Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Shear Modulus Related Abstracts

16 A Study of Soft Soil Improvement by Using Lime Grit

Authors: Ashim Kanti Dey, Briti Sundar Bhowmik


This paper presents an idea to improve the soft soil by using lime grits which are normally produced as waste product in the paper manufacturing industries. This waste material cannot be used as a construction material because of its light weight, uniform size and poor compaction control. With scarcity in land, effective disposal of lime grit is a major concern of all paper manufacturing industries. Considering its non-plasticity and high permeability characteristics the lime grit may suitably be used as a drainage material for speedy consolidation of cohesive soil. It can also be used to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay. An attempt has been made in this paper to show the usefulness of lime grit in improving the bearing capacity of shallow foundation resting on soft clayey soil. A series of undrained unconsolidated cyclic triaxial tests performed at different area ratios and at three different water contents shows that dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio can be substantially improved with lime grit. Improvement is observed to be more in case of higher area ratio and higher water content. Static triaxial tests were also conducted on lime grit reinforced clayey soil after application of 50 load cycles to determine the effect of lime grit columns on cyclically loaded clayey soils. It is observed that the degradation is less for lime grit stabilized soil. A study of model test with different area ratio of lime column installation is also included to see the field behaviour of lime grit reinforced soil.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, lime grit column, area ratio, damping ratio, strength ratio, improvement factor, degradation factor

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15 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff


The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: Geological Setting, Shear Modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

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14 Behavioral Study Circumferential and Longitudinal Cracks in a Steel Pipeline X65 and Repair Patch

Authors: Sadok Aboubakr


The mechanical behavior of cracks from several manufacturing defect in an oil pipeline, is characterized by the fact that defects'm taking several forms: circumferential, longitudinal and inclined crack that evolve over time. Increased lifetime of the constructions and in particular cylindrical tubes under internal pressure requires knowledge improving these defects during loading. From this study we simulated various forms of cracking and also their pipeline repair patch.

Keywords: Pressure, Shear Modulus, Young's modulus, stress intensity factor, Poisson's ratio, Longueur du pipeline, the angle of crack, crack length

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13 Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(X 0,02) Solid Solutions

Authors: I. Kurashvili, A. Sichinava, G. Bokuchava, G. Darsavelidze


Si-Ge solid solutions (bulk poly- and monocrystalline samples, thin films) are characterized by high perspectives for application in semiconductor devices, in particular, optoelectronics and microelectronics. In this light complex studying of structural state of the defects and structural-sensitive physical properties of Si-Ge solid solutions depending on the contents of Si and Ge components is very important. Present work deals with the investigations of microstructure, electrophysical characteristics, microhardness, internal friction and shear modulus of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) bulk monocrystals conducted at a room temperatures. Si-Ge bulk crystals were obtained by Czochralski method in [111] crystallographic direction. Investigated monocrystalline Si-Ge samples are characterized by p-type conductivity and carriers concentration 5.1014-1.1015cm-3, dislocation density 5.103-1.104cm-2, microhardness according to Vickers method 900-1200 Kg/mm2. Investigate samples are characterized with 0,5x0,5x(10-15) mm3 sizes, oriented along [111] direction at torsion oscillations ≈1Hz, multistage changing of internal friction and shear modulus has been revealed in an interval of strain amplitude of 10-5-5.10-3. Critical values of strain amplitude have been determined at which hysteretic changes of inelastic characteristics and microplasticity are observed. The critical strain amplitude and elasticity limit values are also determined. Tendency to decrease of dynamic mechanical characteristics is shown with increasing Ge content in Si-Ge solid solutions. Observed changes are discussed from the point of view of interaction of various dislocations with point defects and their complexes in a real structure of Si-Ge solid solutions.

