Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Sewage Sludge Related Abstracts

24 Improvement Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Sewage Sludge by Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure

Authors: Raouf Hassan


Biogas energy production from sewage sludge is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. Sewage sludge is considered nutrient-rich substrates, but had lower values of carbone which consider an energy source for anaerobic bacteria. The lack or lower values of carbone-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) reduced biogas yield and fermentation rate. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge offers several benefits over mono-digestion such as optimize nutrient balance, increased cost-efficiency and increased degradation rate. The high produced amounts of animal manures, which reach up to 90% of the total collected organic wastes, are recommended for the co-digestion with sewage sludge, especially with the limitations of industrial substrates. Moreover, cattle manures had high methane production potential (500 m3/t vsadded). When mixed with sewage sludge the potential methane production increased with increasing cattle manure content. In this paper, the effect of cattle manure (CM) addition as co-substrates on the sewage sludge (SS) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using anaerobic batch reactors. The batch reactors were operated with a working volume 0.8 liter, and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The research work focus on studying two main parameters; the biogas yield (expressed as VSS) and pH values inside the reactors.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, Anaerobic Digestion, cattle manure, mesophilic, biogas yield

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23 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Bagasse for Biogas Recovery

Authors: Raouf Ahmed Mohamed Hassan


In Egypt, the excess sewage sludge from wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is rapidly increasing due to the continuous increase of population, urban planning and industrial developments. Also, cane bagasses constitute an important component of Urban Solid Waste (USW), especially at the south of Egypt, which are difficult to degrade under normal composting conditions. These wastes need to be environmentally managed to reduce the negative impacts of its application or disposal. In term of biogas recovery, the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge or bagasse separately is inefficient, due to the presence of nutrients and minerals. Also, the Carbone-Nitrogen Ratio (C/N) play an important role, sewage sludge has a ratio varies from 6-16, where cane bagasse has a ratio around 150, whereas the suggested optimum C/N ratio for anaerobic digestion is in the range of 20 to 30. The anaerobic co-digestion is presented as a successful methodology that combines several biodegradable organic substrates able to decrease the amount of output wastes by biodegradation, sharing processing facilities, reducing operating costs, while enabling recovery of biogas. This paper presents the study of co-digestion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a type of organic wastes and bagasse as agriculture wastes. Laboratory-scale mesophilic and thermophilic digesters were operated with varied hydraulic retention times. Different percentage of sludge and bagasse are investigated based on the total solids (TS). Before digestion, the bagasse was subjected to grinding pretreatment and soaked in distilled water (water pretreatment). The effect of operating parameters (mixing, temperature) is investigated in order to optimize the process in the biogas production. The yield and the composition of biogas from the different experiments were evaluated and the cumulative curves were estimated. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to using the co-digestion of wastewater sludge and bagasse for biogas production.

Keywords: Mixing, Sewage Sludge, mesophilic, co-digestion, bagasse, thermophilic

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22 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya


The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.

Keywords: fertilizer, Leaching, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge

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21 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi


Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, Anaerobic Digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate

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20 Wastewater from the Food Industry: Characteristics and Possibilities of Sediments on the Basis of the Dairy Industry

Authors: Monika Gałwa-Widera, Anna Kwarciak–Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak


Issues relating to management of sewage sludge from small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants is a vital issue, which deal with such scholars as well as those directly involved in the issue of wastewater treatment and management of sedimentary. According to the Law on Waste generating waste is responsible for such processing to the product obtained impacted on the environment minimally. In small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants have to deal with the technology of sludge management technology is far from drying and incineration of sewage sludge. So here you can use other technologies. One of them is the composting of sewage sludge. It is a process of processing and disposal of sewage sludge that effectively their disposal. By composting, we can obtain a product that contains significant amounts of organic matter to assess the fertilizing qualities. Modifications to the ongoing process in biological reactors allow for more rapid receipt of a wholesome product. The research presented and discussed in this publication relate to assist the composting process of sewage sludge and biomass structural material in the shares of rates: 35% biomass, 55% sludge, 10% structural material using a method which involves the re-spawning batch composting physical methods leachate from the composting process.

Keywords: biomass, Industry, Composting, Sewage Sludge

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19 The Effects of Sewage Sludge Usage and Manure on Some Heavy Metals Uptake in Savory (Satureja Hortensis L.)

