Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Settlement Related Abstracts

35 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of the structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system could be used to reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation is evaluated numerically in two cases: in first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles are the parameters which varied in this research to find out how they affect the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity. The complementary results will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Keywords: Settlement, soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity

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34 Comparison of High Speed Railway Bride Foundation Design

Authors: Hussein Yousif Aziz

Abstract:

This paper discussed the design and analysis of bridge foundation subjected to load of train with three codes, namely AASHTO code, British Standard BS Code 8004 (1986), and Chinese code (TB10002.5-2005).The study focused on the design and analysis of bridge’s foundation manually with the three codes and found which code is better for design and controls the problem of high settlement due to the applied loads. The results showed the Chinese codes are costly that the number of reinforcement bars in the pile cap and piles is more than those with AASHTO code and BS code with the same dimensions. Settlement of the bridge was calculated depending on the data collected from the project site. The vertical ultimate bearing capacity of single pile for three codes is also discussed. Other analyses by using the two-dimensional Plaxis program and other programs like SAP2000 14, PROKON many parameters are calculated. The maximum values of the vertical displacement are close to the calculated ones. The results indicate that the AASHTO code is economics and safer in the bearing capacity of single pile. The purpose of this project is to study out the pier on the basis of the design of the pile foundation. There is a 32m simply supported beam of box section on top of the structure. The pier of bridge is round-type. The main component of the design is to calculate pile foundation and the settlement. According to the related data, we choose 1.0m in diameter bored pile of 48m. The pile is laid out in the rectangular pile cap. The dimension of the cap is 12m 9 m. Because of the interaction factors of pile groups, the load-bearing capacity of simple pile must be checked, the punching resistance of pile cap, the shearing strength of pile cap, and the part in bending of pile cap, all of them are very important to the structure stability. Also, checking soft sub-bearing capacity is necessary under the pile foundation. This project provides a deeper analysis and comparison about pile foundation design schemes. Firstly, here are brief instructions of the construction situation about the Bridge. With the actual construction geological features and the upper load on the Bridge, this paper analyzes the bearing capacity and settlement of single pile. In the paper the Equivalent Pier Method is used to calculate and analyze settlements of the piles.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Settlement, bearing capacity, pile foundation

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33 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Tahar Ayadat, Adel Hanna, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

Abstract:

A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: Settlement, Group, prediction, stone columns, soft soil

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32 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: Settlement, soft soil, lime pile, granular pile

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31 Water Accessibility at Household Levels in Zambia: A Case Study of Fitobaula Settlement

Authors: Emmanuel Sachikumba, Micheal Msoni, Westone Mafuleka

Abstract:

Zambia has a good climate with favourable rainfall pattern; this provides sufficient recharge for the surface and groundwater resources. In spite of the sufficient surface and ground water resources, accessibility to water at household levels is problematic both in quality and quantity. The study examined water accessibility as well as water quality at the household level. The research looked at the sources of water for the households and considered the complications of accessibility to water and the available opportunities therein. The investigation involved fifty households and the data was collected by the use of questionnaires (to assess accessibility) and laboratory tests (for ascertaining water quality). In addition to this, government departments such as the health, agriculture, forestry and education as well as the municipal council were interviewed on the topic under study. The study was descriptive in nature where clustered sampling procedures using simple random methods were utilised to select the households which were to participate in the study. The key findings were that; accessibility to water household levels is still a challenge in the settlement as most of the point sources (shallow wells, the stream and the river) were found to be contaminated. In addition to this, it was found that there was no direct relationship between the economic performance of a household and the accessibility to water. The study also observed that there were opportunities for the people in the settlement as they were increasingly getting into the education system, and adult literacy was being encouraged in the settlement. Furthermore, the settlement has groundwater resources which indicate that there can be sufficient water provision for the settlers.

