Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Sheep Related Abstracts

20 Effects of Breed and Number of Embryos Transferred on the Efficacy of MOET in Sheep

Authors: Ayman A. Swelum, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Mohamed A. Abouheif

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sheep breed and the number of embryos transferred on the success of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET). Sixteen Najdi and Naeimi ewes were used as donors. Multiple ovulation was achieved using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Thirty-five recipient ewes were divided into four groups: Najdi or Naeimi ewes that received either one or two embryos. After lambing, the gestation length, litter size, and sex of the lambs were recorded. The rates of pregnancy, lambing, and embryo survival were lower in the recipient Najdi than Naeimi ewes when two embryos were transferred. In contrast, the Naeimi ewes that received one embryo had a significantly lower embryo transfer success. In conclusion, the response of ewes to multiple ovulation stimulation using eCG was significantly high in Naeimi ewes (9.8±1.17). Moreover, transferring one embryo resulted in a significantly high pregnancy rate in the Najdi sheep (60%).

Keywords: Embryo Transfer, Sheep, multiple ovulation, Najdi, Naeimi

Procedia PDF Downloads 599
19 Association of Ovine Lymphocyte Antigen (OLA) with the Parasitic Infestation in Kashmiri Sheep Breeds

Authors: S. Bilal, Muneeb U. Rehman, Sabhiya Majid, Ishraq Hussain, S. A. Bhat, Ahmad Arif, Manzoor R Mir, H. M Khan, S. Shanaz, M. I Mir

Abstract:

Background: Geologically Climatic conditions of the state range from sub-tropical (Jammu), temperate (Kashmir) to cold artic (Ladakh) zones, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide. Materials and Methods: The present study was to evaluate the resistance status of sheep breeds reared in Kashmir Valley for natural resistance against Haemonchus contortus by natural pasture challenge infection. Ten microsatellite markers were used in the study for evaluation of association of Ovar-MHC with parasitic resistance in association with biochemical and parasitological parameters. Following deworming, 500 animals were subjected to selected contaminated pastures in a vicinity of the livestock farms of SKUAST-K and Sheep Husbandry Kashmir. For each animal about 10-15 ml blood was collected aseptically for molecular and biochemical analysis. Weekly fecal samples (3g) were taken, directly from the rectum of all experimental animals and examined for Fecal egg count (FEC) with modified McMaster technique. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined within 2-5 h of blood collection, all the biochemical parameters were determined in serum by semi automated analyzer. DNA was extracted from all the blood samples with phenol-chloroform method. Microsatellite analysis was done by denaturing sequencing gel electrophoresis Results: Overall sheep from Bakerwal breed followed by Corriediale breed performed relatively better in the trial; however difference between breeds remained low. Both significant (P<0.05) and non-significant differences with respect to resistance against haemonchosis were noted at different intervals in all the parameters.. All the animals were typed for the microsatellites INRA132, OarCP73, DRB1 (U0022), OLA-DQA2, BM1818, TFAP2A, HH56, BM1815, IL-3 and BM-1258. An association study including the effect of FEC, PCV, TSP, SA, LW, and the number of alleles within each marker was done. All microsatellite markers showed degree of heterozygosity of 0.72, 0.72, 0.75, 0.62, 0.84, 0.69, 0.66, 0.65, 0.73 and 0.68 respectively. Significant association between alleles and the parameters measured were only found for the OarCP73, OLA-DQA2 and BM1815 microsatellite marker. Standard alleles of the above markers showed significant effect on the TP, SA and body weight. The three sheep breeds included in the study responded differently to the nematode infection, which may be attributed to their differences in their natural resistance against nematodes. Conclusion: Our data confirms that some markers (OarCP73, OLA-DQA2 and BM1815) within Ovar-MHC are associated with phenotypic parameters of resistance and suggest superiority of Bakerwal sheep breed in natural resistance against Haemonchus contortus.

