Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Sexual Orientation Related Abstracts

8 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle


South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: Sexual Orientation, Inclusive Education, Homosexuality, Transgender

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7 Reconstruction of the 'Bakla' as an Identity

Authors: Oscar H. Malaco Jr.


Homosexuality has been adapted as the universal concept that defines the deviations from the heteronormative parameters of society. Sexual orientation and gender identities have been used in a concretely separate manner the same way as the dynamics between man and woman, male and female, gender and sex operate. These terms are all products of human beings’ utilization of language. Language has proven its power to define and determine the status and the categories of the subjects in society. This tool developed by human beings provides a definition of their own specific cultural community and their individual selves that either claim or oppugn their space in the social hierarchy. The label ‘bakla’ is reasoned as an identity which is a reaction to the spectral disposition of gender and sexuality in the Philippine society. To expose the Filipino constitutes of bakla is the major attempt of this study. Through the methods of Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology), namely Pagtatanung-tanong (asking questions) and Pakikipagkuwentuhan (story-telling), the utterances of the bakla were gathered and analyzed in a rhetorical and ideological manner. Furthermore, the Dramatistic Pentad of Kenneth Burke was adapted as a methodology and also utilized as a perspective of analysis. The results suggest that the bakla as an identity carries the hurdles of class. The performativity of the bakla is proven to be a cycle propelled by their guilt to be identified and recognized as subjects in a society where heteronormative power contests their gender and sexual expressions as relatively aberrational to the binary gender and sexual roles. The labels, hence, are potent structures that control the disposition of the bakla in the society, reflecting an aspect of the disposition of Filipino identities. After all, performing kabaklaan in the Philippine society is interplay between resistance and conformity to the hegemonic dominions as a result of imperial attempts to universalize the concept of homosexuality between and among distant cultural communities.

Keywords: Rhetoric, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, performativity

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6 Bakla Po Ako (I Am Gay): A Case Study on the Communication Styles of Selected Filipino Gays in Disclosing Their Sexual Orientation to Their Parents

Authors: Bryan Christian Baybay, M. Francesca Ronario


This study is intended to answer the question “What are the communication styles of selected Filipino gays in breaking their silence on their sexual orientation to their parents?” In this regard, six cases of Filipino gay disclosures were examined through in-depth interviews. The participants were selected through purposive sampling and snowball technique. The theories, Rhetorical Sensitivity of Roderick Hart and Communicator Style of Robert Norton were used to analyze the gathered data and to give support to the communication attitudes, message processing, message rendering and communication styles exhibited in each disclosure. As secondary data and validation, parents and experts in the field of communication, sociology, and psychology were also interviewed and consulted. The study found that Filipino gays vary in the communication styles they use during the disclosure with their parents. All communication styles: impression-leaving, contentious, open, dramatic, dominant, precise, relaxed, friendly, animated, and communicator image were observed by the gays depending on their motivation, relationship and thoughts contemplated. These results lend ideas for future researchers to look into the communication patterns and/or styles of lesbians, bisexuals, transgenders and queers or expand researches on the same subject and the utilization of Social Judgment and Relational Dialectics theories in determining and analyzing LGBTQ communication.

Keywords: Sexual Orientation, self-disclosure, communication attitudes, communication styles, Filipino gays

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5 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen


Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: Tolerance, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Inclusive, Freedom of association, Freedom of Expression, acceptance, progress, fundamental rights and freedoms, human rights are universal, inherent human dignity

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4 Comparing Breast Cancer Risk and the Risk Factors between Heterosexual Women and Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: A Preliminary Result

Authors: Yi-Maun Subeq, Ya-Ching Wang


Background: There is a lack of evidence to understand differences in risk for developing breast cancer between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to compare differences in risk for developing breast cancer between the two groups of Taiwanese women. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. A total of 238 Taiwanese women (mean age 30.69 years old, SD=8.231, range 20-60) were recruited between December 2016 and February 2017, including 115 heterosexual women and 123 sexual minority women. Results: There were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in body mass index, history of non-malignant breast disease, age at menarche and menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, use of hormone replacement therapy, nor the prevalence of breast cancer. The sexual minority women had higher rates of current drinking, smoking and using breast-bindings and also reported exercise more a week; the heterosexual women had higher rates of pregnancy, children, breastfeed, miscarriages, abortion and use of birth control pills. Discussion/Conclusion: There were significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in reproductive factors and behavioral risk factors for the development of breast cancer. In particular, the finding that the sexual minority women had higher rate of using breast-bindings (56.6%) than the heterosexual women (4.7%) should be further explore, in order to understand whether long-term breast compression is associated with the development of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Risk, Sexual Orientation, Taiwan

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3 A Phenomenological Analysis of LBTQI+ Women’s Identification and Disidentification Processes through Walking Interviews in Montreal

