Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

shallow foundation Related Abstracts

8 Mechanical-Reliability Coupling for a Bearing Capacity Assessment of Shallow Foundations

Authors: Amal Hentati, Mbarka Selmi, Tarek Kormi, Julien Baroth, Barthelemy Harthong


The impact of uncertainties on the performance assessment of shallow foundations is often significant. The need of the geotechnical engineers to a more objective and rigorous description of soil variations permitting to quantify these uncertainties and to incorporate them into calculation methods led to the development of reliability approaches. In this context, a mechanical-reliability coupling was developed in this paper, using a program coded in Matlab and the finite element software Abaqus, for the bearing capacity assessment of shallow foundations. The reliability analysis, based on the finite element method, assumed both soil cohesion and friction angle as uncertain parameters characterized by normal or lognormal probability distributions. The inherent spatial variability of both soil properties was, then, taken into account using 1D stationary random fields. The application of the proposed methodology to a shallow foundation subjected to a centered vertical loading permitted to highlight the proposed process interest. Findings proved the insufficiency of the conventional approach to predict the foundation failure and a high sensitivity of the ultimate loads to the soil properties uncertainties, mainly those related to the friction angle, was noted. Moreover, an asymmetry of both displacement and velocity fields was obtained.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, mechanical-reliability coupling, shallow foundation, random fields, spatial variability

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7 Influence of Foundation Size on Seismic Response of Mid-rise Buildings Considering Soil-Structure-Interaction

Authors: Quoc Van Nguyen, Behzad Fatahi, Aslan S. Hokmabadi


Performance based seismic design is a modern approach to earthquake-resistant design shifting emphasis from “strength” to “performance”. Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) can influence the performance level of structures significantly. In this paper, a fifteen storey moment resisting frame sitting on a shallow foundation (footing) with different sizes is simulated numerically using ABAQUS software. The developed three dimensional numerical simulation accounts for nonlinear behaviour of the soil medium by considering the variation of soil stiffness and damping as a function of developed shear strain in the soil elements during earthquake. Elastic-perfectly plastic model is adopted to simulate piles and structural elements. Quiet boundary conditions are assigned to the numerical model and appropriate interface elements, capable of modelling sliding and separation between the foundation and soil elements, are considered. Numerical results in terms of base shear, lateral deformations, and inter-storey drifts of the structure are compared for the cases of soil-structure interaction system with different foundation sizes as well as fixed base condition (excluding SSI). It can be concluded that conventional design procedures excluding SSI may result in aggressive design. Moreover, the size of the foundation can influence the dynamic characteristics and seismic response of the building due to SSI and should therefore be given careful consideration in order to ensure a safe and cost effective seismic design.

Keywords: Seismic Response, ABAQUS, shallow foundation, soil-structure-interaction, rayleigh damping

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6 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali, Sid-Ali Rafa


A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: slope, shallow foundation, FLAC 2D, numeric method

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5 Theoretical Bearing Capacity of Modified Kacapuri Foundation

Authors: Muhammad Afief Maruf


Kacapuri foundation is the traditional shallow foundation of building which has been used since long by traditional communities in Borneo, Indonesia. Kacapuri foundation is a foundation that uses a combination of ironwood (eusideroxylon zwageri) as a column and truss and softwood (Melaleuca leucadendra syn. M. leucadendron) as a raft. In today's modern era, ironwood happened to be a rare item, and it is protected by the Indonesian government. This condition then triggers the idea to maintain the shape of the traditional foundation by modifying the material. The suggestion is replacing the ironwood column with reinforced concrete column. In addition, the number of stem softwood is added to sustain the burden of replacing the column material. Although this modified form of Kacapuri foundation is currently still not been tested in applications in society, some research on the modified Kacapuri foundation has been conducted by some researchers and government unit. This paper will try to give an overview of the theoretical foundation bearing capacity Kacapuri modifications applied to the soft alluvial soil located in Borneo, Indonesia, where the original form of Kacapuri is implemented this whole time. The foundation is modeled buried depth in 2m below the ground surface and also below the ground water level. The calculation of the theoretical bearing capacity and then is calculated based on the bearing capacity equation suggested Skempton, Terzaghi and Ohsuki using the data of soft alluvial soil in Borneo. The result will then compared with the bearing capacity of the Kacapuri foundation original design from some previous research. The results show that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Modified Kacapuri foundation using Skempton equation amounted to 329,26 kN, Terzaghi for 456,804kN, and according Ohsaki amounted to 491,972 kN. The ultimate bearing capacity of the original Kacapuri foundation model based on Skempton equation is 18,23 kN. This result shows that the modification added the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation, although the replacement of ironwood to reinforced concrete will also add some dead load to the total load itself.