Keywords: Sheep, Ovar-Mhc, ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA), parasitic resistance, Haemonchus contortus, phenotypic & genotypic markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 558
18 Effectiveness of Selected Anthementics on Nematode Parasites of Sheep in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, N. Basha, I. V. Nsahlai

Abstract:

This study determined the effectiveness of selected anthementics (Ivermectin 1% (IVM), Closantel 7.5% (CST) and a combination Abamectin 0.08% and Praziquantel 1.5% (CAP) currently being used in SA. Gender, initial egg per gram (EPG) and initial live weight aided in blocking animals into groups, each group was randomly treated with one of four drug treatments comprising: the untreated control (D0), IVM, CST, and CAP. Animals grazed throughout on infested pasture. Rectal faeces were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for determining EPG. Faeces were mixed per group and incubated to identify and determine the abundance of larval forms of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus, and Cooperia species. Differences between treatments changed over time. On day7 IVM, CST, and CAP depressed EPG to 0.66, 0.37 and 0.80 of their respective starting values whilst EPG increased 1.39 times for D0. Thereafter, EPG increased consistently for all drugs; CST recorded the lowest values. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus and Coperia species contributed respectively 60%, 30%, 6%, 3%, and 1% of the larval forms on day 0; and 78%, 8%, 11%, 1%, 2% on day 21. Larval forms increased for Haemonchus species but decreased for Trichostrongylus species over time. Closantel was the most effective dewormer. Haemonchus Spp. were least affected whilst Trichostrongylus Spp. were the most affect by all drugs.

Keywords: Sheep, anthementics, faecal egg count, L3 larvae

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
17 Haemobiogram after Intramuscular Administration of Amoxicillin to Sheep

Authors: Amer Elgerwi, Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub, Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

Abstract:

There are many bacterial infections affecting sheep that necessitates antibiotic intervention. Amoxicillin is among commonly used antibiotics in such case for its broad spectrum of activity. However, the side alterations in blood and organ function that may be associated during or after treatment are questionable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the possible alterations in blood parameters and organ function bio markers of sheep that may occur following intramuscular injection of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin has been administered intramuscularly to 10 sheep at a dosage regimen of 7 mg/kg of body weight for 5 successive days. Two types of blood samples (with and without anticoagulant) were collected from the jugular vein pre- and post-administration of the drug. Amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.001) increased total leukocyte count and (P < 0.05) absolute eosinophilic count when compared with those of the control samples. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding control values. In addition, amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but decreased phosphorus level when compared with those of prior-administration samples. These data may indicate that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments.

Keywords: Sheep, amoxicillin, biogram, haemogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
16 Identification of Anaplasma Species in Sheep of Khouzestan Province by PCR

Authors: Ali Bagherpour, Masoud Soltanialvar

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determinate the variety of Anaplasma species among sheep of khouzestan province, Iran. From April 2013 to June 2013, a total of 200 blood samples were collected via the jugular vein from healthy sheep (100), randomly. The extracted DNA from blood cells were amplified by Anaplasma-all primers, which amplify an approximately 1468bp DNA fragment from region of 16S rRNA gene from various members of the genus Anaplasma. For raising the test sensivity, the PCR products were amplified with the primers, which were designed from the region flanked by the first primers. The amplified nested PCR product had an expected PCR product with 345 nucleotides in length. In 100 sheep blood samples, 7 samples were Anaplasma spp. positive by first PCR and nested PCR. The results showed that 2 of total 100 blood samples (2%) were A.phagocytophilum positive by specific nested PCR based on 16S rRNA gene. The extracted DNA from positive Anaplasma spp. samples were amplified by Anaplasma ovis specific primers, which amplify an approximately 866bp DNA fragment from region of msp4 gene. 5 out of 100 sheep blood samples (5%) were positive for Anaplasma ovis. This study is the first molecular detection of A. ovis and A.phagocytophilum from sheep in Iran.

Keywords: Sheep, Iran, PCR, Anaplasma species, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
15 Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in White Boni Sheep under the Central Highlands Region of Yemen

Authors: Abed Al-Bial, S. Alazazie, A. Shami

Abstract:

The data were collected from 1992 to 2009 of White Boni sheep maintained at the Regional Research Station in the Central Highlands of Yemen. Data were analyzed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The least square means for body weights were 2.26±0.67, 11.14±0.46 and 19.21±1.25 kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (WM6), respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains (ADG1 and ADG2) were 106.04±4.98g and 46.21±8.36 g/ day. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight and weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in twin births at all stages of growth. The lambs in the dam’s second to fourth parities were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those in other parities. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.11-0.43). The phenotypic and genetic correlation among the different body weights were positive and high. The genetic correlations of the pre- and post-weaning average daily gains with body weights were hight to moderate, except BW with ADG2.