Authors: Abbas Hani


In recent decades with the development of technology and lack of food sources, sewage sludge in production of human foods is inevitable. Various sources of municipal and industrial sewage sludge that is produced can provide the requirement of plant nutrients. Soils in arid, semi-arid climate of central Iran that most affected by water drainage, iron and zinc deficiencies, using of sewage sludge is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is investigation of sewage sludge and manure application on Ni and Zn uptake by Savory. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Sewage sludge treatments consisted of four levels, control, 15, 30, 80 tons per hectares, the manure was used in four levels of control, 20, 40 and 80 tons per hectare. Results showed that the wet and dry weights was not affected by sewage sludge using, while, manure has significant effect on them. The effect of sewage sludge on the cadmium and lead concentrations were significant. Interactions of sewage sludge and manure on dry weight values were not significant. Compare mean analysis showed that increasing the amount of sewage sludge had no significant effect on cadmium concentration and it reduced when sewage sludge usage increased. This is probably due to increased plant growth and reduced concentrations of these elements in the plant.

Keywords: Manure, Sewage Sludge, cadmium, lead, savory

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18 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes


The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthemore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the bio-degradation, up to 40.5 % of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, mobilization, fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant

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17 Study Technical Possibilities of Agricultural Reuse of by-Products from Treatment Plant of Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: Kadir Mokrane, Souag Doudja


In Algeria, one of the Mediterranean countries, water resources are limited and unevenly distributed in space and in time. Boumerdes, coastal town of Algeria, known for its farming and fishing activities. The region is also known for its semi-arid climate and a large water deficit. In order to preserve the quality of water bodies and to reduce withdrawals in the natural environment, it is necessary to seek alternative supplies. The reuse of treated wastewater seems to be a good alternative, especially for irrigation. In the framework of sustainable development, it is imperative to rationalize the use of water resources conventional and unconventional. That is why the re-use agricultural of by-products of the treatment is an alternative expected to preserve the environment and promotion of the agricultural sector. The present work aims, to search for the possibility of reuse of treated wastewater, and sludge resulting from treatment plant of the city of Boumerdes in agriculture, through the analysis of physical, chemical and bacteriological on the samples, and the continuous monitoring of the evolution of several elements during the period of study extended over 12 months, and then, the comparison of these test results to standards and guidelines established in the framework of irrigation and land application.

Keywords: Agriculture, Recycling, Sewage Sludge, treated water

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16 Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: D. Hephzibah, P. Kumaran, N. M. Saifuddin


Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment methods have been established in various publications as a promising technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery. In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization, sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.

Keywords: Biogas, Sewage Sludge, Anaerobic Digestion, microwave pre-treatment

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15 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich


Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: Recycling, Metal, trace element, Sewage Sludge

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14 Concentrations of Some Metallic Trace Elements in Twelve Sludge Incineration Ashes

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Claude-Alla Joseph, Marc Hébert


The main objective of incineration of sludge generated from municipal or agri-food waste treatment plant is to reduce the volume of sludge to be disposed of as a solid or liquid waste, whilst concentrating or destroying potentially harmful volatile substances. In some cities in Canada and United States of America (USA), a large amount of sludge is incinerated, which entails a loss of organic matter and water leading to phosphorus, potassium and some metallic trace element (MTE) accumulation in ashes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potentially hazardous MTE such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in twelve sludge incineration ash samples obtained from municipal wastewater and other food processing waste treatments from Canada and USA. The average, maximum, and minimum values of MTE in ashes were calculated for each city individually and all together. The trace metal concentration values were compared to the literature reported values. The concentrations of MTE in ashes vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options. The concentrations of MTE in ashes were found the range of 0.1-6.4 mg/kg for Cd; 13-286 mg/kg for Pb and 0.1-0.5 mg/kg for Hg. On average, the following order of metal concentration in ashes was observed: Pb > Cd > Hg. Results show that metal contents in most ashes were similar to MTE levels in synthetic inorganic fertilizers and many fertilizing residual materials. Consequently, the environmental effects of MTE content of these ashes would be low.

