Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

sex ratio Related Abstracts

3 New Challenges to the Conservation and Management of the Endangered Persian Follow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) in Ashk Island of Lake Uromiyeh National Park, Iran

Authors: Morteza Naderi


The Persian fallow deer was considered as a globally extinct species until 1956 when a small population was rediscovered from Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkheh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern parts of Iran. After long species rehabilitation process, the species was transplanted to Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge in northern Iran, and from where, follow deer was introduced to the different selected habitats such as Ashk Island in Lake Uromiyeh National Park. During 12 years, (from 1978 to 1989) 58 individuals (25 males and 33 females) were transferred to Ask Island. The main threat to the established population was related to the freshwater shortage and existing just one single trough such as high mortality rate of adult males during rutting season, snake biting and dilutional hyponatremia. Desiccation of Lake Uromiyeh in recent years raised new challenges to the conservation process, as about 80 individuals, nearly one third of the population were died in 2011. Connection of Island to the mainland caused predators’ accessibility (such as wolf and Jackal) to the Ask Island and higher mortality because of follow deer attraction to the surrounding mainland farms. Conservation team faced such new challenges that may cause introduction plan to be probably failed. Investigations about habitat affinities and carrying capacity are the main basic researches in the management and conservation of the species. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the different fresh water resources as well as Allium akaka and Pistacia atlantica are the main environmental variables affect Follow deer habitat selection. Habitat carrying capacity analysis both in summer and winter seasons indicated that Ashk Island can support 240±30 of Persian follow deer.

Keywords: Carrying Capacity, Predation, follow deer, lake Uromiyeh, microhabitat affinities, population oscillation, sex ratio

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2 Effect of Acute Dose of Mobile Phone Radiation on Life Cycle ‎of the Mosquito, Culex univittatus

Authors: Alaaeddeen M. Seufi, Fatma H. Galal


Due to the increasing usage of mobile phone, experiments were designed to investigate ‎the effect of acute dose exposure on the mosquito life cycle. 50 tubes (5 ml size) ‎containing 3 ml water and a first instar larva of the mosquito, Culex univittatus were put ‎between two mobile cell phones switched on talking mode for 4 continuous hours. A ‎control group of tubes (unexposed to radiation) were used. Larval and pupal durations ‎were calculated. Furthermore, adult emergence and sex ratio were observed for both ‎treated and control larvae. Results indicated that the employed dose of radiation reduced ‎total larval duration to about half the value of control. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval ‎durations were reduced significantly by mobile radiation when compared to controls. ‎Meanwhile pupal duration was elongated significantly by mobile radiation when ‎compared to control. Sex ratio was significantly shifted in favor of females in the case of ‎radiated mosquitoes. Successful adult emergence was decreased significantly in the case ‎of radiated insects when compared to controls. Molecular studies to investigate the ‎effects of mobile radiation on insects and other model organisms are going on.‎

Keywords: mosquito, sex ratio, mobilr radiation, larval and pupal durations

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1 The Current Status and Abundance of the Genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole, J. K Balogun


The current status and abundance of the genus Citharinus was carried out in Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria from January to December, 2011. The aim was to determine the extent of exploitation of the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake so as to advice the government of Nigeria on how to overcome difficulties in terms of the sustainability of the said fish in the Lake. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. A total of 2,389 of the genus Citharinus were caught during the sampling period. Only two species of the genus Citharinus were caught with 1,220 in number and 430.68kg total weight of Citharinus citharus and 1,169 in number and 418.56kg total weight of Citharinus latus). The current total yield estimated for the genus Citharinus in Jebba Lake in the six (6) sampling sites was calculated and pooled together to be 849.24kg. A day’s catch was calculated to be 35.38kg. The monthly and annual yields of the genus Citharinus were calculated to 1061.55 equivalents to 1 ton and 12 metric tonnes respectively. For the fecundity, June, July and August were discovered as the spawning period for the genus Citharinus and out of total experimental gillnet catch of 2, 389, only 244 (10.21%)of Citharinus citharus and 231 (9.67%) of Citharinus latus were in sexually mature stage. Out of these numbers, 113 (46.31%) were males and 121 (53.69%) were females of Citharinus citharus and 112 (48.48) were males and 119 (51.52) were females of Citharinus latus. The youngest mature males in either of the two had a standard length of 31.5 with a weight of 800.5gWhilethe youngest spawning females were having the standard length of 29.5 cm with a weight of 1,3oo.5g.It was also discovered that females started maturing earlier than the males at the standard length for females and males to be 18.0cm and 19.5cm respectively. Their fecundity ranged from 15,000 to 16, 500 eggs. The sex ratio of 1172 that were males and 1217 that were females was 1 male to 1.0383 females which was equivalent to 1:1 sex ratio of male to female. It was concluded that Jebba Lake had suffered seriously over exploitation of the genus Citharinus and proper management have to be enforced on the lake otherwise the threat of fish being extent may arise.

Keywords: Nigeria, fecundity, sex ratio, Jebba Lake, Niger State, Citharinus citharus, Citharinus latus

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