Keywords: genetics, Sheep, Heritability, breed, growth traits

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
14 Hematological Changes in the Hydatidosed Male Sheep after Experimental Inoculation of Echinococcus granulosus Eggs

Authors: M. Athar Khan, M. Younus, Muhammad Shafique, Tanveer Akhtar, M. Moeen Athar

Abstract:

A total of 48 apparently healthy weaned sheep lambs (Ovis aries) of 8-10 weeks old weighing 7-10 Kg were purchased from the contractors, maintained in the experimental station of University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus at Lahore, Pakistan. They were dewormed against nematodes with levamisole (ICI) at recommended dose rates. The feces were tested against the parasitic eggs, no helminths ova were seen. All the 48 sheep lambs were divided into two groups i.e. group A & group B. Group 'A' comprising of 40 sheep, kept as infected groups whereas group 'B' comprising of 08 sheep & kept as a new infected control group. Each sheep lamb of group A was given 3-4 fresh gravid segments contains 2-3 thousand eggs of Echinococcus granulosus. These were collected from experimentally infected dogs by feeding fresh hydrated cysts collected from liver & lungs of sheep after slaughtering. Each lamb was fed with fresh gravid segments for a total period of 5 days or each alternate day. Coagulated blood was collected before the start of infected diet and after every month by jugular phlebotomy of each sheep lamb from the infected & new infected control group. One lamb each from group A & group B was slaughtered at the end of each month for the presence of macroscopic hydatid cyst in viscera & abdominal cavity. After 180 days of the experiment, hydatid cysts were confirmed in the abdominal cavity. Hematological parameters of zero days & then at the end of every month revealed that there was a gradual increase (PL 0.05) in the White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR). The increasing trend was probably due to inflammatory response and lytic effect of the newly developing E. granulosus hydatid cysts. The red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) infected groups were decreased significantly as compared to the control group (PL 0.05). The experiment was terminated at the end of the 7th month. It can be concluded that Echinococcus granulosus can damage livestock and other intermediate hosts such as horses, the development of hydatid cysts affect the organs due to the growing cysts pressuring the organ tissues. Parts of the tissue die, which impairs the functioning of the affected organ. The clinical signs depend on the affected organ. The major damage for livestock is organ condemnation at slaughter.

Keywords: Hematology, Sheep, hydatidosis, Echinococcus granulosus

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
13 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar

Abstract:

Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Sheep, PCR, Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid cyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
12 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Ijaz Javed, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µg.hr/mL and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, Sheep, ciprofloxacin, dosage regimen

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
11 Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Mudassar Mohiuddin

Abstract:

Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.

Keywords: Sheep, Goats, multiplex PCR, beta 2 toxin gene, clostridium perfringens, enteric diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
10 Effects of Adding Condensed Tannin from Shrub and Tree Leaves in Concentrate on Sheep Production Fed on Elephant Grass as a Basal Diet

Authors: Kusmartono, Siti Chuzaemi, Hartutik dan Mashudi

Abstract:

