episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) were induced using burst pacing, and two examples of rotors were used showing 3-sec episodes of a single stationary rotor and figure-8 reentry with one rotor being stationary and one meandering. Movies were captured at a rate of 600 frames per second for 3 sec. with 64x64 pixel resolution. These optical mapping movies were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques with respect to the following clinical limitations: different time of recordings, different spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors. To quantitatively compare the results, SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques were compared to the “true” rotor(s) identified using the phase map. Accuracy was calculated for each approach as the duration of the time series and spatial resolution were reduced. The time series duration was decreased from its original length of 3 sec, down to 2, 1, and 0.5 sec. The spatial resolution of the original VT episodes was decreased from 64x64 pixels to 32x32, 16x16, and 8x8 pixels by uniformly removing pixels from the optical mapping video.. Our results demonstrate that Kt, MSF and MSE were able to accurately identify the pivot point of the rotor under all three clinical limitations. The MSE approach demonstrated the best overall performance, but Kt was the best in identifying the pivot point of the meandering rotor. Artifacts mildly affect the performance of Kt, MSF and MSE techniques, but had a strong negative impact of the performance of SE. The results of our study motivate further validation of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques using intra-atrial electrograms from paroxysmal and persistent AF patients to see if these approaches can identify pivot points in a clinical setting. More accurate rotor localization could significantly increase the efficacy of catheter ablation to treat AF, resulting in a higher success rate for single procedures.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Atrial Fibrillation, Optical Mapping, Rotors

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9 Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering

Authors: Hamza Nejib, Okba Taouali


This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Kernel methods, online prediction, KAF, RKHS, KRLS, KLMS

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8 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel


This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Process monitoring, acoustic emissions, particle sizing

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7 Intelligent Tooling Embedded Sensors for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Turning Applications

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Jon Stammers


In machining, monitoring of tool wear is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the cutting tool is carried out by the operator who performs manual inspections of the cutting tool, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from loss of productivity. The cutting tool consumable costs may also be higher than necessary when tools are changed before the end of their useful life. Furthermore, damage can be caused to the workpiece when tools are not changed soon enough leading to a significant increase in the costs of manufacturing. The present study is concerned with the development of break sensor printed on the flank surface of poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) cutting to perform on-line condition monitoring of the cutting tool used to machine Titanium Ti-6al-4v bar. The results clearly show that there is a strong correlation between the break sensor measurements and the amount of wear in the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they help the user/operator of the machine tool to determine the condition of the cutting tool without the need of performing manual inspection, thereby reducing the manufacturing costs such as the machine down time.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Manufacturing, Machining, Tool Wear

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6 Makhraj Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Zan Azma Nasruddin, Irwan Mazlin, Nor Aziah Daud, Fauziah Redzuan, Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak


This paper focuses on a machine learning that learn the correct pronunciation of Makhraj Huroofs. Usually, people need to find an expert to pronounce the Huroof accurately. In this study, the researchers have developed a system that is able to learn the selected Huroofs which are ha, tsa, zho, and dza using the Convolutional Neural Network. The researchers present the chosen type of the CNN architecture to make the system that is able to learn the data (Huroofs) as quick as possible and produces high accuracy during the prediction. The researchers have experimented the system to measure the accuracy and the cross entropy in the training process.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Speech Recognition, convolutional neural network, Makhraj recognition, tensorflow

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5 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Min Xu, Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong


This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Magnetic Sensing, vehicle classification, road traffic model

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4 Classification of ECG Signal Based on Mixture of Linear and Non-Linear Features