Keywords: bearing capacity, shallow foundation, Kacapuri, modified foundation

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4 Finite Element Analysis of Raft Foundation on Various Soil Types under Earthquake Loading

Authors: Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu, Murtadha A. Abdulrasool


The design of shallow foundations to withstand different dynamic loads has given considerable attention in recent years. Dynamic loads may be due to the earthquakes, pile driving, blasting, water waves, and machine vibrations. But, predicting the behavior of shallow foundations during earthquakes remains a difficult task for geotechnical engineers. A database for dynamic and static parameters for different soils in seismic active zones in Iraq is prepared which has been collected from geophysical and geotechnical investigation works. Then, analysis of a typical 3-D soil-raft foundation system under earthquake loading is carried out using the database. And a parametric study has been carried out taking into consideration the influence of some parameters on the dynamic behavior of the raft foundation, such as raft stiffness, damping ratio as well as the influence of the earthquake acceleration-time records. The results of the parametric study show that the settlement caused by the earthquake can be decreased by about 72% with increasing the thickness from 0.5 m to 1.5 m. But, it has been noticed that reduction in the maximum bending moment by about 82% was predicted by decreasing the raft thickness from 1.5 m to 0.5 m in all sites model. Also, it has been observed that the maximum lateral displacement, the maximum vertical settlement and the maximum bending moment for damping ratio 0% is about 14%, 20%, and 18% higher than that for damping ratio 7.5%, respectively for all sites model.

Keywords: Seismic Behavior, damping ratio, shallow foundation, raft thickness

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3 Analysis of Shallow Foundation Using Conventional and Finite Element Approach

Authors: Sultan Al Shafian, Mozaher Ul Kabir, Khondoker Istiak Ahmad, Masnun Abrar, Mahfuza Khanum, Hossain M. Shahin


For structural evaluation of shallow foundation, the modulus of subgrade reaction is one of the most widely used and accepted parameter for its ease of calculations. To determine this parameter, one of the most common field method is Plate Load test method. In this field test method, the subgrade modulus is considered for a specific location and according to its application, it is assumed that the displacement occurred in one place does not affect other adjacent locations. For this kind of assumptions, the modulus of subgrade reaction sometimes forced the engineers to overdesign the underground structure, which eventually results in increasing the cost of the construction and sometimes failure of the structure. In the present study, the settlement of a shallow foundation has been analyzed using both conventional and numerical analysis. Around 25 plate load tests were conducted on a sand fill site in Bangladesh to determine the Modulus of Subgrade reaction of ground which is later used to design a shallow foundation considering different depth. After the collection of the field data, the field condition was appropriately simulated in a finite element software. Finally results obtained from both the conventional and numerical approach has been compared. A significant difference has been observed in the case of settlement while comparing the results. A proper correlation has also been proposed at the end of this research work between the two methods of in order to provide the most efficient way to calculate the subgrade modulus of the ground for designing the shallow foundation.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Settlement, plate load test, shallow foundation, modulus of subgrade reaction

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2 Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil

Authors: Jann-Eike Saathoff, Martin Achmus, Mauricio Terceros


In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.

Keywords: shallow foundation, onshore wind foundation, pier foundation, rotational stiffness of soil-foundation system

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1 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat


The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, bearing capacity, shallow foundation, loose sand, settlement equations

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