Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

shear Related Abstracts

9 Laboratory Study on Behavior of Compacted Soils

Authors: M. M. Mekkakia, M. P Luong, A. Arab

Abstract:

These controlling the water content of compaction are a major concern of fundamental civil engineers. Also, the knowledge of the fundamentals of the behaviour of compacted clay soils is essential to predict and quantify the effects of a change in water content. The study of unsaturated soils is a very complex area which several studies are directed to in recent years. Our job work is to perform tests of Proctor, Oedometer and shear, on samples of unsaturated clay in order to see the influence of water content on the compressibility and the shear strength. The samples were prepared at different amounts of water from water content to optimum water contents close to saturation. This study thus allowed us to measure and monitor the parameters of compressibility and shear strength as a function of water content.

Keywords: laboratory tests, Clay, unsaturated soil, atterberg limits, compaction, compressibility, shear

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8 Response of Concrete Panels Subjected to Compression-Tension State of Stresses

Authors: Mohammed F. Almograbi

Abstract:

For reinforced concrete panels the risk of failure due to compression -tension state of stresses, results from pure shear or torsion, can be a major problem. The present calculation methods for such stresses from multiple influences are without taking into account the softening of cracked concrete remains conservative. The non-linear finite element method has become an important and increasingly used tool for the analysis and assessment of the structures by including cracking softening and tension-stiffening. The aim of this paper is to test a computer program refined recently and to simulate the compression response of cracked concrete element and to compare with the available experimental results.

Keywords: shear, reinforced concrete panels, compression-tension, torsion, compression softening, tension stiffening, non-linear finite element analysis

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7 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh

Abstract:

The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: Reliability, Code, structural safety, Random variables, Reinforced Concrete, shear, reliability index, flexure, limit states

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6 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Růžek

Abstract:

Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Methodology, Composite, Mechanical testing, shear, t-joint

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5 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: Strengthening, FRP, shear, crack

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4 Discrete Crack Modeling of Side Face FRP-Strengthened Concrete Beam

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Mohammad Hemen Jannaty, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

Shear strengthening can be carried out in concrete structures by external fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). In the present investigation, a new fracture mechanics model is developed to model side face of strengthened concrete beam by external FRP. Discrete crack is simulated by a spring element with softening behavior ahead of the crack tip to model the cohesive zone in concrete. A truss element is used, parallel to the spring element, to simulate the energy dissipation rate by the FRP. The strain energy release rate is calculated directly by using a virtual crack closure technique and then, the crack propagation criterion is presented. The results are found acceptable when compared to previous experimental results and ABAQUS software data. It is observed that the length of the fracture process zone (FPZ) increases with the application of FRP in side face at the same load in comparison with that of the control beam.

Keywords: fracture, FRP, shear, FPZ

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3 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: M. Abdullahi, S. Sadiku, J. I. Aguwa

Abstract:

This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: Compression, structural reliability, shear, bending and deflection, bridge beam, Nigerian Opepe

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2 Application of NBR 14861: 2011 for the Design of Prestress Hollow Core Slabs Subjected to Shear

Authors: Alessandra Aparecida Vieira França, Adriana de Paula Lacerda Santos, Mauro Lacerda Santos Filho

Abstract:

The purpose of this research i to study the behavior of precast prestressed hollow core slabs subjected to shear. In order to achieve this goal, shear tests were performed using hollow core slabs 26,5cm thick, with and without a concrete cover of 5 cm, without cores filled, with two cores filled and three cores filled with concrete. The tests were performed according to the procedures recommended by FIP (1992), the EN 1168:2005 and following the method presented in Costa (2009). The ultimate shear strength obtained within the tests was compared with the values of theoretical resistant shear calculated in accordance with the codes, which are being used in Brazil, noted: NBR 6118:2003 and NBR 14861:2011. When calculating the shear resistance through the equations presented in NBR 14861:2011, it was found that provision is much more accurate for the calculation of the shear strength of hollow core slabs than the NBR 6118 code. Due to the large difference between the calculated results, even for slabs without cores filled, the authors consulted the committee that drafted the NBR 14861:2011 and found that there is an error in the text of the standard, because the coefficient that is suggested, actually presents the double value than the needed one! The ABNT, later on, soon issued an amendment of NBR 14861:2011 with the necessary corrections. During the tests for the present study, it was confirmed that the concrete filling the cores contributes to increase the shear strength of hollow core slabs. But in case of slabs 26,5 cm thick, the quantity should be limited to a maximum of two cores filled, because most of the results for slabs with three cores filled were smaller. This confirmed the recommendation of NBR 14861:2011which is consistent with standard practice. After analyzing the configuration of cracking and failure mechanisms of hollow core slabs during the shear tests, strut and tie models were developed representing the forces acting on the slab at the moment of rupture. Through these models the authors were able to calculate the tensile stress acting on the concrete ties (ribs) and scaled the geometry of these ties. The conclusions of the research performed are the experiments results have shown that the mechanism of failure of the hollow-core slabs can be predicted using the strut-and-tie procedure, within a good range of accuracy. In addition, the needed of the correction of the Brazilian standard to review the correction factor σcp duplicated (in NBR14861/2011), and the limitation of the number of cores (Holes) to be filled with concrete, to increase the strength of the slab for the shear resistance. It is also suggested the increasing the amount of test results with 26.5 cm thick, and a larger range of thickness slabs, in order to obtain results of shear tests with cores concreted after the release of prestressing force. Another set of shear tests on slabs must be performed in slabs with cores filled and cover concrete reinforced with welded steel mesh for comparison with results of theoretical values calculated by the new revision of the standard NBR 14861:2011.

Keywords: shear, prestressed hollow core slabs, strut, tie models

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1 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

Authors: Djamal Atlaoui, Youcef Bouafia

Abstract:

This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions (10x20x120) cm³. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%), of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a Sable on Gravel ratio equal to one (S / G = 1). The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used to limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

Keywords: Characterization, Ductility, shear, cracking mode, chips fibers, undulation

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