Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Sexual assault Related Abstracts

10 The Sociological and Legal Study of Sexual Assault in Nigeria

Authors: Adeshina Francis Akindutre, Adebolarin Adekanle


Sexual assault is often considered as the most extreme form of violence that degrades and humiliates women in society. It is a widespread public health and psychological problem in Nigeria. Criminologically, sexual assaults have been considered as one of the several violent crimes targeted specifically at women and perpetrated by men. This paper attempts to examine the types of sexual assaults in Nigeria, the strategies used by the offenders, the causes, the psychological effects on the victims and the possible solutions of sexual assaults. This work also, examines the law prohibiting sexual assault in Nigeria. The authors made use of three theories: the victim precipitation approach, the feminist approach, and the psychological approach which explain why sexual assault takes place in society. Finally, it takes the Stockholm Syndrome into consideration (the treatment of victims).

Keywords: Psychological, Feminist, Sexual assault, victims, offenders, Stockholm Syndrome

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9 Coordinated Community Response to Intimate Partner Violence on College Campuses

Authors: Robert D. Hanser, Gina M. Hanser


This paper provides an overview of Coordinated Community Response Teams (CCRT) to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The CCRT, as a partnership and collaborative effort between multiple agencies is highlighted. This paper is a legal analysis that showcases new legislation and legal requirements in the United States for investigating, processing, and reporting to acts of victimization have transformed the role of the university’s CCRT on campus, making its mission all the more important, both internal and external to the campus. As a specific example, discussion of the CCRT in Northeast Louisiana at the University of Louisiana at Monroe is provided as an example of involvement in this initiative, where federal grant funding has allowed a micro version of the region’s CCRT to be implemented on that campus. Simultaneously, university personnel also work with external agencies throughout the community in intimate partner violence response. Amidst this, the result is a genuine partnership between practitioners and researchers who work together to provide public awareness, prevention, first-responder, and intervention services in a comprehensive manner throughout Northeast Louisiana.

Keywords: Dating Violence, Sexual assault, interperaonal violence, campus violence

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8 Systematic Review of Sexual Assault Prevention Methods for Older Adults: Exploring the Hidden Needs of a Growing Population

Authors: Michelle Hand, Brieanne Beaujolais


Rape stereotypes have long involved the assault of young females by strangers desiring sex. As such, older adult women and men have largely been excluded from research, policies, and awareness raising initiatives to address sexual violence. Moreover sexual assault accounts for the most underreported type of abuse experienced by older adults, highlighting a need to expand our knowledge base in this area. Thus a systematic review of peer-reviewed scholarly articles and reports was conducted to explore the ways sexual assault has been prevented among older adults in recent years and to identify implications for researchers and practitioners as they aim to meet the needs of this population. Articles and reports published during or after 2007 were eligible if their focus included methods to address sex abuse among older adults as well as practice or research implications. Forty-four articles met this criteria and were included in this systematic review. The findings from this review will provide an in-depth understanding of the under-researched issue of sexual violence among older adult women and men as well as current prevention strategies. In addition, implications and recommendations will be provided for practitioners, educators and researchers as they aim to meet the hidden needs of this growing yet under-researched population.

Keywords: Sexual Violence, Sexual assault, elder, rape

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7 Persistence of DNA on Clothes Contaminated by Semen Stains after Washing

Authors: Ashraf Shebl, Bassam Garah, Radah Youssef


Sexual assault is usually a hidden crime where the only witnesses are the victim and the assailant. For a variety of reasons, even the victim may be unable to provide a detailed account of the assault or the identity of the perpetrator. Often the case history deteriorates into one person’s word against another. With such limited initial information, the physical and biological evidence collected from the victim, from the crime scene, and from the suspect will play a pivotal role in the objective and scientific reconstruction of the events in question. The aim of work is to examine whether DNA profiles could be recovered from repeated washed clothes after contaminated by semen stains. Fresh semen about 1ml. ( <1 h old) taken from donor was deposited on four types of clothes (cotton, silk, polyester, and jeans). Then leave to dry in room temperature and washed by washing machine at temperature (30°C-60°C) and by hand washing. Some items of clothing were washed once, some twice and others three times. DNA could be extracted from some of these samples even after multiple washing. This study demonstrates that complete DNA profiles can be obtained from washed semen stains on different types of clothes, even after many repeated washing. These results indicated that clothes of the victims must be examined even if they were washed many times.