Two studies were conducted involving an in vitro (Expt 1) and in vivo (Expt 2) measurements. Expt 1. aimed to evaluate effects of adding CT extracts on gas production and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), Expt 2 aimed to evaluate effects of supplementing shrub/tree leaves as CT source on feed consumption, digestibility, N retention, body weight gain and dressing percentage of growing sheep fed on elephant grass (EG) as a basal diet.Ten shrub and tree leaves used as CT sources were wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), mulberry (Morus macroura), cassava (Manihot utilissima), avicienna (Avicennia marina), calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora), acacia (acacia vilosa), glyricidia (Glyricidia sepium), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), moringa (Moringa oleifera). The treatments applied in Expt 1 were: T1=Elephant grass (60%)+concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + CT (3% DM); T3= T2 + PEG; T4 = T1 + CT (3.5% DM); T5 = T4 + PEG; T6 = T1 + CT (4% DM) and T7 = T6 + PEG. Data obtained were analysed using Randomized Block Design. Statistical analyses showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) total gas production and EMPS. The lowest values of total gas production (45.9 ml/500 mg DM) and highest value of EMPS (64.6 g/kg BOTR) were observed in the treatment T4 (3.5% CT from cassava leave extract). Based on this result it was concluded that this treatment was the best and was chosen for further investigation using in vivo method. The treatmets applied for in vivo trial were: T1 = EG (60%) + concentrate (40%); T2 = T1 + dried cassava leave (equivalent to 3.5% CT); T3 = T2 + PEG. 18 growing sheep aging of 8-9 months and weighing of 23.67kg ± 1.23 were used in Expt 2. Results of in vivo study showed that treatments significanty affected (P<0.05) nutrients intake and digestibility (DM, OM and CP). N retention for sheep receiving treatment T2 were significantly higher (P<0.05; 15.6 g/d) than T1 (9.1 g/d) and T3 (8.53 g/d). Similar results were obtained for daily weight gain where T2 were the highest (62.79 g/d), followed by T1 (51.9 g/d) and T3 (52.85 g/d). Dressing percentage of T2 was the highest (51.54%) followed by T1 (49.61%) and T3 (49.32%). It can be concluded that adding adding dried cassava leaves did not reduce palatability due to CT, but rather increased OM digestibility and hence feed consumption was improved. N retention was increased due to the action of CT in the cassava leaves and this may have explained a higher input of N into duodenum which was further led to higer daily weight gain and dressing percentage.

Keywords: Sheep, in vitro gas production, shrub and tree leaves, condensed tannin

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
9 Acute Phase Proteins, Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sheep with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

Authors: Wael M. El-Deeb

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the pathophysiological importance of lipid profile, acute phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 36 Pasteurellamultocida-infected sheep, together with 20 healthy controls. Samples for bacteriological examination (nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage) were collected from all animals and subjected to bacteriological examinations. Moreover, heart blood and lung samples were collected from the dead pneumonic sheep and subjected also to bacteriological examinations. A lipid profile was determined, along with a blood picture and other biochemical parameters. The acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A), the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), interferon-gamma and the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were also measured. The examined biochemical parameters were increased in the pneumonic sheep, except for cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which were significantly lower than control group. Acute phase proteins and cytokines were significantly higher in the pneumonic sheep when compared to the healthy sheep. There was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde; however, a significant decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase was observed. The present study shed the light on the possible pathphysiological role of lipid profile, acute phase proteins (APPs), proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in pneumonic pasteurelosis in sheep.

Keywords: stress, Sheep, Interleukins, acute phase proteins, pasteurella

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
8 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta

Abstract:

Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Pakistan, Sheep, Trace Elements, Prevalence, coprological examination, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Sialkot

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
7 Monitoring Vaginal Electrical Resistance, Follicular Wave and Hormonal Profile during Estrus Cycle in Indigenous Sheep

Authors: M. N. Islam, T. A. Rosy, M. R. I. Talukdar, N. S. Juyena, F. Y. Bari

Abstract:

The ovarian follicular dynamics, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) and progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) profiles were investigated during estrus cycle in four indigenous ewes. Daily VER values were recorded with heat detector. The follicles were observed and measured by trans-rectal ultrasonography. Blood was collected daily for hormonal profiles. Results showed a significant variation in VER values (P<0.05) at estrus in regards to ewes and cycles. The day difference between two successive lower values in VER waves ranged from 13-17 days which might indicate the estrus cycle in indigenous ewes. Trans-rectal ultrasonography of ovaries revealed the presence of two to four waves of follicular growth during the study period. Results also showed that follicular diameter was negatively correlated with VER values. Study of hormonal profiles by ELISA revealed a positive correlation between E2 concentration and development of follicle and negative correlation between P4 concentration and development of follicle. The concentrations of estradiol increased at the time of estrus and then fall down in a basal level. Development of follicular size was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of serum estradiol. Inversely, when follicles heed to ovulation concentration of progesterone starts to fall down and after ovulation it turns its way to the zenith and remains at this state until next ovulatory follicle comes to its maximum diameter. This study could help scientists to set up a manipulative reproductive technique for improving genetic values of sheep in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Sheep, ovarian follicle, hormonal profile, vaginal electrical resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
6 Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Their Association with Trace Element Contents in Sera of Sheep, Grazing Forages and Soils of Sialkot District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad S. Sajid, Hafiz M. Rizwan