Keywords: Water, Accessibility, Settlement, household

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30 Plane of Equal Settlement above HDD’s Borehole before Operational Condition

Authors: Shokoufeh Sadeghifard

Abstract:

This study is a review of the nature of soil arching that develops in the upper layer of soil during drilling processes before pulling product pipe inside the hole. This study is based on the results of some parametric studies which are investigating the behavior of drained sandy soil above HDD borehole using Plaxis finite element solution. The influence of drilling mud injection in these series of analyses has been ignored. However, a suitable drilling mud pressure helps to achieve stable arch when the height of soil cover over the drilling borehole is not enough. In this study, the soil response to the formation of a HDD borehole is compared to arching theory developed by Terzaghi (1943). It is found that Terzaghi’s approach is capable of describing all of the behaviour seen when a stable arch forms. According to the numerical results, a suitable safe depth of 4D, D is borehole diameter, is suggested for typical range of HDD borehole in sandy soil.

Keywords: Settlement, Drilling, plaxis, finite element, HDD, arching

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29 Development of Interaction Factors Charts for Piled Raft Foundation

Authors: Abdelazim Makki Ibrahim, Esamaldeen Ali

Abstract:

This study aims at analysing the load settlement behavior and predict the bearing capacity of piled raft foundation a series of finite element models with different foundation configurations and stiffness were established. Numerical modeling is used to study the behavior of the piled raft foundation due to the complexity of piles, raft, and soil interaction and also due to the lack of reliable analytical method that can predict the behavior of the piled raft foundation system. Simple analytical models are developed to predict the average settlement and the load sharing between the piles and the raft in piled raft foundation system. A simple example to demonstrate the applications of these charts is included.

Keywords: Settlement, Method, finite element, pile-raft foundation, PLAXIS software

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28 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem

Abstract:

A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: Settlement, bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D

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27 Settlement Performance of Soft Clay Reinforced with Granular Columns

Authors: V. Sivakumar, Muneerah Jeludin

Abstract:

Numerous laboratory-based research studies on the behavior of ground improved with granular columns with respect to bearing capacity have been well-documented. However, information on its settlement performance is still scarce. Laboratory model study on the settlement behavior of soft clay reinforced with granular columns was conducted and results are presented. The investigation uses a soft kaolin clay sample of 300 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The clay samples were reinforced with single and multiple granular columns of various lengths using the displacement and replacement installation method. The results indicated that that no settlement reduction was achieved for a short single floating column. The settlement reduction factors reported for L/d ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 are in the range of 1 to 2. The findings obtained in this research showed that the reduction factors are considerably less and that load-sharing mechanism between columns and surrounding clay is complex, particularly for column groups and is affected by other factors such as negative skin friction.

Keywords: Settlement, Ground improvement, Reinforced Soil, model test

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26 Predicting the Effect of Vibro Stone Column Installation on Performance of Reinforced Foundations

Authors: K. Al Ammari, B. G. Clarke

Abstract:

Soil improvement using vibro stone column techniques consists of two main parts: (1) the installed load bearing columns of well-compacted, coarse-grained material and (2) the improvements to the surrounding soil due to vibro compaction. Extensive research work has been carried out over the last 20 years to understand the improvement in the composite foundation performance due to the second part mentioned above. Nevertheless, few of these studies have tried to quantify some of the key design parameters, namely the changes in the stiffness and stress state of the treated soil, or have consider these parameters in the design and calculation process. Consequently, empirical and conservative design methods are still being used by ground improvement companies with a significant variety of results in engineering practice. Two-dimensional finite element study to develop an axisymmetric model of a single stone column reinforced foundation was performed using PLAXIS 2D AE to quantify the effect of the vibro installation of this column in soft saturated clay. Settlement and bearing performance were studied as an essential part of the design and calculation of the stone column foundation. Particular attention was paid to the large deformation in the soft clay around the installed column caused by the lateral expansion. So updated mesh advanced option was taken in the analysis. In this analysis, different degrees of stone column lateral expansions were simulated and numerically analyzed, and then the changes in the stress state, stiffness, settlement performance and bearing capacity were quantified. It was found that application of radial expansion will produce a horizontal stress in the soft clay mass that gradually decrease as the distance from the stone column axis increases. The excess pore pressure due to the undrained conditions starts to dissipate immediately after finishing the column installation, allowing the horizontal stress to relax. Changes in the coefficient of the lateral earth pressure K ٭, which is very important in representing the stress state, and the new stiffness distribution in the reinforced clay mass, were estimated. More encouraging results showed that increasing the expansion during column installation has a noticeable effect on improving the bearing capacity and reducing the settlement of reinforced ground, So, a design method should include this significant effect of the applied lateral displacement during the stone column instillation in simulation and numerical analysis design.