Keywords: Dna, Sexual assault, Clothes, persistence

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6 Women Executives: A Panacea to Incessant Sexual Assaults in Higher Institutions, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Imo State Nigeria as a Case Study

Authors: Ujunma Nnenna Egbuawa


Rape or sexual assault is a hideous crime of violence done predominantly to women and occasionally to men. In institutions of higher learning, it’s mostly experienced within or outside the campus environment due to students who are from different backgrounds socially. These students also have been imbibed with conflicting ethical standards, thus act both morally and amoral with respect to their sexual urges. The most affected among these are the female students who live outside the campus environment that is suitable for any immoral activity. These female students that are victims of rape hardly would want to be identified and this has left them as habitual prey to the unsuspecting predators. The socio-cultural setting has also been a contributory factor to the psychological and physical damage these victims face throughout their time of study as female rape victims. This is an empirical study designed to elicit information from students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Imo State Nigeria on whether they have been sexually assaulted or raped and how they handled it thereafter. This institution was used as a case study because the provost of this tertiary institution is a woman whose name is Dr( Mrs ) C.U Njoku who has made consented efforts to ensure these rape victims rise above the social stigma associated with it. This rector has also put in some measures to bring about a decline in cases of rape within and outside the campus environment. She also granted the researcher an oral interview on how she has been able to achieve these and the challenges she hitherto faced in the process. Three research questions and a hypothesis guided the study. Samples of 119 students were used and stratification was done for sex, age and the academic level of the students. 14 item questionnaires were used and data generated from the survey were analyzed using percentages. This workshop would engage the participants by investigating some courses that may help in declining the rate of rape cases within a campus. Also, necessary measures that would be taken to help in sensitizing the tertiary institutions in areas that can aid the healing procedures of these victims. The need also for guidance and counseling unit is also a necessity for the psychological survival of these rape victims. As a result, the participants would gain an increased awareness of the influence of rape and sexual assault on campus. There ought to be a paradigm shift in institutions of higher learning in policies, administrative decisions and introduction of courses that will uplift ethical standards in order to bring about a change both locally and globally.

Keywords: Psychological, Institutions, Socio-cultural, Sexual assault

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5 The Effect of Sexual Assault on Sport Participation Trajectories from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

Authors: Chung Gun Lee


Objectives: Certain life change events were shown to have strong effects on physical activity-related behavior, but more research is needed to investigate the longer-term effects of different life change events on physical activity-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of experiencing physically or non-physically forced sexual activity on sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to examine the effect of experiencing sexual assault on trajectories of sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Results: Male participants were divided into three trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable, High-decreasing, and High-stable) and female participants were divided into two trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable and High-decreasing). The main finding of this study is that women who experienced non-physically forced sexual activity significantly decreases sports participation throughout the trajectory in ‘High-decreasing group.’ The effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on women’s sports participation was considerably weakened and became insignificant after including psychological depression in the model as a potential mediator. Discussion: Special attention should be paid to sport participation among women victims of non-physically forced sexual activity. Further studies are needed to examine other potential mediators in addition to psychological depression when examining the effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on sport participation in women.