Abstract:

Gastro-intestinal (GI) helminths infection in sheep causes a substantial loss in terms of productivity and constitutes serious economic losses in the world. Different types of forages are rich in trace element contents and may act as a natural resource to improve the trace element deficiencies leading to immunity boost-up in general and against gastrointestinal parasitic infections in particular. In the present study, the level of trace elements (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) determined in sera of different breeds of sheep, available feedstuffs, respective soil samples and their association with GI helminths in Sialkot district, Punjab, Pakistan. Almost similar prevalence of GI helminths was recorded (32.81%) during spring 2015 and (32.55%) during autumn 2014. The parasitic species identified from the microscopically scanned faecal samples of district Sialkot were Fasciola (F.) hepatica, F. gigantica, Haemonchus contortus, Eimeria crandallis, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris ovis, Strongyles sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. Among variables like age, sex, and breed, only sex was found significant in district Sialkot. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentration of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co was recorded in collected forages species. Soils of grazing field showed insignificant (P > 0.05) variation among soils of different tehsils of Sialkot district. Statistically, sera of sheep showed no variation (P > 0.05) during autumn 2014, While, variation (P < 0.05) among different tehsils of Sialkot district during spring 2015 except Co. During autumn 2014 the mean concentration of Cu, Zn, and Co in sera was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep while during spring 2015 only Zn was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep. The trace element-rich forages preferably Zn were effective ones against helminths infection. The trace element-rich forages will be recommended for their utilization as an alternate to improve the trace element deficiencies in sheep which ultimately boost up the immunity against gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

Keywords: Sheep, Trace Elements, Prevalence, coprological examination, Gastro-intestinal parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5 Lamb Fleece Quality as an Indicator of Endoparasitism

Authors: Tâmara Duarte Borges, Maria Christine Rizzon Cintra, Cristina Santos Sotomaior

Abstract:

Lamb’s fleece quality can be influenced by many factors, including welfare, stress, nutritional imbalance and presence of ectoparasites. The association of fleece quality and endoparasitism, until now, was not well solved. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if a fleece visual score could predict lamb parasitosis with the focus on gastrointestinal parasites. Fleece quality was scored based on a combination of cleanliness and wool cover, using a three-point scale (1-3). Score 1: fleece shows no sign of dirt or contamination, and had sufficient fleece for the breed and time of year with whole body coverage; Score 2: fleece was little damp or wet, with coat contaminated by small patches of mud or dung and some areas of fleece loose, but no shed or bald patches of no more than 10cm in diameter; Score 3: fleece filthy, very wet with coated in mud or dug, and loose fleece with shed areas of pulls with bald patches greater than 10cm, some areas may be trailing. All fleece quality scores (FQS) were assessed with lamb restrained to ensure close inspection and were done along lamb back and considered just one side of the body. To confirm the gastrointestinal parasites and animal’s anemia, faecal egg counts (FEC) and hematocrit were done for each animal. Lambs were also weighed. All these measurements were done every 15-days, beginning at 60-days until 150-days of life, using 48 animals crossed Texel x Ile de France. For statistics analysis, it was used Stratigraphic Program (4.1. version), and all significant differences between FQS, weight gain, age, hematocrit, and FEC were assessed using analysis of variance following by Duncan test, and the correlation was done by Pearson test at P<0.05. Results showed that animals scored as ‘3’ in FQS had a lower hematocrit and a higher FEC (p<0.05) than animals scored as ‘1’ (hematocrit: 26, 24, 23 and FEC 2107, 2962, 4626 respectively for 1, 2 and 3 FQS). There were correlations between FQS and FEC (r = 0.16), FQS and hematocrit (r = -0.33) an FQS and weight gain (r = -0.20) indicating that worst FQS animals (score 3) had greater gastrointestinal parasites’ infection, were more anemic and had lower weight gain than animals scored as ‘1’ or ‘2’ for FQS. Concerning the lamb´s age, animals that received score ‘3’ in FQS, maintained gastrointestinal parasites’ infection over the time (P<0.05). It was concluded that FQS could be an important indicator to be included in the selective treatment for control verminosis in lambs.