Keywords: Recycling, Biosolids, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge

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13 Thermal Characteristics of Sewage Sludge to Develop an IDPG Technology

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim, Byeo Ri Jeong


Sewage sludge is regarded as the residue produced by the waste water treatment process, during which liquids and solids are being separated. Thermal treatments are interesting techniques to stabilize the sewage sludge for disposal. Among the thermal treatments, pyrolysis and/or gasification has been being applied to the sewage sludge. The final goal of our NRF research is to develop a microwave In-line Drying-Pyrolysis-Gasification (IDPG) technology for the dewatered sewage sludge for the bio-waste to energy conversion. As a first step, the pyrolysis characteristics in a bench scale electric furnace was investigated at 800℃ for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge samples of which moisture contents are almost 80% and 0%, respectively. Main components of producer gas are hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Particularly, higher hydrogen for the dewatered sludge is shown as 75%. The hydrogen production for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge are 56% and 32%, respectively. However, the pyrolysis for the dried sludge produces higher carbon dioxide and other gases, while higher methane and carbon dioxide are given to 74% and 53%, respectively. Tar also generates during the pyrolysis process, showing lower value for case of the dewatered sludge. Gravimetric tar is 195 g/m3, and selected light tar like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene are 9.4 g/m3, 2.1 g/m3, 0.5 g/m3, 0.3 g/m3, respectively. After the pyrolysis process, residual char for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge remain 1g and 1.3g, showing weight reduction rate of 93% and 57%, respectively. Through the results, this could be known that the dewatered sludge can be used to produce a clean hydrogen-rich gas fuel without the drying process. Therefore, the IDPG technology can be applied effectively to the energy conversion for dewater sludge waste without a drying pretreatment. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: Biomass Energy, pyrolysis, gasification, Sewage Sludge, tar generation, producer gas, sludge char

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12 Energy Conversion for Sewage Sludge by Microwave Heating Pyrolysis and Gasification

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Byeo Ri Jeong, Soo Hyuk Yun


The recent gradual increase in the energy demand is mostly met by fossil fuel, but the research on and development of new alternative energy sources is drawing much attention due to the limited fossil fuel supply and the greenhouse gas problem. Biomass is an eco-friendly renewable energy that can achieve carbon neutrality. The conversion of the biomass sludge wastes discharged from a wastewater treatment plant to clean energy is an important green energy technology in an eco-friendly way. In this NRF study, a new type of microwave thermal treatment was developed to apply the biomass-CCS technology to sludge wastes. For this, the microwave dielectric heating characteristics were examined to investigate the energy conversion mechanism for the combined drying-pyrolysis/gasification of the dewatered wet sludge. The carbon dioxide gasification was tested using the CO2 captured from the pre-combustion capture process. In addition, the results of the pyrolysis and gasification test with the wet sludge were analyzed to compare the microwave energy conversion results with the results of the use of the conventional heating method. Gas was the largest component of the product of both pyrolysis and gasification, followed by sludge char and tar. In pyrolysis, the main components of the producer gas were hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and there were some methane and hydrocarbons. In gasification, however, the amount of carbon monoxide was greater than that of hydrogen. In microwave gasification, a large amount of heavy tar was produced. The largest amount of benzene among light tar was produced in both pyrolysis and gasification. NH3 and HCN which are the precursors of NOx, generated as well. In microwave heating, the sludge char had a smooth surface, like that of glass, and in the conventional heating method with an electric furnace, deep cracks were observed in the sludge char. This indicates that the gas obtained from the microwave pyrolysis and gasification of wet sewage sludge can be used as fuel, but the heavy tar and NOx precursors in the gas must be treated. Sludge char can be used as solid fuel or as a tar reduction adsorbent in the process if necessary. This work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: Biomass Energy, Sewage Sludge, Microwave Heating, pyrolysis gasification, precombustion CCS

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11 Effect of Segregation on the Reaction Rate of Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, A. Morato-Godino, L. M. García-Gutiérrez, N. García-Hernando