Keywords: Microhardness, Shear Modulus, monocrystalline, internal friction

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12 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański


Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, recycled concrete aggregate, damping ratio, resonant column

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11 The Effect of Shredded Polyurethane Foams on Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Sand

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Nader Khalafian


The undesirable impact of vibrations induced by road and railway traffic is an important concern in modern world. These vibrations are transmitted through soil and cause disturbances to the residence area and high-tech production facilities alongside the train/traffic lines. In this paper for the first time a new method of soil improvement with vibration absorber material, is used to increase the damping factor, in other word, to reduce the ability of wave transitions in sand. In this study standard Firoozkooh No. 161 sand is used as the host sand. The semi rigid polyurethane (PU) foam which used in this research is one of the common materials for vibration absorbing purposes. Series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on remolded samples with identical relative density of 70% of maximum dry density for different volume percentage of shredded PU foam. The frequency of tests was 0.1 Htz with shear strain of 0.37% and 0.75% and also the effective confining pressures during the tests were 100 kPa and 350 kPa. In order to find out the best soil-PU foam mixture, different volume percent of PU foam varying from 10% to 30% were examined. The results show that adding PU foam up to 20%, as its optimum content, causes notable enhancement in damping ratio for both shear strains of 0.37% (52.19% and 69% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (59.56% and 59.11% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). The results related to shear modulus present significant reduction for both shear strains of 0.37% (82.22% and 56.03% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (89.32% and 39.9% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). In conclusion, shredded PU foams effectively affect the dynamic properties of sand and act as vibration absorber in soil.

Keywords: Sand, Shear Modulus, damping ratio, polyurethane foam

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10 Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring

Authors: Rafael Muñoz, Juan Melchor, Alicia Valera, Laura Peralta, Guillermo Rus


A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem, mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave, given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S, even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks, is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry, materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference. This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological security for human use.

Keywords: Soft tissue, Shear Modulus, cervix ripening, preterm birth, shear wave elastography, torsional wave

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9 Determination of Elasticity Constants of Isotropic Thin Films Using Impulse Excitation Technique

Authors: M. F. Slim, A. Alhussein, F. Sanchette, M. François


Thin films are widely used in various applications to enhance the surface properties and characteristics of materials. They are used in many domains such as: biomedical, automotive, aeronautics, military, electronics and energy. Depending on the elaboration technique, the elastic behavior of thin films may be different from this of bulk materials. This dependence on the elaboration techniques and their parameters makes the control of the elasticity constants of coated components necessary. Our work is focused on the characterization of the elasticity constants of isotropic thin films by means of Impulse Excitation Techniques. The tests rely on the measurement of the sample resonance frequency before and after deposition. In this work, a finite element model was performed with ABAQUS software. This model was then compared with the analytical approaches used to determine the Young’s and shear moduli. The best model to determine the film Young’s modulus was identified and a relation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of thin films of any thickness was developed. In order to confirm the model experimentally, Tungsten films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% purity tungsten target. The choice of tungsten was done because it is well known that its elastic behavior at crystal scale is ideally isotropic. The macroscopic elasticity constants, Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio of the deposited film were determined by means of Impulse Excitation Technique. The Young’s modulus obtained from IET was compared with measurements by the nano-indentation technique. We did not observe any significant difference and the value is in accordance with the one reported in the literature. This work presents a new methodology on the determination of the elasticity constants of thin films using Impulse Excitation Technique. A formulation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of a coating, whatever the thickness, was developed and used to determine the macroscopic elasticity constants of tungsten films. The developed model was validated numerically and experimentally.