Keywords: welfare, Sheep, Gastrointestinal Parasites, fleece

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
4 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde

Abstract:

Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: Sheep, Kidney, slaughterhouse, amyloidosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3 Comparison of Small Ruminants (Sheep) Production Efficiency of Nomadic and Transhumance Flocks in Malakand, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Ghaffar, Akbar Nawaz Khan, Muhammad Naeem Riaz, Abdur Rehman, Sayed Muhammad Hassan Andrabi

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to compare sheep rearing in nomadic with transhumance system in term of production parameters. The following parameters which studied for comparison were household size, landholding area, flock size, body condition score, fecal egg count and live weight change in sheep under nomadic and transhumance systems of management in Malakand since October 2010 to March 2011. Further the effects of Body Condition Score (BCS) and Fecal Egg Count (FEC) on production were also examined. Two systems were checked for the purpose to check the efficiency of production. A total of eight flocks, four each from nomadic and transhumance system were selected for the study; each flock was divided into treatment and controlled groups to check the effect of treatment or de-wormers. A total of 160 animals were selected randomly (80 treated, 80 controlled). The adult ram average weight transhumance system was 55.58 kg while in nomadic that was 54.16 kg, weight change was positive, and the highest change was recorded in transhumance treated which was 13%. Fecal egg count was record low (75 EPG) in transhumance treated group while high (330 EPG) in nomadic controlled. Body condition score was recorded 3.6 for transhumance treated and 3.32 for nomadic treated. It is concluded from the present study that transhumance system performed significantly (p < 0.05) better in respect of live weight, BCS, FEC, family size, Landholding area, number of animals in a flock, offspring record, culling, and mortality. Mean values are 7.367 ± 0221, 0.900 ± 0.071, 63.167 ± 1.559, 55.600 ± 1.480, 8.300 ± 0.321 and 2.500 ± 0.158 respectively. De-wormer effect on FEC showed a significant reduction in egg load in mature sheep on both systems.

Keywords: Sheep, production efficiency, small ruminant, nomadic, transhumance, Malakand

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2 Serological Evidence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Sheep and Goat Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad, Robert Barigye, Hamda Al Alawi, Afra Al Dhaheri, Fatma Graiban Al Muhairi, Maryam Al Khateri, Nouf Al Alalawi, Susan Olet, Ahmad Al Aiyan

Abstract:

A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies with the Brucella antibodies being further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens is variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence rates for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96-53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54-0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p > 0.0500). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE where coxiellosis is apparently the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive than those, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to Chlamydophila spp, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously insinuated that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data suggest C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii to be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. Despite this possibility, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a potentially zoonotic risk that needs to be investigated in risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data thereof will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.

Keywords: Goat, Sheep, UAE, Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella spp, Chlamydophila abortus

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1 Effects of Some Factors Affecting Optimum Reproductive Capacity of Local Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria

Authors: I. S. R. Butswat, D. Zahraddeen, N. M. Lemu, P. P. Barje

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting the optimum reproductive capacity of the indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria. A total of 767 sheep of different breeds were investigated. The reproductive indices considered were birth/weaning weights, litter size, parity, mortality, reproductive problems/disorders, body condition score (BCS), as well as growth traits. The results showed that litter size, parity, and BCS had significant (p < 0.05) effects on birth/weaning weights, mortality rates and growth traits of the sheep breeds studied. Similarly, the rearing method/system significantly (p < 0.05) influenced other reproductive traits such as birth/weaning weights, mortality, growth performance of lambs. However, the major reproductive problems/disorders in the ewes were dystocia (30.94%), retained placenta (16.91%), mastitis (15.83), pregnancy toxaemia (11.51%), uterine prolapse (6.48%) and vaginal prolapse (3.24%). In the rams, the incidence of reproductive problems included cryptorchidism (1.08%), orchitis (2.87%) and scrotal dermatophilosis (1.79%), among others. This study concludes that the four breeds of sheep (Balami, Yankasa, Uda, and West African Dwarf sheep) and their crosses exhibited varied genetic make-up and potentials. However, the large number of sheep farmers practicing the extensive production system might be responsible for the low reproductive performance of this species in the country. It is, therefore, recommended that significant improvement could be achieved through enhanced management practices of these animals.

Keywords: Disorders, Reproduction, Sheep, breeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 10