The evolution of the pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a fixed and a fluidized bed was analyzed using a novel measuring technique. This original measuring technique consists of installing the whole reactor over a precision scale, capable of measuring the mass of the complete reactor with enough precision to detect the mass released by the sewage sludge sample during its pyrolysis. The inert conditions required for the pyrolysis process were obtained supplying the bed with a nitrogen flowrate, and the bed temperature was adjusted to either 500 ºC or 600 ºC using a group of three electric resistors. The sewage sludge sample was supplied through the top of the bed in a batch of 10 g. The measurement of the mass released by the sewage sludge sample was employed to determine the evolution of the reaction rate during the pyrolysis, the total amount of volatile matter released, and the pyrolysis time. The pyrolysis tests of sewage sludge in the fluidized bed were conducted using two different bed materials of the same size but different densities: silica sand and sepiolite particles. The higher density of silica sand particles induces a flotsam behavior for the sewage sludge particles which move close to the bed surface. In contrast, the lower density of sepiolite produces a neutrally-buoyant behavior for the sewage sludge particles, which shows a proper circulation throughout the whole bed in this case. The analysis of the evolution of the pyrolysis process in both fluidized beds show that the pyrolysis is faster when buoyancy effects are negligible, i.e. in the bed conformed by sepiolite particles. Moreover, sepiolite was found to show an absorbent capability for the volatile matter released during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

Keywords: pyrolysis, Sewage Sludge, Reaction Rate, bubbling fluidized bed, segregation effects

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10 Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment

Authors: Yi Chen, Huyuan Zhang


Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.

Keywords: barrier, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge, acid buffering capacity, remobilization

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9 Influence of Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Land Quality and Crop

Authors: Lucian P. Georgescu, Catalina Iticescu, Mihaela Timofti, Gabriel Murariu


Since the accumulation of large quantities of sewage sludge is producing serious environmental problems, numerous environmental specialists are looking for solutions to solve this problem. The sewage sludge obtained by treatment of municipal wastewater may be used as fertiliser on agricultural soils because such sludge contains large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. In many countries, sewage sludge is used instead of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, this being the most feasible method to reduce the increasingly larger quantities of sludge. The use of sewage sludge on agricultural soils is allowed only with a strict monitoring of their physical and chemical parameters, because heavy metals exist in varying amounts in sewage sludge. Exceeding maximum permitted quantities of harmful substances may lead to pollution of agricultural soil and may cause their removal aside because the plants may take up the heavy metals existing in soil and these metals will most probably be found in humans and animals through food. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), total organic carbon (TOC) (mg L⁻¹), N-total (mg L⁻¹), P-total (mg L⁻¹), N-NH₄ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₂ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₃ (mg L⁻¹), Fe-total (mg L⁻¹), Cr-total (mg L⁻¹), Cu (mg L⁻¹), Zn (mg L⁻¹), Cd (mg L⁻¹), Pb (mg L⁻¹), Ni (mg L⁻¹). The determination methods were electrometrical (pH, C, TSD) - with a portable HI 9828 HANNA electrodes committed multiparameter and spectrophotometric - with a Spectroquant NOVA 60 - Merck spectrophotometer and with specific Merck parameter kits. The tests made pointed out the fact that the sludge analysed is low heavy metal falling within the legal limits, the quantities of metals measured being much lower than the maximum allowed. The results of the tests made to determine the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that the existing nutrients may be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. Other tests were carried out on lands where sewage sludge was applied in order to establish the maximum quantity of sludge that may be used so as not to constitute a source of pollution. The tests were made on three plots: a first batch with no mud and no chemical fertilizers applied, a second batch on which only sewage sludge was applied, and a third batch on which small amounts of chemical fertilizers were applied in addition to sewage sludge. The results showed that the production increases when the soil is treated with sludge and small amounts of chemical fertilizers. Based on the results of the present research, a fertilization plan has been suggested. This plan should be reconsidered each year based on the crops planned, the yields proposed, the agrochemical indications, the sludge analysis, etc.

Keywords: Crops, Sewage Sludge, agricultural use, physico–chemical parameters

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8 Thermal Pre-Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed for Enhancing Its Solid Fuel Properties

