Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Shipping Related Abstracts

4 Development of Database for Risk Assessment Appling to Ballast Water Managements

Authors: Eun-Chan Kim, Jeong-Hwan Oh, Seung-Guk Lee


Billions of tones of ballast water including various aquatic organisms are being carried around the world by ships. When the ballast water is discharged into new environments, some aquatic organisms discharged with ballast water may become invasive and severely disrupt the native ecology. Thus, International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Management Convention in 2004. Regulation A-4 of the convention states that a government in waters under their jurisdiction may grant exemptions to any requirements to ballast water management, but only when they are granted to a ship or ships on a voyage or voyages between specified ports or locations, or to a ship which operates exclusively between specified ports or locations. In order to grant exemptions, risk assessment should be conducted based on the guidelines for risk assessment developed by the IMO. For the risk assessment, it is essential to collect the relevant information and establish a database system. This paper studies the database system for ballast water risk assessment. This database consists of the shipping database, ballast water database, port environment database and species database. The shipping database has been established based on the data collected from the port management information system of Korea Government. For the ballast water database, ballast water discharge has only been estimated by the loading/unloading of the cargoes as the convention has not come into effect yet. The port environment database and species database are being established based on the reference documents, and existing and newly collected monitoring data. This database system has been approved to be a useful system, capable of appropriately analyzing the risk assessment in the all ports of Korea.

Keywords: Environment, Risk Assessment, Shipping, Species, ballast water, IMO

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3 Profile of Cortisol in Bali's Crossbreed Cows for 120 Hours Shipping Using Traditional Vessel

Authors: Pudji Astuti, Hindar Panguji, Nichlah Rifqiyah, Irkham Widiono


Many transportations of livestock in Indonesia is still managed traditionally. Transportation involves several things that may cause stress, from a certain treatment or other factors, either externally or internally, that act as stressors. This study aimed to determine the profile of cortisol and IL-6 in female Bali breeding cattle transported for 120 hours using 100 GT traditional vessels with two floors and a capacity of 300-400 heads. Before transportation, all of the animals have got the vaccination. Blood samples from thirty cows were taken before transportation, during loading, during docking, and after transportation. ELISA method was used to analyze the concentration of cortisol and IL6. The averages of cortisol concentration before transportation, during loading, docking, and after transportation were 78.21±27.96 ng/mL, 90.78±30.91 ng/mL, 69.90±53.92 ng/mL and 69.34±32.03 ng/mL respectively. The average concentration of IL-6 before, during, docking and after transportation were 259.86±70.16 pg/mL, 315.41±64.21 pg/mL, 410.13±247.43 pg/mL dan 424.81±98.86 pg/mL. It was concluded there were no differences in cortisol concentrations and level of IL6 of each cow at different stages of transportation (p > 0.05) It would be possible that vaccination could reduce the fluctuation of cortisol.

Keywords: Shipping, cortisol, vessel, Bali's breed cows, IL6

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2 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa


The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: Management, Inventory, Shipping, virtual container yard, imbalance

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1 Mathematical Model to Operationalize the Virtual Container

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Hansa Edirisinghe, Zhiong Jin


The container inventory imbalance has a direct impact to shipping lines, but it is inevitable due to nature of shipping business. This adds a substantial cost on sea transportation. If the transport cost is brought down the price of goods and services are expected to reduce. This would help a country to bring down its inflation. Similarly, the country’s exports will be more competitive in the global market due to lower transport cost. These factors would have direct impact on the welfare of the economy. Federal maritime commission in the USA has raised its concern because of the trade and weight imbalance, transpacific carriers need to return substantial numbers of empty containers back to Asia. In order to strike a balance between inward flow and outward flow of container fleet at a specific location container shipping lines are compelled to transport the empty containers at their cost. Due to the nature of liner shipping industry the supply and demand is very difficult to match. This similar imbalance problem was evident in the ship space (slots in a container ship) as ships got bigger and bigger focusing on scale of economies of ships. As a result, they found space sharing of vessels is economical and they formed strategic alliances to enhance performance and sustain the highly competitive liner shipping market. Now there are several shipping alliances in which they share ship space and this system works very fine. However, container liner carriers still manage their container inventory independently. The concept of virtual container yard is formulated through collaboration among shipping lines. It provides flexibility to shipping lines to exchange empty containers among between them thus to reduce the repositioning costs of empty containers. Nevertheless, the initialising of collaboration among liner carriers is challenging because, in realty, it reflects a partnership between oligopoly competitors. Many initiatives has taken place in this regard as to find the variables that affect container demand and supply; to identify the factors that influence current container inventory management strategies; to understand the industry perception with respect to container exchange; to identify the variables that influence container exchange between carriers and finally to develop a model for the proposed virtual container yard Generally, the goal of a liner carrier is the maximization of its own profit (or minimization of its individual cost). In this model, the researchers aim to determine the number of empty containers at a specific period delivered from a liner carrier of surplus port to another liner carrier in a deficit port to obtain an optimization solution of empty container allocation for both liner carriers. Specific mathematical notations were defined in order to facilitate description and formulation of the problem using dynamic model about period (week). It aims to minimize the cost to find the optimal empty containers exchange solution. The growing imbalance of container inventory globally creates a substantial cost and environmental issues. Therefore, the proposed mathematical solution may help find a solution to this paradox.

Keywords: Inventory, Shipping, virtual container yard, collaboation

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