Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

shear wall Related Abstracts

8 Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes

Authors: T. A. Sakr, Hanaa E. Abd-El-Mottaleb


Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significant to the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasis was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are sigbificantly enhanced while lesser drift improvements are observed.

Keywords: Earthquake, Nonlinear, outrigger, shear wall

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7 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal


The composite shear walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: composite shear wall, shear wall, boundary reinforcement, earthquake resistant structural design, L section

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6 Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections

Authors: Musa H. Arslan


Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.

Keywords: Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Damage, shear wall, frame, anchor dowel

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5 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Vinay Chandwani, Ravindra Nagar, Suyash Garg


Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, shear wall, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, stiffness irregularity, floating column

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4 Seismic Assessment of Flat Slab and Conventional Slab System for Irregular Building Equipped with Shear Wall

Authors: Ririt Aprilin Sumarsono, Muhammad Aji Fajari


Particular instability of structural building under lateral load (e.g earthquake) will rise due to irregularity in vertical and horizontal direction as stated in SNI 03-1762-2012. The conventional slab has been considered for its less contribution in increasing the stability of the structure, except special slab system such as flat slab turned into account. In this paper, the analysis of flat slab system at Sequis Tower located in South Jakarta will be assessed its performance under earthquake. It consists of 6 floors of the basement where the flat slab system is applied. The flat slab system will be the main focus in this paper to be compared for its performance with conventional slab system under earthquake. Regarding the floor plan of Sequis Tower basement, re-entrant corner signed for this building is 43.21% which exceeded the allowable re-entrant corner is 15% as stated in ASCE 7-05 Based on that, the horizontal irregularity will be another concern for analysis, otherwise vertical irregularity does not exist for this building. Flat slab system is a system where the slabs use drop panel with shear head as their support instead of using beams. Major advantages of flat slab application are decreasing dead load of structure, removing beams so that the clear height can be maximized, and providing lateral resistance due to lateral load. Whilst, deflection at middle strip and punching shear are problems to be detail considered. Torsion usually appears when the structural member under flexure such as beam or column dimension is improper in ratio. Considering flat slab as alternative slab system will keep the collapse due to torsion down. Common seismic load resisting system applied in the building is a shear wall. Installation of shear wall will keep the structural system stronger and stiffer affecting in reduced displacement under earthquake. Eccentricity of shear wall location of this building resolved the instability due to horizontal irregularity so that the earthquake load can be absorbed. Performing linear dynamic analysis such as response spectrum and time history analysis due to earthquake load is suitable as the irregularity arise so that the performance of structure can be significantly observed. Utilization of response spectrum data for South Jakarta which PGA 0.389g is basic for the earthquake load idealization to be involved in several load combinations stated on SNI 03-1726-2012. The analysis will result in some basic seismic parameters such as period, displacement, and base shear of the system; besides the internal forces of the critical member will be presented. Predicted period of a structure under earthquake load is 0.45 second, but as different slab system applied in the analysis then the period will show a different value. Flat slab system will probably result in better performance for the displacement parameter compare to conventional slab system due to higher contribution of stiffness to the whole system of the building. In line with displacement, the deflection of the slab will result smaller for flat slab than a conventional slab. Henceforth, shear wall will be effective to strengthen the conventional slab system than flat slab system.

Keywords: response spectrum, flat slab, shear wall, conventional slab, horizontal irregularity

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3 Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls

Authors: Gokhan Dok, Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir


The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.

Keywords: Numerical, Reinforced Concrete, shear wall, moment-curvature

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2 A Damage-Plasticity Concrete Model for Damage Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Thanh N. Do


This paper addresses the modeling of two critical behaviors of concrete material in reinforced concrete components: (1) the increase in strength and ductility due to confining stresses from surrounding transverse steel reinforcements, and (2) the progressive deterioration in strength and stiffness due to high strain and/or cyclic loading. To improve the state-of-the-art, the author presents a new 3D constitutive model of concrete material based on plasticity and continuum damage mechanics theory to simulate both the confinement effect and the strength deterioration in reinforced concrete components. The model defines a yield function of the stress invariants and a compressive damage threshold based on the level of confining stresses to automatically capture the increase in strength and ductility when subjected to high compressive stresses. The model introduces two damage variables to describe the strength and stiffness deterioration under tensile and compressive stress states. The damage formulation characterizes well the degrading behavior of concrete material, including the nonsymmetric strength softening in tension and compression, as well as the progressive strength and stiffness degradation under primary and follower load cycles. The proposed damage model is implemented in a general purpose finite element analysis program allowing an extensive set of numerical simulations to assess its ability to capture the confinement effect and the degradation of the load-carrying capacity and stiffness of structural elements. It is validated against a collection of experimental data of the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete columns and shear walls under different load histories. These correlation studies demonstrate the ability of the model to describe vastly different hysteretic behaviors with a relatively consistent set of parameters. The model shows excellent consistency in response determination with very good accuracy. Its numerical robustness and computational efficiency are also very good and will be further assessed with large-scale simulations of structural systems.

Keywords: Concrete, confinement, shear wall, damage-plasticity

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1 Performance of Reinforced Concrete Wall with Opening Using Analytical Model

Authors: Alaa Morsy, Youssef Ibrahim


Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic events, which makes enormous harm to properties and human lives. As a piece of a safe building configuration, reinforced concrete walls are given in structures to decrease horizontal displacements under seismic load. Shear walls are additionally used to oppose the horizontal loads that might be incited by the impact of wind. Reinforced concrete walls in residential buildings might have openings that are required for windows in outside walls or for doors in inside walls or different states of openings due to architectural purposes. The size, position, and area of openings may fluctuate from an engineering perspective. Shear walls can encounter harm around corners of entryways and windows because of advancement of stress concentration under the impact of vertical or horizontal loads. The openings cause a diminishing in shear wall capacity. It might have an unfavorable impact on the stiffness of reinforced concrete wall and on the seismic reaction of structures. Finite Element Method using software package ‘ANSYS ver. 12’ becomes an essential approach in analyzing civil engineering problems numerically. Now we can make various models with different parameters in short time by using ANSYS instead of doing it experimentally, which consumes a lot of time and money. Finite element modeling approach has been conducted to study the effect of opening shape, size and position in RC wall with different thicknesses under axial and lateral static loads. The proposed finite element approach has been verified with experimental programme conducted by the researchers and validated by their variables. A very good correlation has been observed between the model and experimental results including load capacity, failure mode, and lateral displacement. A parametric study is applied to investigate the effect of opening size, shape, position on different reinforced concrete wall thicknesses. The results may be useful for improving existing design models and to be applied in practice, as it satisfies both the architectural and the structural requirements.

Keywords: Seismic, ANSYS, shear wall, concrete walls, openings, out of plane behavior

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