Authors: Sujeeta Karki, Jeeban Poudel, Ja Hyung Choi, Sea Cheon Oh


A lab-scale fluidized bed was used for the study of sewage sludge, a non-lignocellulosic biomass, torrefaction. The influence of torrefaction temperature ranging from 200–350 °C and residence time of 0–50 minutes on the physical and chemical properties of the torrefied product was investigated. Properties of the torrefied product were analyzed on the basis of degree of torrefaction, ultimate and proximate analysis, gas analysis and chemical exergy. The degree of torrefaction and chemical exergy had a positive influence on increasing the torrefaction temperature. Moreover, the effect of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the elemental variation of sewage sludge exhibited an increase in the weight percentage of carbon while the content of H/C and O/C molar ratios decreased. The product gas emitted during torrefaction was analyzed to study the pathway of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds. The compounds with oxygen were emitted at higher temperatures in contrast to hydrocarbon gases. An attempt was made to obtain the chemical exergy of sewage sludge. In addition, the study of various correlations for predicting the calorific value of torrefied sewage sludge was made.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, fluidized bed, chemical exergy, degree of torrefaction, higher heating value (HHV), O/C and H/C molar ratios

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7 The Influence of Characteristics of Waste Water on Properties of Sewage Sludge

Authors: Lucian P. Georgescu, Catalina Iticescu, Mihaela Timofti, Gabriel Murariu, Catalina Topa


In the field of environmental protection in the EU and also in Romania, strict and clear rules are imposed that are respected. Among those, mandatory municipal wastewater treatment is included. Our study involved Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP) of Galati. MWWTP began its activity by the end of 2011 and technology is one of the most modern used in the EU. Moreover, to our knowledge, it is the first technology of this kind used in the region. Until commissioning, municipal wastewater was discharged directly into the Danube without any treatment. Besides the benefits of depollution, a new problem has arisen: the accumulation of increasingly large sewage sludge. Therefore, it is extremely important to find economically feasible and environmentally friendly solutions. One of the most feasible methods of disposing of sewage sludge is their use on agricultural land. Sewage sludge can be used in agriculture if monitored in terms of physicochemical properties (pH, nutrients, heavy metals, etc.), in order not to contribute to pollution in soils and not to affect chemical and biological balances, which are relatively fragile. In this paper, 16 physico-chemical parameters were monitored. Experimental testings were realised on waste water samples, sewage sludge results and treated water samples. Testing was conducted with electrochemichal methods (pH, conductivity, TDS); parameters N-total (mg/L), P-total (mg/L), N-NH4 (mg/L), N-NO2 (mg/L), N-NO3 (mg/L), Fe-total (mg/L), Cr-total (mg/L), Cu (mg/L), Zn (mg/L), Cd (mg/L), Pb (mg/L), Ni (mg/L) were determined by spectrophotometric methods using a spectrophotometer NOVA 60 and specific kits. Analyzing the results, we concluded that Sewage sludges, although containing heavy metals, are in small quantities and will not affect the land on which they will be deposited. Also, the amount of nutrients contained are appreciable. These features indicate that the sludge can be safely used in agriculture, with the advantage that they represent a cheap fertilizer. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation – UEFISCDI, PNCDI III project, 79BG/2017, Efficiency of the technological process for obtaining of sewage sludge usable in agriculture, Efficient.

Keywords: Technology, Sewage Sludge, Municipal Wastewater, physico-chemical properties

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6 Studies on the Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture or in Incinerators

Authors: Gabriel Murariu, Catalina Iticescu, Lucian Georgescu, Mihaela Timofti, Dumitru Dima


The amounts of sludge resulting from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater can create serious environmental problems if no solutions are found to eliminate them. At present, the predominant method of sewage sludge disposal is to store and use them in agricultural applications. The sewage sludge has fertilizer properties and can be used to enrich agricultural soils due to the nutrient content. In addition to plant growth (nitrogen and phosphorus), the sludge also contains heavy metals in varying amounts. An increasingly used method is the incineration of sludge. Thermal processes can be used to convert large amounts of sludge into useful energy. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), nutrients and heavy metals. The determination methods were electrochemical, spectrophotometric and energy dispersive X–ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tests made on the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that existing nutrients can be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. The conclusion reached was that these sludge can be safely used on agricultural land and with good agricultural productivity results. To be able to use sewage sludge as a fuel, we need to know its calorific values. For wet sludge, the caloric power is low, while for dry sludge it is high. Higher calorific value and lower calorific value are determined only for dry solids. The apparatus used to determine the calorific power was a Parr 6755 Solution Calorimeter Calorimeter (Parr Instrument Company USA 2010 model). The calorific capacities for the studied sludge indicate that they can be used successfully in incinerators. Mixed with coal, they can also be used to produce electricity. The advantages are: it reduces the cost of obtaining electricity and considerably reduces the amount of sewage sludge.