Keywords: Design, Numerical Analysis, Settlement, Installation, bearing capacity, stone column

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25 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi

Abstract:

The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: Seismic, Heterogeneous, Settlement, Technique, foundation

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24 One Building at a Time for Tambak Lorok

Authors: Etika Sukma Adiyanti, H. N. Nurul Huda Putu Ekapraja, Gugun Gunawan

Abstract:

Global warming causes climate change and sea level rise. This is a threat for coastal regions, especially for coastal settlements with activities that are influenced by this natural phenomenon. Consequences are damage of houses, humid house environment, sustainability of the houses, obstructed economic activities and domestic works, disruption of sanitation facilities, lack of electricity, failure of transport system, psychological issues and other. Icons Tambak Lorok as 'Fisherman Village' is not something familiar to residents of the city of Semarang. Especially for the housewife who every day have to buy the ingredients high in protein and omega fish auction which is adjacent to the main street market in the village of Tambak Lorok. However, there are major problems that are being experienced by this small neighborhood. In fact, this issue includes seven infrastructure that should spoil the fishermen in activity with marine life. With this research, we will investigate water urbanism and climate change resiliency in Semarang, specifically the traditional fisher community of Tambak Lorok. We intend to find out how the local people in the fisher settlement Tambak Lorok deal with water urbanism, proverty and living with floods. So, we have a good solution for this problem, Floating Stage. We think that Tambak Lorok needs a new design for the common future. With this, One Building at A Time for Tambak Lorok, will be a good solution.

Keywords: Climate Change, Environment, Settlement, fisher community

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23 Behaviour of Model Square Footing Resting on Three Dimensional Geogrid Reinforced Sand Bed

Authors: Femy M. Makkar, S. Chandrakaran, N. Sankar

Abstract:

The concept of reinforced earth has been used in the field of geotechnical engineering since 1960s, for many applications such as, construction of road and rail embankments, pavements, retaining walls, shallow foundations, soft ground improvement and so on. Conventionally, planar geosynthetic materials such as geotextiles and geogrids were used as the reinforcing elements. Recently, the use of three dimensional reinforcements becomes one of the emerging trends in this field. So, in the present investigation, three dimensional geogrid is proposed as a reinforcing material. Laboratory scaled plate load tests are conducted on a model square footing resting on 3D geogrid reinforced sand bed. The performance of 3D geogrids in triangular and square pattern was compared with conventional geogrids and the improvement in bearing capacity and reduction in settlement and heave are evaluated. When single layer of reinforcement was placed at an optimum depth of 0.25B from the bottom of the footing, the bearing capacity of conventional geogrid reinforced soil improved by 1.85 times compared to unreinforced soil, where as 3D geogrid reinforced soil with triangular pattern and square pattern shows 2.69 and 3.05 times improvement respectively compared to unreinforced soil. Also, 3D geogrids performs better than conventional geogrids in reducing the settlement and heave of sand bed around the model footing.

Keywords: Settlement, bearing capacity, heavy

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22 An Investigation on the Need to Provide Environmental Sanitation Facilities to Informal Settlement in Shagari Low-Cost Katsina State for Sustainable Built Environment

Authors: Abdullahi Mannir Rawayau

Abstract:

This paper identifies the problems that have aided the decoy to adequate basic infrastructural amenities, sub-standard housing, over-crowding, poor ventilation in homes and work places, sanitation, and non-compliance with building bye-laws and regulation. The paper also asserts the efficient disposal of solid and liquid waste is one of the challenges in the informal areas due to threats on the environment and public health. Sanitation services in the informal settlements have been found to be much lower compared to the average for unban. Bearing in mind a factor which prevents sustainable sanitation in informal areas which include low incomes, insecure tenure, low education levels, difficulty topography and transitory populations, and this study aim to identify effective strategies for achieving sustainable sanitation with specific reference to the informal settlement. Using the Shanghai Low-Cost as a case study. The primary data collected was through observation and interview method. Similarly, the secondary data used for the study was collected through literature reviews from extent studies with specific reference to informal settlement. A number of strategies towards achieving sustainable sanitation in the study were identified here in classified into three (3):- Advocacy and capacity building, infrastructural provision and institutionalization of systems and processes. The paper concludes with the premise on the need to build alliances between the government and stakeholders concerned with sanitation provision through the creation of sanitation and employ adaptable technology. Provision of sanitation facilities in public areas and to establish a statutory body for timely response to sanitation waste management in Katsina. It is imperative to check and prevent further decay for harmonious living and sustainable development.