Keywords: Characterization, Coating, Shear Modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, PVD, dynamical resonant method

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8 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang


In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: Graphene, Shear Modulus, Young's modulus, nanoporous

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7 Influence of Boron and Germanium Doping on Physical-Mechanical Properties of Monocrystalline Silicon

Authors: Ia Kurashvili, Giorgi Darsavelidze, Giorgi Chubinidze, Marina Kadaria


Boron-doped Czochralski (CZ) silicon of p-type, widely used in the photovoltaic industry is suffering from the light-induced-degradation (LID) of bulk electrophysical characteristics. This is caused by specific metastable B-O defects, which are characterized by strong recombination activity. In this regard, it is actual to suppress B-O defects in CZ silicon. One of the methods is doping of silicon by different isovalent elements (Ge, C, Sn). The present work deals with the investigations of the influence of germanium doping on the internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences in the temperature interval of 600-800⁰C and 0.5-5 Hz frequency range in boron-containing monocrystalline silicon. Experimental specimens were grown by Czochralski method (CZ) in [111] direction. Four different specimens were investigated: Si+0,5at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3), Si+0,5at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3), Si+2at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3) and Si+2at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3). Increasing tendency of dislocation density and inhomogeneous distribution in silicon crystals with high content of boron and germanium were revealed by metallographic studies on the optical microscope of NMM-80RF/TRF. Weak increase of current carriers-holes concentration and slight decrease of their mobility were observed by Van der Pauw method on Ecopia HMS-3000 device. Non-monotonous changes of dislocation origin defects mobility and microplastic deformation characteristics influenced by measuring temperatures and boron and germanium concentrations were revealed. Possible mechanisms of changes of mechanical characteristics in Si-Ge experimental specimens were discussed.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, internal friction, dislocation, microplastic deformation

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6 Experimental Study of Sand-Silt Mixtures with Torsional and Flexural Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Meghdad Payan, Kostas Senetakis, Arman Khoshghalb, Nasser Khalili


Dynamic properties of soils, especially at the range of very small strains, are of particular interest in geotechnical engineering practice for characterization of the behavior of geo-structures subjected to a variety of stress states. This study reports on the small-strain dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures with particular emphasis on the effect of non-plastic fines content on the small strain shear modulus (Gmax), Young’s Modulus (Emax), material damping (Ds,min) and Poisson’s Ratio (v). Several clean sands with a wide range of grain size characteristics and particle shape are mixed with variable percentages of a silica non-plastic silt as fines content. Prepared specimens of sand-silt mixtures at different initial void ratios are subjected to sequential torsional and flexural resonant column tests with elastic dynamic properties measured along an isotropic stress path up to 800 kPa. It is shown that while at low percentages of fines content, there is a significant difference between the dynamic properties of the various samples due to the different characteristics of the sand portion of the mixtures, this variance diminishes as the fines content increases and the soil behavior becomes mainly silt-dominant, rendering no significant influence of sand properties on the elastic dynamic parameters. Indeed, beyond a specific portion of fines content, around 20% to 30% typically denoted as threshold fines content, silt is controlling the behavior of the mixture. Using the experimental results, new expressions for the prediction of small-strain dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures are developed accounting for the percentage of silt and the characteristics of the sand portion. These expressions are general in nature and are capable of evaluating the elastic dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures with any types of parent sand in the whole range of silt percentage. The inefficiency of skeleton void ratio concept in the estimation of small-strain stiffness of sand-silt mixtures is also illustrated.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, Young’s modulus, damping ratio, poisson’s ratio, resonant column, sand-silt mixture

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5 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar


Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: Damping, Numerical Modelling, Shear Modulus, fiber reinforced soil

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4 Effect of Different Knee-Joint Positions on Passive Stiffness of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle and Aponeuroses during Passive Ankle Motion

Authors: Xiyao Shan, Pavlos Evangelidis, Adam Kositsky, Naoki Ikeda, Yasuo Kawakami