Keywords: Agriculture, Properties, Sewage Sludge, incinerators

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5 Small Scale Waste to Energy Systems: Optimization of Feedstock Composition for Improved Control of Ash Sintering and Quality of Generated Syngas

Authors: Mateusz Szul, Tomasz Iluk, Aleksander Sobolewski


Small-scale, distributed energy systems enabling cogeneration of heat and power based on gasification of sewage sludge, are considered as the most efficient and environmentally friendly ways of their treatment. However, economic aspects of such an investment are very demanding; therefore, for such a small scale sewage sludge gasification installation to be profitable, it needs to be efficient and simple at the same time. The article presents results of research on air gasification of sewage sludge in fixed bed GazEla reactor. Two of the most important aspects of the research considered the influence of the composition of sewage sludge blends with other feedstocks on properties of generated syngas and ash sintering problems occurring at the fixed bed. Different means of the fuel pretreatment and blending were proposed as a way of dealing with the above mentioned undesired characteristics. Influence of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) and biomasses in the fuel blends were evaluated. Ash properties were assessed based on proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analysis of the feedstock. The blends were specified based on complementary characteristics of such criteria as C content, moisture, volatile matter, Si, Al, Mg, and content of basic metals in the ash were analyzed, Obtained results were assessed with use of experimental gasification tests and laboratory ISO-procedure for analysis of ash characteristic melting temperatures. Optimal gasification process conditions were determined by energetic parameters of the generated syngas, its content of tars and lack of ash sinters within the reactor bed. Optimal results were obtained for co-gasification of herbaceous biomasses with sewage sludge where LHV (Lower Heating Value) of the obtained syngas reached a stable value of 4.0 MJ/Nm3 for air/steam gasification.

Keywords: gasification, Sewage Sludge, piston engine, ash fusibility

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4 Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Zamouche Meriem, Mehcene Ismahan, Temmine Manel, Bencheikh Lehocine Mosaab, Meniai Abdeslam Hassen


In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).

Keywords: Adsorption, Sewage Sludge, malachite green, chemical activation

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3 Experimental Research of Biogas Production by Using Sewage Sludge and Chicken Manure Bioloadings with Wood Biochar Additive

Authors: P. Baltrenas, D. Paliulis, V. Kolodynskij, D. Urbanas


Bioreactor; special device, which is used for biogas production from various organic material under anaerobic conditions. In this research, a batch bioreactor with a mechanical mixer was used for biogas production from sewage sludge and chicken manure bioloadings. The process of anaerobic digestion was mesophilic (35 °C). Produced biogas was stoted in a gasholder and the concentration of its components was measured with INCA 4000 biogas analyser. Also, a specific additive (pine wood biochar) was applied to prepare bioloadings. The application of wood biochar in bioloading increases the CH₄ concentration in the produced gas by 6-7%. The highest concentrations of CH₄ were found in biogas produced during the decomposition of sewage sludge bioloadings. The maximum CH₄ reached 77.4%. Studies have shown that the application of biochar in bioloadings also reduces average CO₂ and H₂S concentrations in biogas.

Keywords: bioreactor, Biogas, Biochar, Sewage Sludge

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2 Alternative Fuel Production from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Jaroslav Knapek, Kamila Vavrova, Tomas Kralik, Tereza Humesova


