Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Shear Strength Related Abstracts

43 Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls

Authors: Ali Kezmane, Said Boukais, Mohand Hamizi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study on the behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section. Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied. Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and 27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.

Keywords: Models, Shear Walls, Shear Strength, reinforced concrete walls, rectangular walls

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42 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt

Authors: Youssouf Benmeriem

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behavior of granular classes of sands mixed with silt in loose and dense states (Dr = 15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, Shear Strength, grading characteristics, granular classes of sands, sand-silt

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
41 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha

Abstract:

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Shear Strength, particle size, granular material, direct shear test

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40 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

Abstract:

This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Behavior, Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, moisture content, friction angle, fines content, silt

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
39 Optimization of Friction Stir Spot Welding Process Parameters for Joining 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Mohammed A. Tashkandi, Jawdat A. Al-Jarrah, Masoud Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper investigates the shear strength of the joints produced by friction stir spot welding process (FSSW). FSSW parameters such as tool rotational speed, plunge depth, shoulder diameter of the welding tool and dwell time play the major role in determining the shear strength of the joints. The effect of these four parameters on FSSW process as well as the shear strength of the welded joints was studied via five levels of each parameter. Taguchi method was used to minimize the number of experiments required to determine the fracture load of the friction stir spot-welded joints by incorporating independently controllable FSSW parameters. Taguchi analysis was applied to optimize the FSSW parameters to attain the maximum shear strength of the spot weld for this type of aluminum alloy.

Keywords: Shear Strength, Friction Stir Spot Welding, Al6061 alloy, FSSW process parameters

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38 Influence of the Reliability Index on the Safety Factor of the Concrete Contribution to Shear Strength of HSC Beams

Authors: Guray Arslan, Ali Sagiroglu, Sema Noyan Alacali

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the influence of the safety factor in the concrete contribution to shear strength of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams according to TS500. In TS500, the contribution of concrete to shear strength is obtained by reducing diagonal cracking strength with a safety factor of 0.8. It was investigated that the coefficient of 0.8 considered in determining the contribution of concrete to the shear strength corresponds to which value of failure probability. Also, the changes in the reduction factor depending on different coefficients of variation of concrete were examined.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Shear Strength, safety factor, beam, failure probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
37 Shear Behavior of Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ghada Diaa, Enas A. Khattab

Abstract:

Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new advanced concrete that is being transferred from laboratory researches to practicable applications. In addition to its excellent durability properties, UHSC has high compressive and tensile strengths, and high modulus of elasticity. Despite of this low degree of hydration, ultra high strength values can be achieved by controlling the mixture proportions. In this research, an experimental program was carried out to investigate the shear behavior of ultra high strength concrete beams. A total of nine beams were tested to determine the effect of different parameters on the shear behavior of UHSC beams. The parameters include concrete strength, steel fiber volume, shear span to depth ratio, and web reinforcement ratio. The results demonstrated that nominal shear stress at cracking load and at ultimate load increased with the increase of concrete strength or the decrease in shear span-depth ratio. Using steel fibers or shear reinforcement increases the ultimate shear strength and makes the shear behavior more ductile. In this study, a simplified analytical model to calculate the shear strength of UHSC beams is introduced. Shear strength estimated according to the proposed method in this research is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: cracking, Shear Strength, Steel Fibers, ultra high strength, diagonal

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36 The Effect of the Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Soils

Authors: Ouledja Abdessalam

Abstract:

This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under the effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts, and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), The water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriately used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, friction angle, fines content, silt, contractancy, dilatancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
35 Influence of Flexural Reinforcement on the Shear Strength of RC Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: Riza Secer Orkun Keskin, Guray Arslan

Abstract:

Numerical investigations were conducted to study the influence of flexural reinforcement ratio on the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without stirrups. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses (FEAs) of the beams with flexural reinforcement ratios ranging from 0.58% to 2.20% subjected to a mid-span concentrated load were carried out. It is observed that the load-deflection and load-strain curves obtained from the numerical analyses agree with those obtained from the experiments. It is concluded that flexural reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the shear strength and deflection capacity of RC beams without stirrups. The predictions of the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of beams obtained by using the equations defined by a number of codes and researchers are compared with each other and with the experimental values.