Keywords: Facilities, Built Environment, Sanitation, Settlement

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21 Settlement Analysis of Back-To-Back Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

Authors: Akhila Palat, B. Umashankar

Abstract:

Back-to-back Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are cost-effective soil-retaining structures that can tolerate large settlements compared to conventional gravity retaining walls. They are also an economical way to meet everyday earth retention needs for highway and bridge grade separations, railroads, commercial and residential developments. But, existing design guidelines (FHWA/BS/ IS codes) do not provide a mechanistic approach for the design of back-to-back reinforced retaining walls. The settlement analysis of such structures is limited in the literature. A better understanding of the deformations of this wall system requires an analytical tool that incorporates the properties of backfill material, foundation soil, and geosynthetic reinforcement, and account for the soil–structure interactions in a realistic manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reinforced back-to-back MSE walls on wall settlements and facing deformations. Back-to-back reinforced retaining walls were modeled and compared using commercially available finite difference package FLAC 2D. Parametric studies were carried out for various angles of shearing resistance of backfill material and foundation soil, and the axial stiffness of the reinforcement. A 6m-high wall was modeled, and the facing panels were taken as full-length panels with nominal thickness. Reinforcement was modeled as cable elements (two-dimensional structural elements). Interfaces were considered between soil and wall, and soil and reinforcement.

Keywords: numerical modeling, Settlement, back-to-back walls, reinforced wall

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20 The Effect of Ethnomathematics on School Mathematics in Kano State Junior Secondary Schools

Authors: Surajo Isa

Abstract:

In as much as mathematics is important to national development, it is regrettable to note that in Nigeria Students academic achievement especially in public examinations remains poor. Among the several factors responsible for such a poor performance is the lack of bringing cultural elements into the conventional school mathematics. The design for this study is triangulation in nature which is set to examined 800 students From 20 School (40 each from male and female schools). Ten (10) male and ten (10) female schools consisting of 400 male and 400 female students to formed the experiment and control groups with a further sub-groping of samples to represent urban and rural settings for both male and female groups. While the experimental groups were taught using ethnomathematics techniques, the control groups were taught using conventional techniques, the results of a t-test for independent samples at p =0.05 level of significance with tcritical = 1.968 showed that (a) boys performed significantly better than girls (b) there is no significantly difference in performance between urban and rural girls (c) significant difference in academic performance was obtained between urban and rural boys. Generally, it was observed that teaching mathematics with ethnomathematics technique would help in great achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: Gender, Settlement, ethnomathematics, achievement

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19 Dynamic Study on the Evaluation of the Settlement of Soil under Sea Dam

Authors: Amar Kahil, Faroudja Meziani

Abstract:

In order to study the variation in settlement of soil under a dyke dam, the modelisation in our study consists of applying an imposed displacement at the base of the mass of soil (consisting of a saturated sand). The imposed displacement follows the evolution of acceleration of the earthquake of Boumerdes 2003 in Algeria. Moreover, the gravity load is taken into consideration by taking account the specific weight of the materials constituting the dyke. The results obtained show that the gravity loads have a direct influence on the evolution of settlement, especially at the center of the dyke where these loads are higher.

Keywords: Soil Dynamics, Settlement, Dynamic Analysis, rockfill dam, effect of earthquake

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18 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: Interaction, Settlement, Piles, foundation, consolidation, stone columns

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17 Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to find an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.