The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important and critical problems of waste water treatment plants. Currently, 180 thousand tonnes of sludge dry matter are produced in the Czech Republic, which corresponds to approximately 17.8 kg of stabilized sludge dry matter / year per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. Due to the fact that sewage sludge contains a large amount of substances that are not beneficial for human health, the conditions for sludge management will be significantly tightened in the Czech Republic since 2023. One of the tested methods of sludge liquidation is the production of alternative fuel from sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper production. The paper presents an analysis of economic efficiency of alternative fuel production from sludge and its use for fluidized bed boiler with nominal consumption of 5 t of fuel per hour. The evaluation methodology includes the entire logistics chain from sludge extraction, through mechanical moisture reduction to about 40%, transport to the pelletizing line, moisture drying for pelleting and pelleting itself. For economic analysis of sludge pellet production, a time horizon of 10 years corresponding to the expected lifetime of the critical components of the pelletizing line is chosen. The economic analysis of pelleting projects is based on a detailed analysis of reference pelleting technologies suitable for sludge pelleting. The analysis of the economic efficiency of pellet is based on the simulation of cash flows associated with the implementation of the project over the life of the project. For the entered value of return on the invested capital, the price of the resulting product (in EUR / GJ or in EUR / t) is searched to ensure that the net present value of the project is zero over the project lifetime. The investor then realizes the return on the investment in the amount of the discount used to calculate the net present value. The calculations take place in a real business environment (taxes, tax depreciation, inflation, etc.) and the inputs work with market prices. At the same time, the opportunity cost principle is respected; waste disposal for alternative fuels includes the saved costs of waste disposal. The methodology also respects the emission allowances saved due to the displacement of coal by alternative (bio) fuel. Preliminary results of testing of pellet production from sludge show that after suitable modifications of the pelletizer it is possible to produce sufficiently high quality pellets from sludge. A mixture of sludge and paper waste has proved to be a more suitable material for pelleting. At the same time, preliminary results of the analysis of the economic efficiency of this sludge disposal method show that, despite the relatively low calorific value of the fuel produced (about 10-11 MJ / kg), this sludge disposal method is economically competitive. This work has been supported by the Czech Technology Agency within the project TN01000048 Biorefining as circulation technology.

Keywords: Economic analysis, Sewage Sludge, alternative fuel, Pelleting

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1 Utilization of Fly Ash Amended Sewage Sludge as Sustainable Building Material

Authors: Manish Kumar, KALING TAKI, ROHIT GAHLOT


Disposal of Sewage Sludge (SS) is a big issue especially in developing nation like India, where there is no control in the dynamicity of SS produced. The present research work demonstrates the potential application of SS amended with varying percentage (0-100%) of Fly Ash (FA) for brick manufacturing as an alternative of SS management. SS samples were collected from Jaspur sewage treatment plant (Ahmedabad, India) and subjected to different preconditioning treatments: (i) atmospheric drying (ii) pulverization (iii) heat treatment in oven (110°C, moisture removal) and muffle furnace (440°C, organic content removal). Geotechnical parameters of the SS were obtained as liquid limit (52%), plastic limit (24%), shrinkage limit (10%), plasticity index (28%), differential free swell index (DFSI, 47%), silt (68%), clay (27%), organic content (5%), optimum moisture content (OMC, 20%), maximum dry density (MDD, 1.55gm/cc), specific gravity (2.66), swell pressure (57kPa) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS, 207kPa). For FA liquid limit, plastic limit and specific gravity was 44%, 0% and 2.2 respectively. Initially, for brick casting pulverized SS sample was heat treated in a muffle furnace around 440℃ (5 hours) for removal of organic matter. Later, mixing of SS, FA and water by weight ratio was done at OMC. 7*7*7 cm3 sample mold was used for casting bricks at MDD. Brick samples were then first dried in room temperature for 24 hours, then in oven at 100℃ (24 hours) and finally firing in muffle furnace for 1000℃ (10 hours). The fired brick samples were then cured for 3 days according to Indian Standards (IS) common burnt clay building bricks- specification (5th revision). The Compressive strength of brick samples (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ,60, 70, 80, 90, 100%) of FA were 0.45, 0.76, 1.89, 1.83, 4.02, 3.74, 3.42, 3.19, 2.87, 0.78 and 4.95MPa when evaluated through compressive testing machine (CTM) for a stress rate of 14MPa/min. The highest strength was obtained at 40% FA mixture i.e. 4.02MPa which is much higher than the pure SS brick sample. According to IS 1077: 1992 this combination gives strength more than 3.5 MPa and can be utilized as common building bricks. The loss in weight after firing was much higher than the oven treatment, this might be due to degradation temperature higher than 100℃. The thermal conductivity of the fired brick was obtained as 0.44Wm-1K-1, indicating better insulation properties than other reported studies. TCLP (Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) test of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe and Ni in raw SS was found as 69, 70, 21, 39502 and 47 mg/kg. The study positively concludes that SS and FA at optimum ratio can be utilized as common building bricks such as partitioning wall and other small strength requirement works. The uniqueness of the work is it emphasizes on utilization of FA for stabilizing SS as construction material as a replacement of natural clay as reported in existing studies.

Keywords: fly ash, Sewage Sludge, compressive strength, curing

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