Keywords: Shear Strength, finite element, reinforced concrete beam, flexural reinforcement

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34 Undrained Shear Strength and Anisotropic Yield Surface of Diatomaceous Mudstone

Authors: Najibullah Arsalan, Masaru Akaishi, Motohiro Sugiyama

Abstract:

When constructing a structure on soft rock, adequate research and study are required concerning the shear behavior in the over-consolidation region because soft rock is considered to be in a heavily over-consolidated state. In many of the existing studies concerning the strength of soft rock, triaxial compression tests were conducted using isotropically consolidated samples. In this study, the strength of diatomaceous soft rock anisotropically consolidated under a designated consolidation pressure is examined in undrained triaxial compression tests, and studies are made of the peak and residual strengths of the sample in the over-consolidated state in the initial yield surface and the anisotropic yield surface.

Keywords: Shear Strength, diatomaceouse mudstone, yield surface, triaxial compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
33 Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay

Authors: B. A. Mir, A. Juneja

Abstract:

In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.

Keywords: Shear Strength, reconstituted clay, SCP, stress-strain response, triaxial tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
32 The Effect of Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Silty Soils

Authors: Dellal Seyyid Ali

Abstract:

This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion ...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands ...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), the water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, friction angle, fines content, silt, dilatancy, contractanct

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
31 Effect of Corrosion on the Shear Buckling Strength

Authors: Sung-jin Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Myoung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Ii Kim

Abstract:

The ability to resist the shear strength arises mainly from the web panel of steel girders and as such, the shear buckling strength of these girders has been extensively investigated. For example, Blaser’s reported that when buckling occurs, the tension field has an effect after the buckling strength of the steel is reached. The findings of these studies have been applied by AASHTO, AISC, and to the European Code that provides guidelines for designs aimed at preventing shear buckling. Steel girders are susceptible to corrosion resulting from exposure to natural elements such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature. This corrosion leads to a reduction in the size of the web panel section, thereby resulting in a decrease in the shear strength. The decrease in the panel section has a significant effect on the maintenance section of the bridge. However, in most conventional designs, the influence of corrosion is overlooked during the calculation of the shear buckling strength and hence over-design is common. Therefore, in this study, a steel girder with an A/D of 1:1, as well as a 6-mm-, 16-mm-, and 12-mm-thick web panel, flange, and intermediate reinforcing material, respectively, were used. The total length was set to that (3200 mm) of the default model. The effect of corrosion shear buckling was investigated by determining the volume amount of corrosion, shape of the erosion patterns, and the angular change in the tensile field of the shear buckling strength. This study provides the basic data that will enable designs that incorporate values closer (than those used in most conventional designs) to the actual shear buckling strength.

Keywords: Corrosion, Shear Strength, shear buckling strength, steel girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
30 Using Biopolymer Materials to Enhance Sandy Soil Behavior

Authors: Abdelazim Negm, Mohamed Ayeldeen

Abstract:

Nowadays, strength characteristics of soils have more importance due to increasing building loads. In some projects, geotechnical properties of the soils are be improved using man-made materials varying from cement-based to chemical-based. These materials have proven successful in improving the engineering properties of the soil such as shear strength, compressibility, permeability, bearing capacity etc.. However, the use of these artificial injection formulas often modifies the pH level of soil, contaminates soil and groundwater. This is attributed to their toxic and hazardous characteristics. Recently, an environmentally friendly soil treatment method or Biological Treatment Method (BTM) was to bond particles of loose sandy soils. This research paper presents the preliminary results of using biopolymers for strengthening cohesionless soil. Xanthan gum was identified for further study over a range of concentrations varying from 0.25% to 2.00%. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and it is a nontoxic material. A series of direct shear, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of sandy soil treated with Xanthan gum with different concentration ratios and at different curing times. Laser microscopy imaging was also conducted to study the microstructure of the treated sand. Experimental results demonstrated the compatibility of Xanthan gum to improve the geotechnical properties of sandy soil. Depending on the biopolymer concentration, it was observed that the biopolymers effectively increased the cohesion intercept and stiffness of the treated sand and reduced the permeability of sand. The microscopy imaging indicates that the cross-links of the biopolymers through and over the soil particles increase with the increase of the biopolymer concentration.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, Shear Strength, biopolymer, direct shear, xanthan gum