Authors: Mohammad Karimi Moridani, Mohammad Abdi Zadeh, Zahra Shahiazar Mazraeh


In recent years, the use of intelligent systems in biomedical engineering has increased dramatically, especially in the diagnosis of various diseases. Also, due to the relatively simple recording of the electrocardiogram signal (ECG), this signal is a good tool to show the function of the heart and diseases associated with it. The aim of this paper is to design an intelligent system for automatically detecting a normal electrocardiogram signal from abnormal one. Using this diagnostic system, it is possible to identify a person's heart condition in a very short time and with high accuracy. The data used in this article are from the Physionet database, available in 2016 for use by researchers to provide the best method for detecting normal signals from abnormalities. Data is of both genders and the data recording time varies between several seconds to several minutes. All data is also labeled normal or abnormal. Due to the low positional accuracy and ECG signal time limit and the similarity of the signal in some diseases with the normal signal, the heart rate variability (HRV) signal was used. Measuring and analyzing the heart rate variability with time to evaluate the activity of the heart and differentiating different types of heart failure from one another is of interest to the experts. In the preprocessing stage, after noise cancelation by the adaptive Kalman filter and extracting the R wave by the Pan and Tampkinz algorithm, R-R intervals were extracted and the HRV signal was generated. In the process of processing this paper, a new idea was presented that, in addition to using the statistical characteristics of the signal to create a return map and extraction of nonlinear characteristics of the HRV signal due to the nonlinear nature of the signal. Finally, the artificial neural networks widely used in the field of ECG signal processing as well as distinctive features were used to classify the normal signals from abnormal ones. To evaluate the efficiency of proposed classifiers in this paper, the area under curve ROC was used. The results of the simulation in the MATLAB environment showed that the AUC of the MLP and SVM neural network was 0.893 and 0.947, respectively. As well as, the results of the proposed algorithm in this paper indicated that the more use of nonlinear characteristics in normal signal classification of the patient showed better performance. Today, research is aimed at quantitatively analyzing the linear and non-linear or descriptive and random nature of the heart rate variability signal, because it has been shown that the amount of these properties can be used to indicate the health status of the individual's heart. The study of nonlinear behavior and dynamics of the heart's neural control system in the short and long-term provides new information on how the cardiovascular system functions, and has led to the development of research in this field. Given that the ECG signal contains important information and is one of the common tools used by physicians to diagnose heart disease, but due to the limited accuracy of time and the fact that some information about this signal is hidden from the viewpoint of physicians, the design of the intelligent system proposed in this paper can help physicians with greater speed and accuracy in the diagnosis of normal and patient individuals and can be used as a complementary system in the treatment centers.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Classification Methods, ROC curve, neart rate variability, linear and non-linear features

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3 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: Signal Processing, array, spatial resolution, antenna pattern

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2 From Electroencephalogram to Epileptic Seizures Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gaetano Zazzaro, Angelo Martone, Roberto V. Montaquila, Luigi Pavone


Seizure is the main factor that affects the quality of life of epileptic patients. The diagnosis of epilepsy, and hence the identification of epileptogenic zone, is commonly made by using continuous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal monitoring. Seizure identification on EEG signals is made manually by epileptologists and this process is usually very long and error prone. The aim of this paper is to describe an automated method able to detect seizures in EEG signals, using knowledge discovery in database process and data mining methods and algorithms, which can support physicians during the seizure detection process. Our detection method is based on Artificial Neural Network classifier, trained by applying the multilayer perceptron algorithm, and by using a software application, called Training Builder that has been developed for the massive extraction of features from EEG signals. This tool is able to cover all the data preparation steps ranging from signal processing to data analysis techniques, including the sliding window paradigm, the dimensionality reduction algorithms, information theory, and feature selection measures. The final model shows excellent performances, reaching an accuracy of over 99% during tests on data of a single patient retrieved from a publicly available EEG dataset.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Data Mining, Epilepsy, Feature Extraction, Artificial Neural Network, electroencephalogram, seizure detection

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1 Authentication Based on Hand Movement by Low Dimensional Space Representation

Authors: Reut Lanyado, David Mendlovic


Most biological methods for authentication require special equipment and, some of them are easy to fake. We proposed a method for authentication based on hand movement while typing a sentence with a regular camera. This technique uses the full video of the hand, which is harder to fake. In the first phase, we tracked the hand joints in each frame. Next, we represented a single frame for each individual using our Pose Agnostic Rotation and Movement (PARM) dimensional space. Then, we indicated a full video of hand movement in a fixed low dimensional space using this method: Fixed Dimension Video by Interpolation Statistics (FDVIS). Finally, we identified each individual in the FDVIS representation using unsupervised clustering and supervised methods. Accuracy exceeds 96% for 80 individuals by using supervised KNN.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Security, Authentication, Feature Extraction, hand recognition

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