Keywords: Settlement, FLAC3D, Subway Line, ANFIS Method

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16 Performance of Bored Pile on Alluvial Deposit

Authors: K. Raja Rajan, D. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Bored cast in-situ pile is a popular choice amongst consultant and contractor due to the ability to adjust the pile length suitably in case if any variation found in the actual geological strata. Bangladesh geological strata are dominated by silt content. Design is normally based on field test such as Standard Penetration test N-values. Initially, pile capacity estimated through static formula with co-relation of N-value and angle of internal friction. Initial pile load test was conducted in order to validate the geotechnical parameters assumed in design. Initial pile load test was conducted on 1.5m diameter bored cast in-situ pile. Kentledge method is used to load the pile for 2.5 times of its working load. Initially, safe working load of pile has been estimated as 570T, so test load is fixed to 1425T. Max load applied is 777T for which the settlement reached around 155mm which is more than 10% of diameter of piles. Pile load test results was not satisfactory and compelled to increase the pile length approximately 20% of its total length. Due to unpredictable geotechnical parameters, length of each pile has been increased which is having a major impact on the project cost and as well as in project schedule. Extra bore holes have been planned along with lab test results in order to redefine the assumed geotechnical parameters. This article presents detailed design assumptions of geotechnical parameters in the design stage and the results of pile load test which made to redefine the assumed geotechnical properties.

Keywords: Settlement, end bearing, pile load test, shaft friction

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15 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Settlement, stone column, harmonic loading

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14 3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.

Keywords: Settlement, Geosynthetic, FLAC3D, bearing capacity, stone column

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13 Ground Improvement Using Deep Vibro Techniques at Madhepura E-Loco Project

Authors: A. Sekhar, N. Ramakrishna Raju

Abstract:

This paper is a result of ground improvement using deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns performed on a highly liquefaction susceptible site (70 to 80% sand strata and balance silt) with low bearing capacities due to high settlements located (earth quake zone V as per IS code) at Madhepura, Bihar state in northern part of India. Initially, it was envisaged with bored cast in-situ/precast piles, stone/sand columns. However, after detail analysis to address both liquefaction and improve bearing capacities simultaneously, it was analyzed the deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns is excellent solution for given site condition which may be first time in India. First after detail soil investigation, pre eCPT test was conducted to evaluate the potential depth of liquefaction to densify silty sandy soils to improve factor of safety against liquefaction. Then trail test were being carried out at site by deep vibro compaction technique with sand and stone columns combination with different spacings of columns in triangular shape with different timings during each lift of vibro up to ground level. Different spacings and timing was done to obtain the most effective spacing and timing with vibro compaction technique to achieve maximum densification of saturated loose silty sandy soils uniformly for complete treated area. Then again, post eCPT test and plate load tests were conducted at all trail locations of different spacings and timing of sand and stone columns to evaluate the best results for obtaining the required factor of safety against liquefaction and the desired bearing capacities with reduced settlements for construction of industrial structures. After reviewing these results, it was noticed that the ground layers are densified more than the expected with improved factor of safety against liquefaction and achieved good bearing capacities for a given settlements as per IS codal provisions. It was also worked out for cost-effectiveness of lightly loaded single storied structures by using deep vibro technique with sand column avoiding stone. The results were observed satisfactory for resting the lightly loaded foundations. In this technique, the most important is to mitigating liquefaction with improved bearing capacities and reduced settlements to acceptable limits as per IS: 1904-1986 simultaneously up to a depth of 19M. To our best knowledge it was executed first time in India.

Keywords: Settlement, Liquefaction, Ground improvement, bearing capacity, deep vibro techniques

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12 The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Mahmoud F. Awad-Allah, Mohammed Rabeih, Eman Abdel Baseer

Abstract:

Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.

