Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

shape memory alloys Related Abstracts

6 A Variational Reformulation for the Thermomechanically Coupled Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Elisa Boatti, Ulisse Stefanelli, Alessandro Reali, Ferdinando Auricchio


Thanks to their unusual properties, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are good candidates for advanced applications in a wide range of engineering fields, such as automotive, robotics, civil, biomedical, aerospace. In the last decades, the ever-growing interest for such materials has boosted several research studies aimed at modeling their complex nonlinear behavior in an effective and robust way. Since the constitutive response of SMAs is strongly thermomechanically coupled, the investigation of the non-isothermal evolution of the material must be taken into consideration. The present study considers an existing three-dimensional phenomenological model for SMAs, able to reproduce the main SMA properties while maintaining a simple user-friendly structure, and proposes a variational reformulation of the full non-isothermal version of the model. While the considered model has been thoroughly assessed in an isothermal setting, the proposed formulation allows to take into account the full nonisothermal problem. In particular, the reformulation is inspired to the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) formalism, and is based on a generalized gradient flow of the total entropy, related to thermal and mechanical variables. Such phrasing of the model is new and allows for a discussion of the model from both a theoretical and a numerical point of view. Moreover, it directly implies the dissipativity of the flow. A semi-implicit time-discrete scheme is also presented for the fully coupled thermomechanical system, and is proven unconditionally stable and convergent. The correspondent algorithm is then implemented, under a space-homogeneous temperature field assumption, and tested under different conditions. The core of the algorithm is composed of a mechanical subproblem and a thermal subproblem. The iterative scheme is solved by a generalized Newton method. Numerous uniaxial and biaxial tests are reported to assess the performance of the model and algorithm, including variable imposed strain, strain rate, heat exchange properties, and external temperature. In particular, the heat exchange with the environment is the only source of rate-dependency in the model. The reported curves clearly display the interdependence between phase transformation strain and material temperature. The full thermomechanical coupling allows to reproduce the exothermic and endothermic effects during respectively forward and backward phase transformation. The numerical tests have thus demonstrated that the model can appropriately reproduce the coupled SMA behavior in different loading conditions and rates. Moreover, the algorithm has proved effective and robust. Further developments are being considered, such as the extension of the formulation to the finite-strain setting and the study of the boundary value problem.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, generalized gradient flow, GENERIC formalism, thermomechanical coupling

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5 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, energy dissipation, super elastic effect, nitinol

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4 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys, compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing

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3 On Crack Tip Stress Field in Pseudo-Elastic Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Gulcan Ozerim, Gunay Anlas


In shape memory alloys, upon loading, stress increases around crack tip and a martensitic phase transformation occurs in early stages. In many studies the stress distribution in the vicinity of the crack tip is represented by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) although the pseudo-elastic behavior results in a nonlinear stress-strain relation. In this study, the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren), that uses Rice’s path independent J-integral, is tried to formulate the stress distribution around the crack tip. In HRR approach, the Ramberg-Osgood model for the stress-strain relation of power-law hardening materials is used to represent the elastic-plastic behavior. Although it is recoverable, the inelastic portion of the deformation in martensitic transformation (up to the end of transformation) resembles to that of plastic deformation. To determine the constants of the Ramberg-Osgood equation, the material’s response is simulated in ABAQUS using a UMAT based on ZM (Zaki-Moumni) thermo-mechanically coupled model, and the stress-strain curve of the material is plotted. An edge cracked shape memory alloy (Nitinol) plate is loaded quasi-statically under mode I and modeled using ABAQUS; the opening stress values ahead of the cracked tip are calculated. The stresses are also evaluated using the asymptotic equations of both LEFM and HRR. The results show that in the transformation zone around the crack tip, the stress values are much better represented when the HRR singularity is used although the J-integral does not show path independent behavior. For the nodes very close to the crack tip, the HRR singularity is not valid due to the non-proportional loading effect and high-stress values that go beyond the transformation finish stress.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, crack, stress distribution, HRR singularity

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2 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim


The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: Severe Plastic Deformation, shape memory alloys, Tensile Testing, high-ratio differential speed rolling

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1 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: Structural Engineering, shape memory alloys, seismic protection of structures, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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