Authors: Tara Chanady


Through 21 walking interviews with women from various backgrounds and positionalities, this study examines issues of identity politics in Montreal’s sociocultural space. The research looks at the social, political and economical implications of claiming or refusing identifications amongst women of sexual diversity (e.g. defining as lesbian, queer, bi, pan, fluid or not wanting to identity). The results are analysed from a phenomenological perspective, paying attention to the participants personal interpretations and perspectives, as well as contextualising the interviews in time and space. Using intersectional insights, this study pays attention to varying social positions, including immigration status (newly immigrated, rural to city immigration, Montreal-born, seeking asylum), age (20 to 80), gender (cis, trans and intersex women), relationship style (monogamous and polyamorous) and class. Preliminary findings include a generational shift in issues (e.g. community politics within lesbian communities in the 1980s), varying perspectives on the need of exclusive and safe spaces, shifts in issues of racism and transphobia and identifying points of tensions within conceptualisations of queer and lesbian positionalities.

Keywords: lesbian, Sexual Orientation, queer, identifications

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2 Coping with Incompatible Identities in Russia: Case of Orthodox Gays

Authors: Siuzan Uorner


The era of late modernity is characterized, on the one hand, by social disintegration, values of personal freedom, tolerance, and self-expression. Boundaries between the accessible and the elitist, normal and abnormal are blurring. On the other hand, traditional social institutions, such as religion (especially Russian Orthodox Church), exist, criticizing lifestyle and worldview other than conventionally structured canons. Despite the declared values and opportunities in late modern society, people's freedom is ambivalent. Personal identity and its aspects are becoming a subject of choice. Hence, combinations of identity aspects can be incompatible. Our theoretical framework is based on P. Ricoeur's concept of narrative identity and hermeneutics, E. Goffman’s theory of social stigma, self-presentation, discrepant roles and W. James lectures about varieties of religious experience. This paper aims to reconstruct ways of coping with incompatible identities of Orthodox gays (an extreme sampling of a combination of sexual orientation and religious identity in a heteronormative society). This study focuses on the discourse of Orthodox gay parishioners and ROC gay priests in Russia (sampling ‘hard to reach’ populations because of the secrecy of gay community in ROC and sensitivity of the topic itself). We conducted a qualitative research design, using in-depth personal semi-structured online-interviews. Recruiting of informants took place in 'Nuntiare et Recreare' (Russian movement of religious LGBT) page in VKontakte through the post with an invitation to participate in the research. In this work, we analyzed interview transcripts using axial coding. We chose the Grounded Theory methodology to construct a theory from empirical data and contribute to the growing body of knowledge in ways of harmonizing incompatible identities in late modern societies. The research has found that there are two types of conflicts Orthodox gays meet with: canonic contradictions (postulates of Scripture and its interpretations) and problems in social interaction, mainly with ROC priests and Orthodox parishioners. We have revealed semantic meanings of most commonly used words that appear in the narratives (words such as ‘love’, ‘sin’, ‘religion’ etc.). Finally, we have reconstructed biographical patterns of LGBT social movements’ involvement. This paper argues that all incompatibilities are harmonizing in the narrative itself. As Ricoeur has suggested, the narrative configuration allows the speaker to gather facts and events together and to compose causal relationships between them. Sexual orientation and religious identity are getting along and harmonizing in the narrative.

Keywords: Sexual Orientation, ROC, religious identity, gay priests, incompatible identities, narrative identity, Orthodox gays

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1 Sexual Orientation, Household Labour Division and the Motherhood Wage Penalty

Authors: Julia Hoefer Martí


While research has consistently found a significant motherhood wage penalty for heterosexual women, where homosexual women are concerned, evidence has appeared to suggest no effect, or possibly even a wage bonus. This paper presents a model of the household with a public good that requires both a monetary expense and a labour investment, and where the household budget is shared between partners. Lower-wage partners will do relatively more of the household labour while higher-wage partners will specialise in market labour, and the arrival of a child exacerbates this split, resulting in the lower-wage partner taking on even more of the household labour in relative terms. Employers take this gender-sexuality dyad as a signal for employees’ commitment to the labour market after having a child, and use the information when setting wages after employees become parents. Given that women empirically earn lower wages than men, in a heterosexual couple the female partner will often do more of the household labour. However, as not every female partner has a lower wage, this results in an over-adjustment of wages that manifests as an unexplained motherhood wage penalty. On the other hand, in homosexual couples wage distributions are ex ante identical, and gender is no longer a useful signal to employers as to whether the partner is likely to specialise in household labour or market labour. This model is then tested using longitudinal data from the EU Standards of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to investigate the hypothesis that women experience different wage effects of motherhood depending on their sexual orientation. While heterosexual women receive a significant motherhood wage penalty of 8-10%, homosexual mothers do not receive any significant wage bonus or penalty of motherhood, consistent with the hypothesis presented above.

Keywords: Gender, Labor Economics, Sexual Orientation, Discrimination, motherhood

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