Keywords: Settlement, Geosynthetic, Finite Element Method, soft clay, lateral displacement

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11 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: Sand, Settlement, Geogrid Reinforcement, granular pile, load-carrying capacity

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10 Analysis of Shallow Foundation Using Conventional and Finite Element Approach

Authors: Sultan Al Shafian, Mozaher Ul Kabir, Khondoker Istiak Ahmad, Masnun Abrar, Mahfuza Khanum, Hossain M. Shahin

Abstract:

For structural evaluation of shallow foundation, the modulus of subgrade reaction is one of the most widely used and accepted parameter for its ease of calculations. To determine this parameter, one of the most common field method is Plate Load test method. In this field test method, the subgrade modulus is considered for a specific location and according to its application, it is assumed that the displacement occurred in one place does not affect other adjacent locations. For this kind of assumptions, the modulus of subgrade reaction sometimes forced the engineers to overdesign the underground structure, which eventually results in increasing the cost of the construction and sometimes failure of the structure. In the present study, the settlement of a shallow foundation has been analyzed using both conventional and numerical analysis. Around 25 plate load tests were conducted on a sand fill site in Bangladesh to determine the Modulus of Subgrade reaction of ground which is later used to design a shallow foundation considering different depth. After the collection of the field data, the field condition was appropriately simulated in a finite element software. Finally results obtained from both the conventional and numerical approach has been compared. A significant difference has been observed in the case of settlement while comparing the results. A proper correlation has also been proposed at the end of this research work between the two methods of in order to provide the most efficient way to calculate the subgrade modulus of the ground for designing the shallow foundation.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Settlement, plate load test, shallow foundation, modulus of subgrade reaction

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9 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Settlement, strip footing, cyclic loading, soil-structure interactions, DPIV

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8 Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Bored Piles: A Case History

Authors: M. Mert, M. T. Ozkan

Abstract:

Pile load tests should be applied to check the bearing capacity calculations and to determine the settlement of the pile corresponding to test load. Strain gauges can be installed into pile in order to determine the shaft resistance of the piles for every soil layer respectively. Detailed results can be obtained by means of strain gauges placed at certain levels into test piles. In the scope of this study, pile load test data obtained from two different projects are examined.  Instrumented static pile load tests were applied on totally 7 test bored piles of different diameters (80 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm) and different lengths (between 30-76 m) in two different project site. Settlement analysis of test piles is done by using some of load transfer methods and finite element method. Plaxis 3D which is a three-dimensional finite element program is also used for settlement analysis of the test piles. In this study, firstly bearing capacity of test piles are determined and compared with strain gauge data which is required for settlement analysis. Then, settlement values of the test piles are estimated by using load transfer methods developed in recent years and finite element method. The aim of this study is to show similarities and differences between the results obtained from settlement analysis methods and instrumented pile load tests.

Keywords: Settlement, Finite Element Method, Failure, pile, monitoring and instrumentation

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7 Comparison of Various Landfill Ground Improvement Techniques for Redevelopment of Closed Landfills to Cater Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Hadi Khabbaz, Michael D. Vinod

Abstract:

Construction of infrastructure above or adjacent to landfills is becoming more common to capitalize on the limited space available within urban areas. However, development above landfills is a challenging task due to large voids, the presence of organic matter, heterogeneous nature of waste and ambiguity surrounding landfill settlement prediction. Prior to construction of infrastructure above landfills, ground improvement techniques are being employed to improve the geotechnical properties of landfill material. Although the ground improvement techniques have little impact on long term biodegradation and creep related landfill settlement, they have shown some notable short term success with a variety of techniques, including methods for verifying the level of effectiveness of ground improvement techniques. This paper provides geotechnical and landfill engineers a guideline for selection of landfill ground improvement techniques and their suitability to project-specific sites. Ground improvement methods assessed and compared in this paper include concrete injected columns (CIC), dynamic compaction, rapid impact compaction (RIC), preloading, high energy impact compaction (HEIC), vibro compaction, vibro replacement, chemical stabilization and the inclusion of geosynthetics such as geocells. For each ground improvement technique a summary of the existing theory, benefits, limitations, suitable modern ground improvement monitoring methods, the applicability of ground improvement techniques for landfills and supporting case studies are provided. The authors highlight the importance of implementing cost-effective monitoring techniques to allow observation and necessary remediation of the subsidence effects associated with long term landfill settlement. These ground improvement techniques are primarily for the purpose of construction above closed landfills to cater for transport infrastructure loading.

Keywords: monitoring, Settlement, Ground improvement, Transport Infrastructure, closed landfills

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6 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Settlement, Reinforcements, bearing capacity, adjacent foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 14