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29 Determination of the Shear Strength of Wastes Using Back-Analyses from Observed Failures

Authors: Sadek Salah

Abstract:

The determination of the strength characteristics of waste materials is essential when evaluating the stability of waste fills during initial placement and at the time of closure and rehabilitation of the landfill. Significant efforts, mostly experimental, have been deployed to date in attempts to quantify the mechanical properties of municipal wastes various stages of decomposition. Even though the studies and work done so far have helped in setting baseline parameters and characteristics for waste materials, inherent concerns remain as to the scalability of the findings between the laboratory and the field along with questions as to the suitability of the actual test conditions. These concerns are compounded by the complexity of the problem itself with significant variability in composition, placement conditions, and levels of decay of the various constituents of the waste fills. A complimentary, if not necessarily an alternative approach is to rely on field observations of behavior and instability of such materials. This paper describes an effort at obtaining relevant shear strength parameters from back-analyses of failures which have been observed at a major un-engineered waste fill along the Mediterranean shoreline. Results from the limit-equilibrium failure back-analyses are presented and compared to results from laboratory-scale testing on comparable waste materials.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Solid Waste, Shear Strength, landfills

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28 Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio

Authors: Wael M Albadri, Hassnen M Jafer, Ehab H Sfoog

Abstract:

Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.

Keywords: Shear Strength, clayey soil, over-consolidation ratio, vane shear test

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27 Influences of Plunge Speed on Axial Force and Temperature of Friction Stir Spot Welding in Thin Aluminum A1100

Authors: Suwarsono, Ario S. Baskoro, Gandjar Kiswanto, Budiono

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new technique for joining metal. In some cases on aluminum joining, FSW gives better results compared with the arc welding processes, including the quality of welds and produces less distortion.FSW welding process for a light structure and thin materials requires small forces as possible, to avoid structure deflection. The joining process on FSW occurs because of melting temperature and compressive forces, the temperature generation of caused by material deformation and friction between the cutting tool and material. In this research, High speed rotation of spindle was expected to reduce the force required for deformation. The welding material was Aluminum A1100, with thickness of 0.4 mm. The tool was made of HSS material which was shaped by micro grinding process. Tool shoulder diameter is 4 mm, and the length of pin was 0.6 mm (with pin diameter= 1.5 mm). The parameters that varied were the plunge speed (2 mm/min, 3 mm/min, 4 mm/min). The tool speed is fixed at 33,000 rpm. Responses of FSSW parameters to analyze were Axial Force (Z-Force), Temperature and the Shear Strength of welds. Research found the optimum µFSSW parameters, it can be concluded that the most important parameters in the μFSSW process was plunge speed. lowest plunge speed (2 mm / min) causing the lowest axial force (110.40 Newton). The increases of plunge speed will increase the axial force (maximum Z-Farce= 236.03 Newton), and decrease the shear strength of welds.

Keywords: Shear Strength, axial force, Friction Stir Spot Welding, aluminum A1100, plunge speed

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26 The Effect of Soil Binder and Gypsum to the Changes of the Expansive Soil Shear Strength Parameters

Authors: Yulia Hastuti, Ratna Dewi, Muhammad Sandi

Abstract:

Many methods of soil stabilization that can be done such as by mixing chemicals. In this research, stabilization by mixing the soil using two types of chemical admixture, those are gypsum with a variation of 5%, 10%, and 15% and Soil binder with a concentration of 20 gr / lot of water, 25 gr / lot of water, and 30 gr / lot of water aimed to determine the effect on the soil plasticity index values and comparing the value of shear strength parameters of the mixture with the original soil conditions using a Triaxial UU test. Based on research done shows that with increasing variations in the mix, then the value of plasticity index decreased, which was originally 42% (very high degree of swelling) becomes worth 11.24% (lower Swelling degree) when a mixture of gypsum 15% and 30 gr / Lt water soil binder. As for the value shear, strength parameters increased in all variations of mixture. Admixture with the highest shear strength parameter's value is at 15% the mixture of gypsum and 20 gr / litre of water of soil binder with the 14 day treatment period, which has enhanced the cohesion value of 559.01%, the friction angle by 1157.14%. And a shear strength value of 568.49%. It can be concluded that the admixture of gypsum and soil binder correctly, can increase the value of shear strength parameters significantly and decrease the value of plasticity index of the soil.

Keywords: gypsum, Shear Strength, expansive soil, soil binder

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25 Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections

Authors: N. Zhang, S. Mogili, J. S. Kuang

Abstract:

To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, Shear Strength, large-scale tests, RC beam-column knee joints

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24 Correlation between the Undrained Shear Strength of Clay of the Champlain Sea as Determined by the Vane Test and the Swedish Cone

Authors: Tahar Ayadat

Abstract:

The undrained shear strength is an essential parameter for determining the consistency and the ultimate bearing capacity of a clay layer. The undrained shear strength can be determined by field tests such as the in situ vane test or in laboratory, including hand vane test, triaxial, simple compression test, and the consistency penetrometer (i.e. Swedish cone). However, the field vane test and the Swedish cone are the most commonly used tests by geotechnical experts. In this technical note, a comparison between the shear strength results obtained by the in situ vane test and the cone penetration test (Swedish cone) was conducted. A correlation between the results of these two tests, concerning the undrained shear strength of the Champlain sea clay, has been developed. Moreover, some applications of the proposed correlation on some geotechnical problems have been included, such as the determination of the consistency and the bearing capacity of a clay layer.

Keywords: correlation, Shear Strength, Clay, vane test, Swedish cone

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
23 Immediate and Long-Term Effect of the Sawdust Usage on Shear Strength of the Clayey Silt Soil

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Omar Hamdi Jasim

Abstract:

Using some additives is very common method to improve the soil properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity; and to reduce the settlement and lateral deformation. Soil reinforcement with natural materials is an attractive method to improve the soil properties because of their low cost. However, the studies conducted by using natural additive are very limited. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the immediate and long-term effects of the sawdust on the shear strength behavior of a clayey silt soil obtained in Arnavutkoy in Istanbul with sawdust. Firstly, compaction tests were conducted to be able to optimum moisture content for every percentage of sawdust. The samples were obtained from compacted soil at optimum moisture content. UU Triaxial Tests were conducted to evaluate the response of randomly distributed sawdust on the strength of low plasticity clayey silt soil. The specimens were tested with 1%, 2% and 3% content of sawdust. It was found that the undrained shear strength of clay soil with 1%, 2% and 3% sawdust were increased respectively 4.65%, 27.9% and 39.5% higher than the soil without additive. At 5%, shear strength of clay soil decreased by 3.8%. After 90 days cure period, the shear strength of the soil with 1%, 2%, 3% and %5 increased respectively 251%, 302%, 260% and 153%. It can be said that the effect of the sawdust usage has a remarkable effect on the undrained shear strength of the soil. Besides the increasing undrained shear strength, it was also found that the sawdust decreases the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index by 5.5%, 2.9 and 10.9% respectively.

Keywords: Shear Strength, sawdust, compaction test, UU Triaxial Test

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22 The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil

Authors: Z. Adnan, M. M. Habib

Abstract:

The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.

Keywords: Shear Strength, strain, post-cyclic, maximum stiffness

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21 Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz, Ayad Salih Sabbar

Abstract:

Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.