The human triceps surae (two bi-articular gastrocnemii and one mono-articular soleus) have aponeuroses in the posterior and anterior aspects of each muscle, where the anterior aponeuroses of the gastrocnemii adjoin the posterior aponeurosis of the soleus, possibly contributing to the intermuscular force transmission between gastrocnemii and soleus. Since the mechanical behavior of these aponeuroses at different knee- and ankle-joint positions remains unclear, the purpose of this study was to clarify this through observations of the localized changes in passive stiffness of the posterior aponeuroses, muscle belly and adjoining aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) induced by different knee and ankle angles. Eleven healthy young males (25 ± 2 yr, 176.7 ± 4.7 cm, 71.1 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study. Each subject took either a prone position on an isokinetic dynamometer while the knee joint was fully extended (K180) or a kneeling position while the knee joint was 90° flexed (K90), in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The ankle joint was then passively moved through a 50° range of motion (ROM) by the dynamometer from 30° of plantar flexion (PF) to 20° of dorsiflexion (DF) at 2°/s and the ultrasound shear-wave velocity was measured to obtain shear moduli of the posterior aponeurosis, MG belly, and adjoining aponeuroses. The main findings were: 1) shear modulus in K180 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than K90 for the posterior aponeurosis (across all ankle angles, 10.2 ± 5.7 kPa-59.4 ± 28.7 kPa vs. 5.4 ± 2.2 kPa-11.6 ± 4.1 kPa), MG belly (from PF10° to DF20°, 9.7 ± 2.2 kPa-53.6 ± 18.6 kPa vs. 8.0 ± 2.7 kPa-9.5 ± 3.7 kPa), and adjoining aponeuroses (across all ankle angles, 17.3 ± 7.8 kPa-80 ± 25.7 kPa vs. 12.2 ± 4.5 kPa-52.4 ± 23.0 kPa); 2) shear modulus of the posterior aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) from PF10° to PF20° in K180, while shear modulus of MG belly significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 0° to PF20° only in K180 and shear modulus of adjoining aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) across the whole ROM of ankle both in K180 and K90. These results suggest that different knee-joint positions can affect not only the bi-articular gastrocnemius but also influence the mechanical behavior of aponeuroses. In addition, compared to the gradual stiffening of the adjoining aponeuroses across the whole ROM of ankle, the posterior aponeurosis became slack in the plantar flexed positions and then was stiffened gradually as the knee was fully extended. This suggests distinct stiffening for the posterior and adjoining aponeuroses which is joint position-dependent.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, shear wave elastography, aponeurosis, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion

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3 Peculiarities of Internal Friction and Shear Modulus in 60Co γ-Rays Irradiated Monocrystalline SiGe Alloys

Authors: I. Kurashvili, G. Darsavelidze, T. Kimeridze, G. Chubinidze, I. Tabatadze


At present, a number of modern semiconductor devices based on SiGe alloys have been created in which the latest achievements of high technologies are used. These devices might cause significant changes to networking, computing, and space technology. In the nearest future new materials based on SiGe will be able to restrict the A3B5 and Si technologies and firmly establish themselves in medium frequency electronics. Effective realization of these prospects requires the solution of prediction and controlling of structural state and dynamical physical –mechanical properties of new SiGe materials. Based on these circumstances, a complex investigation of structural defects and structural-sensitive dynamic mechanical characteristics of SiGe alloys under different external impacts (deformation, radiation, thermal cycling) acquires great importance. Internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature and amplitude dependences of the monocrystalline boron-doped Si1-xGex(x≤0.05) alloys grown by Czochralski technique is studied in initial and 60Co gamma-irradiated states. In the initial samples, a set of dislocation origin relaxation processes and accompanying modulus defects are revealed in a temperature interval of 400-800 ⁰C. It is shown that after gamma-irradiation intensity of relaxation internal friction in the vicinity of 280 ⁰C increases and simultaneously activation parameters of high temperature relaxation processes reveal clear rising. It is proposed that these changes of dynamical mechanical characteristics might be caused by a decrease of the dislocation mobility in the Cottrell atmosphere enriched by the radiation defects.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, internal friction, gamma-irradiation, SiGe alloys

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2 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini


Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: Density, Shear Modulus, damping ratio, dynamic properties, TSS, clean sand, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear

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1 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari


The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: Shear Modulus, Young’s modulus, inhomogeneity, cross-anisotropic, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave

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