Keywords: Adolescent, Sexual assault, young adult, group-based trajectory modeling

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4 Attitudes toward Sexual Assault: The Role of Religious Affiliation, Alcohol, and Gender

Authors: Ignacio Luis Ramirez, Brittney Holcomb


This study examines attitudes toward sexual assault based on religious affiliation, religiosity, religious beliefs, attitude about sexual assault education, alcohol, and drug use. This study found respondents who identified themselves as Catholics had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than Baptists or Protestants. Respondents who indicated a greater problem with alcohol had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements. In reference to gender, males had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than females. The respondent’s religiosity and religious beliefs did not affect their attitudes toward sexual assault. Additionally, attitudes about sexual assault education and drug use did not affect attitudes toward sexual assault.

Keywords: Education, drugs, Religion, Alcohol, Sexual assault

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3 Attitudes Towards Different Types of Rape

Authors: Avigail Moor


Rape by an acquaintance is a prevalent type of sexual assault that is often misperceived and downplayed. To date, there has been no empirical investigation of the prevailing social attitudes towards this type of rape as compared to stranger rape. The present study seeks to address this issue by evaluating widely held attitudes towards these different types of rape. The mediating role of gender and rape myths acceptance is assessed as well. Three hundred and twenty participants, equally divided by gender, completed self-report questionnaires. The results indicate that sexual coercion by strangers is perceived as rape to a significantly greater degree than forced sex by an acquaintance, which in turn is believed to be more harmful than coercion within a steady relationship, particularly by men who view rape in accordance with prevailing rape-supportive attitudes. The same pattern of differentiation emerged in the participants' attitudes toward the psychological harm expected following each, as well as the advisability of reporting the incidents to the police. Implications for preventive efforts are discussed.

Keywords: Sexual assault, Gender Differences, rape supportive attitudes, acquaintance rape

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2 Effective Sexual Assault Treatment as Viewed by Survivors and Expert Therapists

Authors: Avigail Moor


Rape and sexual assault have been widely linked to severe psychological sequelae, the recovery from which often requires professional help. Thanks to the current shift in societal attitudes towards sexual violence, the victim's perspective is increasingly being heard. The present study is yet another step in that direction. Through the investigation of what recovered survivors of sexual assault identify as the therapeutic interventions that most assisted them in overcoming their trauma, guidelines for optimal sexual assault treatment are established. These receive further support from a comparison with expert therapists as to what they view as being most conducive to recovery from rape. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 survivors who have experienced a successful course of therapy and 15 therapists with extensive expertise in the field. The results document considerable agreement between the two perspectives, which share much in common. First, irrespective of the specific techniques involved, both survivors and therapists placed the greatest importance on a respectful and validating therapeutic relationship, that operates to counter the dehumanization and degradation entailed in the assault. In addition, specific interventions were identified, which include the reprocessing of all rape-specific peri-traumatic reactions coupled with the intentional countering of their consequences within the therapeutic relationship. Together, these reports provide a detailed account of post-rape treatment needs and the interventions required for their effective resolution.

Keywords: Sexual assault, survivors, rape, treatment efficacy

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1 Factors That Promote Bystander Intervention in Cases of Sexual Violence

Authors: Avigail Moor


Sexual violence against women occurs at alarmingly high rates, which have remained steady irrespective of the increased societal awareness of this problem, affecting an upward of 20% of women. It appears that all the public discourse on this topic, including research, prevention programs, and public campaigns have not made a noticeable dent in this prevalence. This calls for new course of action. Raising awareness regarding the preventive role of bystanders might be it. To that end, the present study sought to establish what promotes bystander intervention and what hinders it. Three hundred and twenty-four men and women, ranging in age from 20-40, participated in this study, completing self-report questionnaires on the topics under investigation. Results indicated that the proclivity to intervene as a bystander is impacted by various factors. The most consequential among them is gender, with twice as many women as men, 70% vs 38% respectively, being positively inclined to take action in such cases. Other significant factors included belief in rape myths and having empathy towards perpetrators, which reduced the likelihood of bystander intervention. Holding the attitude that it is possible to freely consent to sex while intoxicated had a similar impact. The discussion addresses various preventive implications.

Keywords: Sexual assault, bystander intervention, rape prevention, rape myths

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