Keywords: slag, Shear Strength, direct shear, UU test

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20 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura

Abstract:

Concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) bridge was proposed and the bending and shear strength was confirmed by experiments. The area surrounded by the upper and lower flanges and the web is filled with concrete in CFIG, which is used to the intermediate support of a continuous girder. Three-dimensional finite element models were established to simulate the bending and shear behaviors of CFIG and to clarify the load transfer mechanism. Steel plates and filled concrete were modeled as a three-dimensional 8-node solid element and steel reinforcement bars as a three-dimensional 2-node truss element. The elements were mostly divided into the 50 x 50 mm mesh size. The non-linear stress-strain relation is assumed for concrete in compression including the softening effect after the peak, and the stress increases linearly for concrete in tension until concrete cracking but then decreases due to tension stiffening effect. The stress-strain relation for steel plates was tri-linear and that for reinforcements was bi-linear. The concrete and the steel plates were rigidly connected. The developed FEM model was applied to simulate and analysis the bending behaviors of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and the strains of steel plates and the filled concrete obtained by FEM agreed very well with the test results until the yield load. The specimens collapsed when the upper flange buckled or the concrete spalled off. These phenomena cannot be properly analyzed by FEM, which produces a small discrepancy at the ultimate states. The FEM model was also applied to simulate and analysis the shear tests of the CFIG specimens. The vertical displacements and strains of steel and concrete calculated by FEM model agreed well with the test results. A truss action was confirmed by the FEM and the experiment, clarifying that shear forces were mainly resisted by the tension strut of the steel plate and the compression strut of the filled concrete acting in the diagonal direction. A trail design with the CFIG was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and the design method was established. Construction cost was estimated about 12% lower than that of a conventional steel I-section girder.

Keywords: Shear Strength, FEM, concrete filled steel I-girder, bending strength, limit states design, steel I-girder

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19 Understanding Mudrocks and Their Shear Strength Deterioration Associated with Inundation

Authors: Afshin Asadi, Haslinda Nahazanan, Zainuddin Md. Yusoff, Nik Nor Syahariati Nik Daud

Abstract:

Mudrocks is considered as a problematic material due to their unexpected behaviour specifically when they are contacting with water or being exposed to the atmosphere. Many instability problems of cutting slopes were found lying on high slaking mudrocks. It has become one of the major concerns to geotechnical engineer as mudrocks cover up to 50% of sedimentary rocks in the geologic records. Mudrocks display properties between soils and rocks which can be very hard to understand. Therefore, this paper aims to review the definition, mineralogy, geo-chemistry, classification and engineering properties of mudrocks. As water has become one of the major factors that will rapidly change the behaviour of mudrocks, a review on the shear strength of mudrocks in Derbyshire has been made using a fully automated hydraulic stress path testing system under three states: dry, short-term inundated and long-term inundated. It can be seen that the strength of mudrocks has deteriorated as it condition changed from dry to short-term inundated and finally to long-term inundated.

Keywords: inundation, Sedimentary Rocks, Shear Strength, mudrocks

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18 Shear Strength Evaluation of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Flexural Members Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System

Authors: Kang Su Kim, Minsu Kim, Hae-Chang Cho, Jae Hoon Chung, Inwook Heo

Abstract:

For safe design of the UHPC flexural members, accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very important. However, since the shear strengths are significantly affected by various factors such as tensile strength of concrete, shear span to depth ratio, volume ratio of steel fiber, and steel fiber factor, the accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very challenging. In this study, therefore, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS), which has been widely used to solve many complex problems in engineering fields, was introduced to estimate the shear strengths of UHPC flexural members. A total of 32 experimental results has been collected from previous studies for training of the ANFIS algorithm, and the well-trained ANFIS algorithm provided good estimations on the shear strengths of the UHPC test specimens. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(NRF-2016R1A2B2010277).

Keywords: Shear Strength, ANFIS, ultra-high-performance concrete, flexural member

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17 Load Carrying Capacity of Soils Reinforced with Encased Stone Columns

Authors: S. Chandrakaran, G. Govind

Abstract:

Stone columns are effectively used to improve bearing strength of soils and also for many geotechnical applications. In soft soils when stone columns are loaded they undergo large settlements due to insufficient lateral confinement. Use of geosynthetics encasement has proved to be a solution for this problem. In this paper, results of a laboratory experimental study carried out with model stone columns with and without encasement. Sand was used for making test beds, and grain size of soil varies from 0.075mm to 4.75mm. Woven geotextiles produced by Gareware ropes India with mass per unit area of 240gm/M2 and having tensile strength of 52KN/m is used for the present investigation. Tests were performed with large scale direct shear box and also using scaled laboratory plate load tests. Stone column of 50mm and 75mm is used for the present investigation. Diameter of stone column, size of stones used for making stone columns is varied in making stone column in the present study. Two types of stone were used namely small and bigger in size. Results indicate that there is an increase in angle of internal friction and also an increase in the shear strength of soil when stone columns are encased. With stone columns with 50mm dia, an average increase of 7% in shear strength and 4.6 % in angle of internal friction was achieved. When large stones were used increase in the shear strength was 12.2%, and angle of internal friction was increased to 5.4%. When the stone column diameter has increased to 75mm increase in shear strength and angle of internal friction was increased with smaller size of stones to 7.9 and 7.5%, and with large size stones, it was 7.7 and 5.48% respectively. Similar results are obtained in plate load tests, also.

Keywords: Shear Strength, plate load test, stone columns, encasement

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16 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.

Keywords: Improvement, Shear Strength, sandy soil, internal friction angle, rubber chip

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15 Shear Strength and Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil with Vertical and Radial Drainage

Authors: R. Pillai Aparna, S. R. Gandhi

Abstract:

Soft clay deposits having low strength and high compressibility are found all over the world. Preloading with vertical drains is a widely used method for improving such type of soils. The coefficient of consolidation, irrespective of the drainage type, plays an important role in the design of vertical drains and it controls accurate prediction of the rate of consolidation of soil. Also, the increase in shear strength of soil with consolidation is another important factor considered in preloading or staged construction. To our best knowledge no clear guidelines are available to estimate the increase in shear strength for a particular degree of consolidation (U) at various stages during the construction. Various methods are available for finding out the consolidation coefficient. This study mainly focuses on the variation of, consolidation coefficient which was found out using different methods and shear strength with pressure intensity. The variation of shear strength with the degree of consolidation was also studied. The consolidation test was done using two types of highly compressible clays with vertical, radial and a few with combined drainage. The test was carried out at different pressures intensities and for each pressure intensity, once the target degree of consolidation is achieved, vane shear test was done at different locations in the sample, in order to determine the shear strength. The shear strength of clayey soils under the application of vertical stress with vertical and radial drainage with target U value of 70% and 90% was studied. It was found that there is not much variation in cv or cr value beyond 80kPa pressure intensity. Correlations were developed between shear strength ratio and consolidation pressure based on laboratory testing under controlled condition. It was observed that the shear strength of sample with target U value of 90% is about 1.4 to 2 times than that of 70% consolidated sample. Settlement analysis was done using Asaoka’s and hyperbolic method. The variation of strength with respect to the depth of sample was also studied, using large-scale consolidation test. It was found, based on the present study that the gain in strength is more on the top half of the clay layer, and also the shear strength of the sample ensuring radial drainage is slightly higher than that of the vertical drainage.

Keywords: Shear Strength, consolidation coefficient, degree of consolidation, PVDs

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14 Bioremediation Effect on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils

Authors: Samira Abbaspour

Abstract:

Soil contamination by oil industry is unavoidable issue; irrespective of environmental impact, which occurs during the process of soil contaminating and remediating. Effect of this phenomenon on the geotechnical properties of the soil has not been investigated thoroughly. Some researchers studied the environmental aspects of these phenomena more than geotechnical point of view. In this research, compaction and unconfined compression tests were conducted on samples of natural, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results manifest that increasing the amount of crude oil, leads to decreased values of maximum dry density and optimum water content and increased values of unconfined compression strength (UCS). However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent. Foremost, as bioremediation takes place, values of maximum dry density, unconfined compression strength and failure strain increase.

Keywords: Contamination, Shear Strength, compaction, oil contamination

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